nep-sog New Economics Papers
on Sociology of Economics
Issue of 2015‒01‒09
four papers chosen by
Jonas Holmström
Axventure AB

  1. Gender Promotion Differences in Economics Departments in Japan: A Duration Analysis By Ana Maria Takahashi; Shingo Takahashi
  2. Publish or Perish? Incentives and Careers in Italian Academia By Checchi, Daniele; De Fraja, Gianni; Verzillo, Stefano
  3. The US Research University – Systemic Limits of a Model By Stephan Bieri; Franz Lehner
  4. Does gender really matter? An analysis of Jena University scientists collaboration with industry and non-profit-partners By Stoetzer, Matthias-Wolfgang; Osborn, Evan

  1. By: Ana Maria Takahashi (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University); Shingo Takahashi (International University of Japan, Graduate School of International Management)
    Abstract: Using a unique data set from our survey of academic economists in Japan, we present the first detailed study of gender promotion gaps in Japanese academia. The length of time from initial appointment to promotion to associate professor is greater for women than men, largely due to women spending more time as lecturer, the lowest academic rank. The gender gaps in promotions from associate professor to full professor are more complex. Childless women are promoted \emph{faster} than childless men. However, since the burden of parenting disproportionately falls on women, this `reverse' gender gap disappears after a first child is born, and women's time to promotion becomes significantly longer than men's if they have a second child.
    Date: 2014–11
  2. By: Checchi, Daniele; De Fraja, Gianni; Verzillo, Stefano
    Abstract: We derive a theoretical model of effort in the presence of career concern based on the multi-unit all-pay auction, and closely inspired by the Italian academic market. In this model, the number of applicants, the number of new posts, and the relative importance of the determinants of promotion determine academics' effort. Because of the specific characteristics of Italian universities, where incentives operate only through promotion, and where all appointment panels are drawn from strictly separated and relatively narrow scientific sectors, the model fits well Italian academia, and we test it in a newly constructed dataset which collects the journal publications of all Italian academics working in universities. We find that individual researchers respond to incentives in the manner predicted by the theoretical model: more capable researchers respond to increases in the importance of the measurable determinants of promotion and in the competitiveness of the scientific sector by exerting more effort; less able researchers do the opposite.
    Keywords: academic job market; applied auction theory; career concerns; nepotism; publications
    JEL: D44 I21 I23 M51
    Date: 2014–07
  3. By: Stephan Bieri; Franz Lehner
    Abstract: The US research university is a very successful model of higher edudaction and research. We examine its core elements and follow the current discussion on a necessary reform. Focusing on the institutional structure, we review possible causes of shortcomings and frictions. During the last 50 to 60 years the environment of the research university changed. The single institution has become highly dependend on federal and industrial grants and of undergraduates’ fees. This process has transformed the internal organization as well as the interaction with important stakeholders. It also had an effect on the relationship between university and faculty. As a result, the scientific production has grown reamarkably but not necessarily the overall competivity. We discuss the systemic challenges that threaten the US university landscape and its contribution to scientific progress and innovation.
    Keywords: Research university; US system of higher education; institutional structure
    Date: 2014–11
  4. By: Stoetzer, Matthias-Wolfgang; Osborn, Evan
    Abstract: One of the dominant changes in academics during the last 25 years has been the steadily growing political pressure on universities to strengthen their links with and knowledge transfers to external partners. This focus on university-industry collaboration has been accompanied by another fundamental change in academia, the growth in enrolments of female researchers in science (especially natural sciences) and engineering. The rising number of female scientists has led to the question of possible gender disparities as to external collaboration activities, namely a male predominance as to external collaboration activities. This paper extends the existing empirical work in three respects. First, it covers various scientific disciplines and faculties, second different types of transfer activities and third different transfer partners, including private industry, the civil service and non-profit-organizations. Data were collected from a sample of university professors at two German universities. The resulting survey is based on 174 personal interviews lasting 40-60 minutes. The empirical results point to a more complicated story than gender differences of productivity or simple discrimination. As to collaboration activities of female professors with the business sector the empirical evidence is not uniform and straightforward. With our data set it is easy to produce empirical outcomes seemingly confirming the gender gap, e.g. by omitting variables as to scientific fields like engineering or business economics. Even including all relevant control variables the results are influenced by the specification of the empirical model: The level-level-model strongly corroborating and the log-log-model refusing a significant negative difference related to gender. But as to the collaboration with the public sector and non-profit organisations there is no gender gap at all and this outcome does not depend on the specification of the regression equation. Thus, specific differences of collaboration partners seem to play a role.
    Keywords: university industry collaboration,university industry linkages,gender,male female professors,public sector,knowledge transfer
    JEL: J23 L33
    Date: 2014

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