nep-sog New Economics Papers
on Sociology of Economics
Issue of 2006‒11‒18
six papers chosen by
Jonas Holmstrom
Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration

  1. Making sense of change in university governance By Åse Gornitzka & Johan P. Olsen
  2. The Growing Allocative Inefficiency of the U.S. Higher Education Sector By James D. Adams; J. Roger Clemmons
  3. Guide to FUSSEP (Finnish University Students Socio-Economic Preferences) 2005 round By Takis Venetoklis
  4. Academic entrepreneurship, patents, and spin-offs: critical issues and lessons for Europe By Chiara Franzoni; Francesco Lissoni
  5. Parental Transfers, Student Achievement, and the Labor Supply of College Students By Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia
  6. Funding Higher Education and Wage Uncertainty : Income Contingent Loan versus Mortgage Loan By Migali, Giuseppe

  1. By: Åse Gornitzka & Johan P. Olsen
    Keywords: institutions; governance; educational policy
    Date: 2006–01–30
  2. By: James D. Adams; J. Roger Clemmons
    Abstract: This paper presents new evidence on research and teaching productivity in universities using a panel of 102 top U.S. schools during 1981-1999. Faculty employment grows at 0.6 percent per year, compared with growth of 4.9 percent in industrial researchers. Productivity growth per researcher is 1.4-6.7 percent and is higher in private universities. Productivity growth per teacher is 0.8-1.1 percent and is higher in public universities. Growth in research productivity within universities exceeds overall growth, because the research share grows in universities where productivity growth is less. This finding suggests that allocative efficiency of U.S. higher education declined during the late 20th century. R&D stock, endowment, and post-docs increase research productivity in universities, the effect of nonfederal R&D is less, and the returns to research are diminishing. Since the nonfederal R&D share grows and is higher in public schools, this may explain the rising inefficiency. Decreasing returns in research but not teaching suggest that most differences in university size are due to teaching.
    JEL: J3 L3 O3
    Date: 2006–11
  3. By: Takis Venetoklis
    Abstract: The paper serves as a guide to the FUSSEP (Finnish University Students Socio-Economic Preferences) database ? 2005 round. The data were gathered via an Internet mail survey in the Fall of 2005. The target population was 105000 students registered in 18 universities in Finland. About 30000 students replied to preference questions regarding several socioeconomic policy issues. The paper includes, among others, descriptive statistics of the variables and discusses methodological questions in connection to the implementation of the survey. We plan to repeat the survey three more times on a yearly basis and create a longitudinal panel of responses. After each round the data will be posted in the Internet and will be freely available to all interested parties.
    JEL: A13 A12 C42
    Date: 2006–11–08
  4. By: Chiara Franzoni (A. Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University, USA); Francesco Lissoni (Università di Brescia and CESPRI-Università Commerciale Bocconi, Milano, Italy)
    Abstract: The paper proposes a definition of “academic entrepreneur” which draws from draws from the economics, history, and sociology of science. Academic entrepreneurs are scientists with a brilliant scientific record, who build their careers through discipline-building, the creation and of new labs and teams, and an appetite for the economic resources necessary to pursue those goals. Long-standing institutional features of national university systems explain to what extent commercial activities may or may not help academic entrepreneurs to progress in their careers. European policies for technology transfer should address these features, rather than aiming straight at university patenting and firm creation.
    Keywords: Academic entrepreneurship, Technology transfer
    JEL: I23 M13 O31
    Date: 2006–09
  5. By: Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie (Ohio University); Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics)
    Abstract: Using nationally representative data from the NLSY97 and a simultaneous equations model, this paper analyzes the financial motivations for and the effects of employment on U.S. college students’ academic performance. The data confirm the predictions of the theoretical model that lower parental transfers and greater costs of attending college increase the number of hours students work while in school, although students are not very responsive to these financial motivations. They also show that increased hours of work lead to lower grade point averages (GPAs), at least for students attending four-year colleges.
    Keywords: employment, transfers, GPA
    JEL: D1 I2 J22
    Date: 2006–11
  6. By: Migali, Giuseppe (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: In a world where graduate incomes are uncertain and higher education is financed through governmental loans, we build a theoretical model to show whether an income contingent loan (ICL) or a mortgage loan (ML) is preferred for higher levels of uncertainty. Assuming a single lifetime shock on graduate incomes, we compare the individual expected utilities under the two loan schemes, for both risk neutral and risk averse individuals. The theoretical model is calibrated using real data on wage uncertainty and considering the features of the UK Higher Education Reform to observe the implications of the switch from a ML to an ICL and the effect of the top-up fees. Different scenarios are simulated according to individual characteristics and family background. We finally extend the initial model to incorporate stochastic changes of income over time.
    Keywords: Education Choice ; Risk Aversion ; Uncertainty
    JEL: D81 I22 H80
    Date: 2006

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