nep-sog New Economics Papers
on Sociology of Economics
Issue of 2007‒02‒10
nine papers chosen by
Jonas Holmstrom
Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration

  1. On the divergence of research paths in evolutionary economics: a comprehensive bibliometric account By Sandra T. Silva; Aurora A.C. Teixeira
  2. The Short- and Long-Term Career Effects of Graduating in a Recession: Hysteresis and Heterogeneity in the Market for College Graduates By Philip Oreopoulos; Till von Wachter; Andrew Heisz
  3. Demand for higher education programs: the impact of the Bologna process By Ana Rute Cardoso; Miguel Portela; Fernando Alexandre; Carla Sá
  4. College Cost and Time to Complete a Degree: Evidence from Tuition Discontinuities By Pietro Garibaldi; Francesco Giavazzi; Andrea Ichino; Enrico Rettore
  5. The Wage Effects of Graduate Competition By Malcolm Brynin; Simonetta Longhi
  6. University patenting and scientific productivity. A quantitative study of Italian academic inventors. By Stefano Breschi; Francesco Lissoni; Fabio Montobbio
  7. University IPRs and Knowledge Transfer. Is the IPR ownership model more efficient? By Gustavo Crespi; Aldo Geuna; Bart Verspagen
  8. Identification of University Inventors and University Patenting Patterns at Lund University:Conceptual- Methodological & Empirical Findings By Goktepe, Devrim
  9. A Study on Mush-room growth of Two-year Management Programme and its Impact on Quality of Management Education in Tamil Nadu By Subramanian Saravanan

  1. By: Sandra T. Silva; Aurora A.C. Teixeira
    Abstract: In the last two decades there has been a noticeable increase in published research in evolutionary economics. The idea that formal modelling is a sine qua non condition for establishing a rigours and coherence scientific frame, has led to an over concern with formalization issues among evolutionary researchers. The general perception is that formalization lags behind the appreciative work. Notwithstanding, this general reading has not yet been supported by real data analysis. This work presents a comprehensive survey on evolutionary economics, intending at exploring the main research paths and contributions of this theorizing framework using bibliometric methods. This documentation effort is based on an extensive review of the abstracts from articles published in all economic journals gathered from the Econlit database over the past fifty years. Evolutionary contributions apparently have not converged to an integrated approach. In the present paper, we document the more important paths emergent in this field. Before 1990, the importance of published evolutionary related research is almost negligible - more than 90% of total papers were published after that date. Our results further show two rather extreme main research strands: ‘History of Economic Thought and Methodology’ and ‘Games’. Moreover, formal approaches have a reasonable and increasing share of published papers between 1969 and 2005. In contrast, purely empirical-related works are relatively scarce, involving a meagre and stagnant percentage of published works. This recalls for a need to redirect the evolutionary research agenda.
    Keywords: evolutionary, methodology, bibliometry, Econlit Length 44 pages
    JEL: B41 B52 C89
    Date: 2007–01
  2. By: Philip Oreopoulos; Till von Wachter; Andrew Heisz
    Abstract: The standard neo-classical model of wage setting predicts short-term effects of temporary labor market shocks on careers and low costs of recessions for both more and less advantaged workers. In contrast, a vast range of alternative career models based on frictions in the labor market suggests that labor market shocks can have persistent effects on the entire earnings profile. This paper analyzes the long-term effects of graduating in a recession on earnings, job mobility, and employer characteristics for a large sample of Canadian college graduates with different predicted earnings using matched university-employer-employee data from 1982 to 1999, and uses its results to assess the importance of alternative career models. We find that young graduates entering the labor market in a recession suffer significant initial earnings losses that eventually fade, but after 8 to 10 years. We also document substantial heterogeneity in the costs of recessions and important effects on job mobility and employer characteristics, but small effects on time worked. These adjustment patterns are neither consistent with a neo-classical spot market nor a complete scarring effect, but could be explained by a combination of time intensive search for better employers and long-term wage contracting. All results are robust to an extensive sensitivity analysis including controls for correlated business cycle shocks after labor market entry, endogenous timing of graduation, permanent cohort differences, and selective labor force participation.
    JEL: J0 J3 J6 E3
    Date: 2006–04
  3. By: Ana Rute Cardoso (IZA Bonn, Universidade do Minho, and CEPR); Miguel Portela (Universidade do Minho - NIPE, Tinbergen Institute and IZA Bonn); Fernando Alexandre (Universidade do Minho - NIPE); Carla Sá (Universidade do Minho - NIPE)
    Abstract: The Bologna process aims at creating a European Higher Education Area where intercountry mobility of students and sta?, as well as workers holding a degree, is facilitated. While several aspects of the process deserve wide public support, the reduction of the length of the first cycle of studies to three years, in several continental European countries where it used to last for four or five years, is less consensual. The paper checks the extent of public confidence in the restructuring of higher education currently underway, by looking at its implications on the demand for academic programs. It exploits the fact that some programs have restructured under the Bologna process and others have not, in Portugal. Precise quantification of the demand for each academic program is facilitated by the rules of access to higher education, in a nation-wide competition, where candidates must list up to six preferences of institution and program. We use regression analysis applied to count data, estimating negative binomial models. Results indicate that the programs that restructured to follow the Bologna principles were subject to higher demand than comparable programs that did not restructure, as if Bologna were understood as a quality stamp. This positive impact was reinforced if the institution was a leader, i.e. the single one in the country that restructured the program. Still an additional increase in demand was experienced by large programs that restructured to offer an integrated master degree, thus conforming to Bologna principles while not reducing the program duration.
    Keywords: education policy; European Higher Education Area; economic, social and cultural integration; count data.
    JEL: I28 I21 F15
    Date: 2007
  4. By: Pietro Garibaldi; Francesco Giavazzi; Andrea Ichino; Enrico Rettore
    Abstract: For many students throughout the world the time to obtain an academic degree extends beyond the normal completion time while college tuition is typically constant during the years of enrollment. In particular, it does not increase when a student remains in a program beyond the normal completion time. Using a Regression Discontinuity Design on data from Bocconi University in Italy, this paper shows that a tuition increase of 1,000 euro in the last year of studies would reduce the probability of late graduation by 6.1 percentage points with respect to a benchmark average probability of 80%. We conclude suggesting that an upward sloping tuition profile is efficient in situations in which effort is suboptimally supplied, for instance in the presence of public subsidies to education, congestion externalities and/or peer effects.
    JEL: C31 I2
    Date: 2007–01
  5. By: Malcolm Brynin (Institute for Social and Economic Research); Simonetta Longhi (Institute for Social and Economic Research)
    Abstract: Higher education has expanded considerably in recent years. Human capital theory implies that this expansion has been the result of a growth in demand for higher level technical and managerial skills – commonly known as the technology bias thesis. Evidence of a positive coefficient for higher education relative to lower educational levels in Mincer-type wage equations and the maintenance of this differential over time are treated as supportive of the technology bias thesis. A more sociological approach might take into account increased social demand for education, which should result in increased competition between graduates for jobs. Moreover, the jobs which face the most competition from graduates are likely to be those which already have a high proportion of graduates, as graduate density itself becomes a signal of status. Using British Labour Force Survey data spanning ten years, when a measure of graduate density within occupations is incorporated in a wage equation, it appears that the higher the proportion of graduates in an occupation the lower the salary each individual receives, even controlling for education. This suggests a social rather than a material explanation of the expansion of higher education.
    Keywords: education, labour supply, wages
    Date: 2006–12
  6. By: Stefano Breschi (Cespri, Bocconi University, Milano, Italy.); Francesco Lissoni (Cespri, Bocconi University, Milano; Università degli studi di Brescia, Italy.); Fabio Montobbio (Cespri, Bocconi University, Milano; Università degli studi dell’Insubria, Varese,Italy.)
    Abstract: Based on longitudinal data for a matched sample of 592 Italian academic inventors and controls, the paper explores the impact of patenting on university professors’ scientific productivity, as measured by publication and citation counts. Academic inventors (university professors who appear as designated inventors on at least one patent application) publish more and better quality papers than their colleagues with no patents, and increase their productivity after patenting. Endogeneity problems are addressed using instrumental variables and applying inverse probability of treatment weights. The beneficial effect of patenting on publication rates last longer for academic inventors with more than one patent.
    Keywords: scientific productivity, university patents, technology transfer.
    Date: 2006–11
  7. By: Gustavo Crespi (SPRU, University of Sussex and University of Chile); Aldo Geuna (SPRU, University of Sussex); Bart Verspagen (Eindhoven University of Technology and TIK)
    Keywords: university patenting, public-private technology transfer, european universities
    JEL: O3 I28
    Date: 2007–02–01
  8. By: Goktepe, Devrim
    Abstract: One of the most interesting indicators to show the change in the socio-economic role of universities in the last several decades has been the use of university patenting. However except some individual studies in European countries (e.g. Finland, Norway, Belgium, Italy, Germany and France) there has been no such a comprehensive data available for Sweden and most other European countries. The main motivation of this paper is therefore to obtain a systematic database on university patenting activities in Sweden. The main method of this research is data-matching between the EPO-patents and Lund University Faculty registers, and manual controls. The methodology of this research underlines the importance of searching for university-patents by the name of university inventors rather their affiliated university. The rate of patenting activity showed a positive trend between the years 1990 and 2004. 458 patents have been filed by Lund University researchers. The total number of inventors is 250. Although the number of large firms is lesser than the SMEs, the former group (e.g. Ericsson, Astra-Zeneca) has applied for a larger number of patents than the total number of patents of SMEs.
    Keywords: university patents; technology transfer; innovation; Swedish Model
    JEL: O3 O38 O34
    Date: 2006–01–08
  9. By: Subramanian Saravanan
    Abstract: This paper addresses the quantum jump in the number of two-year management programmes in India. It examines the quality adherence by taking institutions approved and affiliated by All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), University Grants Commision (UGC), Central Government Autonomus Institue (NIT,Trichy) and Deemed universities, which offers two-year management programmes over the past fifteen years from Tamilnadu as a sample unit. The objective is to identify the key reasons for increase in numbers and initiative in quality implementations process. It enables us to understand the qualitative terms of inorganic growth and its impact on quality of management education. It provides experiential understanding of quality implementation process and suggestions to increase its effectiveness.
    Keywords: Two-year management programme, Quantum jump, Quality initiative, Management education and Quality control
    Date: 2007–02–01

This nep-sog issue is ©2007 by Jonas Holmstrom. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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