nep-sog New Economics Papers
on Sociology of Economics
Issue of 2021‒01‒11
six papers chosen by
Jonas Holmström
Axventure AB

  1. The political economy of academic publishing: On the commodification of a public good By Stephan Puehringer; Johanna Rath; Teresa Griesebner
  2. Gender diversity in research teams and citation impact in Economics and Management By Abdelghani Maddi; Yves Gingras
  3. Replicability in Empirical Legal Research By Chin, Jason; Zeiler, Kathryn
  4. Motherhood in Academia: A Novel Dataset with an Application to Maternity Leave Uptake By Troeger, Vera E.; Di Leo, Riccardo; Scotto, Thomas J.; Epifanio, Mariaelisa
  5. The Motherhood Penalties: Insights from Women in UK Academia By Troeger, Vera E.; Di Leo, Riccardo; Scotto, Thomas J.; Epifanio, Mariaelisa
  6. Scientific Publications at U.S. Federal Research Laboratories By Link, Albert; Scott, John

  1. By: Stephan Puehringer (Institute for Comprehensive Analysis of the Economy, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria); Johanna Rath (Institute for Comprehensive Analysis of the Economy, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria); Teresa Griesebner (Institute for Comprehensive Analysis of the Economy, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria)
    Abstract: This paper provides an institutional and empirical analysis of the highly concentrated market of academic publishing, characterized by over-proportionally high profit margins for publishing companies. The availability of latest research findings is of primary importance for researchers, universities and politicians alike. Open access (OA) publication provides a promising, yet costly solution to overcome this problem. However, in this paper we show that OA publication costs are an important, but by far not the only way for academic publishers to gain access to public funding. More precisely, our study provides a comprehensive overview of the channels through which public expenditure benefits large academic publishing companies. Furthermore, we offer the results of an explorative case study, where we estimate the annual financial flows of public expenditures in Austria for the field of social sciences, based on our four-channel-model. These expenditures add up to about 66.55 to 103.2 million € a year, which amounts to a fourth of total public funding for this field. Against this background, we aim to open up the debate whether, and to what extent public subsidies are justified for economically successful companies.
    Date: 2020–12
  2. By: Abdelghani Maddi; Yves Gingras
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is twofold:1)contribute to a better understanding of the place of women in Economics and Management disciplines by characterizing the difference in levels of scientific collaboration between men and women at the specialties level;2) Investigate the relationship between gender diversity and citation impact in Economics and Management. Our data, extracted from the Web of Science database, cover global production as indexed in 302 journals in Economics and 370 journals in Management, with respectively 153 667 and 163 567 articles published between 2008 and 2018. Results show that collaborative practices between men and women are quite different in Economics and Management. We also find that there is a positive and significant effect of gender diversity on the academic impact of publications. Mixed-gender publications (co-authored by men and women) receive more citations than non-mixed papers (written by same-gender author teams) or single-author publications. The effect is slightly stronger in Management. The regression analysis also indicates that there is, for both disciplines, a small negative effect on citations received if the corresponding author is a woman.
    Date: 2020–11
  3. By: Chin, Jason (University of Sydney); Zeiler, Kathryn (Boston University)
    Abstract: As part of a broader methodological reform movement, scientists are increasingly interested in improving the replicability of their research. Replicability allows others to perform replications to explore potential errors and statistical issues that might call the original results into question. Little attention, however, has been paid to the state of replicability in the field of empirical legal research (ELR). Quality is especially important in this field because empirical legal researchers produce work that is regularly relied upon by courts and other legal bodies. In this review article, we summarize the current state of ELR relative to the broader movement towards replicability in the social sciences. As part of that aim, we summarize recent collective replication efforts in ELR and transparency and replicability guidelines adopted by journals that publish ELR. Based on this review, ELR seems to be lagging other fields in implementing reforms. We conclude with suggestions for reforms that might encourage improved replicability.
    Date: 2021–01–01
  4. By: Troeger, Vera E. (University of Warwick and Universitat Hamburg); Di Leo, Riccardo (University of Warwick); Scotto, Thomas J. (University of Glasgow); Epifanio, Mariaelisa (University of Liverpool)
    Abstract: Legislation over the past two decades enhanced the availability and quantity of statutory maternity leave in the United Kingdom. In high-skilled sectors, many employers top up this maternity leave in an effort to retain and develop the careers of women. As leave provision became more generous, debates emerged as to the role, if any, these enhanced benefits have in retaining women in high status occupation and facilitating their career growth. Further, individual situations and employment status may prevent women from taking advantage of enhanced benefits. This paper presents findings from a comprehensive survey of thousands of women in the UK Higher Education sector and documents how the lives of academic mothers changed over the past quarter century. Contract status and the partner’s participation in parenting has significant effects on the types of maternity leave taken. We reflect on these findings and discuss future research in the area of labour market equity and productivity the availability of this comprehensive quantitative survey of academic women can facilitate.
    Keywords: motherhood, gender gap, maternity leaves, academia JEL Classification:
    Date: 2020
  5. By: Troeger, Vera E. (University of Warwick and Universitat Hamburg); Di Leo, Riccardo (University of Warwick); Scotto, Thomas J. (University of Glasgow); Epifanio, Mariaelisa (University of Liverpool)
    Abstract: We use an original survey of academic women in the UK to investigate different dimensions of the motherhood penalty. Being a mother has no effect on salaries, but still slows down career progression even in such a high-skilled sector. Motherhood has an ambivalent impact on women’s perception of their working environment: improving satisfaction, but reducing perception of salary fairness relative to men. Our paper also explores how different policies can mitigate the motherhood penalties. We find that more generous maternity provisions are associated with higher salary, potentially because generosity reduces the crowding out of research activity. Better availability of childcare and an even distribution of responsibilities within the household correlate positively with earnings. Our findings also highlight the importance of a supportive work environment for mothers’ career and well-being at the workplace. Taken together, these findings suggest the necessity of a multi-faceted policy response to the motherhood penalties.
    Keywords: satisfaction, salary, career, exclusion, gender pay gap, academia JEL Classification:
    Date: 2020
  6. By: Link, Albert (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Scott, John (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper, we focus on scientific publications as an innovative output from the research efforts at U.S. federal laboratories. The data used relate to Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs). The relationship between R&D expenditures at these federal laboratories and their peer-reviewed scientific publications allows us to make inferences about the return to public-sector R&D. We examine two complementary statistical models. From the first model, we find that a 10 percent increase in constant dollar public-sector R&D is associated with between a 15.5 and 21.5 percent increase in scientific publications. From the second model, we find that the annual rate of return generated by an additional $1 million of R&D-based knowledge stock varies across the FFRDCs, averaging about 93 additional scientific publications, with the statistically significant values ranging from about 1 to as many as about 400 additional scientific publications.
    Keywords: Scientific publications; Federal laboratory; R&D; Evaluation; Return on investment;
    JEL: H42 O33 O38
    Date: 2020–12–23

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