nep-sog New Economics Papers
on Sociology of Economics
Issue of 2015‒05‒30
three papers chosen by
Jonas Holmström
Axventure AB

  1. Analysis of Emerging Reputation and Funding Mechanisms in the Context of Open Science 2.0 By Eti Herman; Hamid R. Jamali; Dave Nicholas; David Osimo; Federica Porcu; Laia Pujol
  2. Gender salary and promotion gaps in Japanese academia: Results from science and engineering By Ana Maria Takahashi; Shingo Takahashi; Thomas Maloney
  3. What happened to heterodox economics in Germany after the 1970s By Heise, Arne; Thieme, Sebastian

  1. By: Eti Herman (CiberResearch Ltd); Hamid R. Jamali (CiberResearch Ltd); Dave Nicholas (CiberResearch Ltd); David Osimo (Open Evidence); Federica Porcu (Open Evidence); Laia Pujol (Open Evidence)
    Abstract: This report covers the outcomes of two studies funded by JRC IPTS to explore emerging drivers for Open Science 2.0. In general, Open Science 2.0 is associated with themes such as open access to scientific outputs, open data, citizen science and open peer evaluation systems. This study, however, focused on less explored themes, namely on alternative funding mechanisms for scientific research and on emerging reputation mechanisms for scholars resulting from Web 2.0 platforms and applications. It has been demonstrated that both are providing significant new opportunities for researchers to disseminate, share, explore and collaborate with other researchers, but it remains to be seen whether they will be able to bring about more disruptive change in how science and research systems function in the future. They could well do so, especially if related changes being considered by the European Commission on ‘Science 2.0: Science in Transition’ are taken into account.
    Keywords: Open science, science 2.0, digital science, alternative funding methods, crowdfunding, inducement prizes, reputation systems for scholars, reputation building social software.
    JEL: O3 O31 O17 O38
    Date: 2015–05
  2. By: Ana Maria Takahashi (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University); Shingo Takahashi (International University of Japan); Thomas Maloney (University of Utah)
    Abstract: Using original survey data on Japanese academics in science and engineering, we examined the gender salary and promotion gaps. We found a 6\% gender salary gap after controlling for ranks. This gap was unaffected when quality and quantity of publications were controlled for. In contrast, promotion gap disappeared when publication variables were controlled for. We failed to find negative effects of marriage and children on women's salary and promotion, though a positive sorting into motherhood could conceal such negative effects, and we provided suggestive evidence for this. Men and women are equally likely to move to other universities voluntarily, and the salary premiums from these job changes are the same for both genders, suggesting that outside job offers are not responsible for the gender salary gap. Finally, there are substantial gender differences in academic labor market dropout rates, which could lead to underestimation of the gender salary and promotion gaps.
    Date: 2015–05
  3. By: Heise, Arne; Thieme, Sebastian
    Abstract: In the context of ongoing criticisms of the lack of pluralism in economics, the present article aims to discuss the development of 'heterodox' economics since the 1970s. Following Lakatos's concept of scientific research programs (srp), and concentrating on the situation in Germany, the article will discuss classifications of economics, and will specify the understanding of diversity in the light of 'axiomatic variations' of the economic mainstream. This will form the basis for the subsequent description of the development of heterodoxy in Germany, with special reference to the founding of new universities and the reform movements in the 1970s. It can be shown that the heterodox scene flourished in this period, but that this pluralization remained fragmented and short-lived; by the 1980s at the latest heterodoxy was again on its way to marginalization. The history of heterodoxy in Germany thus presents itself as an unequal 'battle of the paradigms', and can only be told as the story of a failure.
    Keywords: heterodox economics,pluralization,philosophy of science,sociology of science
    JEL: A11 B20 B50 Z13
    Date: 2015

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