nep-sog New Economics Papers
on Sociology of Economics
Issue of 2017‒01‒22
two papers chosen by
Jonas Holmström
Axventure AB

  1. Gendered careers: women economists in Italy By Marcella Corsi; Carlo D'Ippoliti; Giulia Zacchia
  2. An econometric investigation of the productivity gender gap in Mexican research, and a simulation study of the effects on scientific performance of policy scenarios to promote gender equality By Rivera Leon, Llorena; Mairesse, Jacques; Cowan, Robin

  1. By: Marcella Corsi; Carlo D'Ippoliti; Giulia Zacchia
    Abstract: Recent reforms of the Italian university system introduced a centralized national qualification competition (called ASN), necessary for accessing all academic positions in the country. Following a well-known international trend, the new mechanism is founded on rigid standardized indexes of “scientific productivity” based on bibliometric indicators. In economics, women’s lower success rate (35%) compared to men’s (44%) is often connected to lower productivity. We provide evidence matching all candidates’ CVs with their record of publications on EconLit, showing that women’s typical career profiles, e.g. in terms of type of publications, topics and methods of inquiry, were penalized regardless of scientific productivity. Our work aims not only at documenting, through a large scale natural experiment, the causes of the underrepresentation of women in academia (especially in top positions) and within economics, but also at raising the issue of new incentives and constrains that increasingly push women to uniform their careers and their research interests to those of their men colleagues.
    Keywords: women economists; research paradigms; Italy
    JEL: J16 B54 A14
    Date: 2016–01–16
  2. By: Rivera Leon, Llorena (UNU-MERIT); Mairesse, Jacques (UNU-MERIT, and CREST-ENSAE, France); Cowan, Robin (UNU-MERIT, and BETA, Université de Strasbourg, France)
    Abstract: This paper provides evidence on the existence and determinants of the publication productivity gender gap in Mexico at the individual level and on its consequences on the Mexican scientific system and productivity at disciplinary and aggregate levels. The paper specifies and performs a panel data econometric analysis based on a sample of Mexican researchers who are members of the National System of Researchers (SNI) of Mexico in the period 2002-2013. It corrects for a selectivity bias: the existence of periods with no (or low quality) publication, and endogeneity bias: the promotion to higher academic ranks. We define and implement counterfactual simulations to both effects, assess the magnitude of macro-impacts of existing gender gaps and illustrate the potential effects of a range of policy scenarios. The results show no significant gender gaps for an average SNI researcher. Moreover, when correcting for the endogeneity and selectivity biases, we find that the average female researcher in public universities is around 8% more productive than her male peers, with most of the observed productivity being explained by gender differentials in the propensity to have periods of no (or low) quality publication. We find that barriers to promotion to higher academic ranks are highest among females in public research centres. Our macro scenarios on promotion practices, selectivity, collaboration and age show that eliminating gender gaps would increase aggregate productivity by an average of 7% for university females and 9% for females in research centres.
    Keywords: scientific productivity, gender productivity puzzle, Mexico, economics of science, economics of gender
    JEL: C23 I23
    Date: 2016–12–21

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