nep-soc New Economics Papers
on Social Norms and Social Capital
Issue of 2022‒05‒16
eight papers chosen by
Fabio Sabatini
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. The Impact of Forced Migration on In-Group and Out-Group Social Capital By Anselm Hager; Justin Mattias Valasek; Justin Mattias Valasek
  2. The Social Integration of International Migrants: Evidence from the Networks of Syrians in Germany By Michael Bailey; Drew M. Johnston; Martin Koenen; Theresa Kuchler; Dominic Russel; Johannes Stroebel
  3. Visual Representation and Stereotypes in News Media By Elliott Ash; Ruben Durante; Maria Grebenshchikova; Carlo Schwarz
  4. Fostering co-operation through participation in natural resource management. An integrative review By Ortiz-Riomalo, Juan Felipe; Koessler, Ann-Kathrin; Engel, Stefanie
  5. Turning back the clock: Beliefs about gender roles during lockdown By Anne Boring; Gloria Moroni
  6. Within-Group Heterogeneity in a Multi-Ethnic Society By Artiles, Miriam
  7. Can Leaders Persuade? Examining Movement in Immigration Beliefs By Hassan Afrouzi; Carolina Arteaga; Emily Weisburst
  8. Network formation with NIMBY constraints By Lukas Block

  1. By: Anselm Hager; Justin Mattias Valasek; Justin Mattias Valasek
    Abstract: In this paper, we study how forced migration impacts the in-group and out-group social capital of Syrian refugees and the host population in Northern Lebanon by administering a novel survey experiment in which we manipulate the salience of the migration experience (for refugees) and the refugee crisis (for the host population). Additionally, we study the social spillovers to Palestinians, an established refugee population in Lebanon. We find that the impact of forced migration is largely restricted to the Syrian refugee-Lebanese host population channel, and that it increases the relative disparity between in-group and out-group social capital. This may cause refugees to favor in-group interactions and therefore forgo more economically advantageous interactions with out-group members.
    Keywords: refugees, migration, social capital, experiment, ethnicity
    JEL: C90 J15 D91
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Michael Bailey; Drew M. Johnston; Martin Koenen; Theresa Kuchler; Dominic Russel; Johannes Stroebel
    Abstract: We use de-identified data from Facebook to study the social integration of Syrian migrants in Germany, a country that received a large influx of refugees during the Syrian Civil War. We construct measures of migrants' social integration based on Syrians' friendship links to Germans, their use of the German language, and their participation in local social groups. We find large variation in Syrians' social integration across German counties, and use a movers' research design to document that these differences are largely due to causal effects of place. Regional differences in the social integration of Syrians are shaped both by the rate at which German natives befriend other locals in general (general friendliness) and the relative rate at which they befriend local Syrian migrants versus German natives (relative friending). We follow the friending behavior of Germans that move across locations to show that both general friendliness and relative friending are more strongly affected by place-based effects such as local institutions than by persistent individual characteristics of natives (e.g., attitudes toward neighbors or migrants). Relative friending is higher in areas with lower unemployment and more completed government-sponsored integration courses. Using variation in teacher availability as an instrument, we find that integration courses had a substantial causal effect on the social integration of Syrian migrants. We also use fluctuations in the presence of Syrian migrants across high school cohorts to show that natives with quasi-random exposure to Syrians in school are more likely to befriend other Syrian migrants in other settings, suggesting that contact between groups can shape subsequent attitudes towards migrants.
    JEL: D85 F22 J15 K37
    Date: 2022–04
  3. By: Elliott Ash; Ruben Durante; Maria Grebenshchikova; Carlo Schwarz
    Abstract: We propose a new method for measuring gender and ethnic stereotypes in news reports. By combining computer vision and natural language processing tools, the method allows us to analyze both images and text as well as the interaction between the two. We apply this approach to over 2 million web articles published in the New York Times and Fox News between 2000 and 2020. We find that in both outlets, men and whites are generally over-represented relative to their population share, while women and Hispanics are under-represented. We also document that news content perpetuates common stereotypes such as associating Blacks and Hispanics with low-skill jobs, crime, and poverty, and Asians with high-skill jobs and science. For jobs, we show that the relationship between visual representation and racial stereotypes holds even after controlling for the actual share of a group in a given occupation. Finally, we find that group representation in the news is influenced by the gender and ethnic identity of authors and editors.
    Keywords: stereotypes, gender, race, media, computer vision, text analysis
    JEL: L82 J15 J16 Z10 C45
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Ortiz-Riomalo, Juan Felipe; Koessler, Ann-Kathrin; Engel, Stefanie
    Abstract: Solving humanity’s social-environmental challenges calls for co-operation by the relevant actors. Hence, involving them in the policy process has been deemed both necessary and promising. But how and to what extent can participatory policy interventions effectively foster co-operation for sustainable natural resource management? Research on collective action and research on participatory governance offer insights on this question but have hitherto remained largely unconnected. In particular, results of field and lab experiments on collective action can complement those of case studies on participatory governance to shed further light on the potential (institutional and behavioural) impacts and mechanisms of participatory interventions. This article reviews and integrates key insights of these strands of research using the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework. Our review shows that participatory interventions can foster co-operation (a) by helping the relevant actors craft adequate institutional arrangements, and (b) by addressing and/or influencing relevant actors’ attributes (i.e. their individual and shared understandings, beliefs, trust and preferences). However, to fulfil their potential, organisers of participatory interventions need to soundly design and implement them, adequately embedding them in the broader context. They must be complemented with proper follow-up, enforcement and conflict-resolution mechanisms to nurture, reassure and sustain trust and co-operation.
    Keywords: cooperation,collective action,social dilemmas,participatory governance,natural resource management,environmental policy,natural resource policy
    JEL: D72 D79 P32 P48
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Anne Boring (Erasmus University Rotterdam, Tinbergen Institute - Tinbergen Institute, LIEPP - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire d'évaluation des politiques publiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Gloria Moroni (Erasmus University Rotterdam, Tinbergen Institute - Tinbergen Institute)
    Abstract: We study the impact of lockdown measures on beliefs about gender roles. We collect data from a representative sample of 1,000 individuals in France during the first COVID-19 lockdown in 2020. To measure beliefs about gender roles, we use questions from the 2018 wave of the European Values Study, and match respondents from the two surveys to compare beliefs before and during lockdown. We find evidence that the lockdown period was associated with a shift towards more traditional beliefs about gender roles. The effects are concentrated among men from the most time-constrained households and from households where bargaining with a partner over sharing responsibility for household production was likely to be an issue. Finally, we find evidence that beliefs about gender equality may be a luxury good: beliefs in equal gender roles increase with household income. Overall, our results suggest that men are more likely to hold egalitarian beliefs about gender roles when these beliefs are not costly for them.
    Keywords: gender norms,household production,COVID-19,time constraints,bargaining
    Date: 2022–04–05
  6. By: Artiles, Miriam
    Abstract: Is ethnic diversity good or bad for economic development? Most empirical studies find corrosive effects. In this paper, I show that ethnic diversity need not spell poor development outcomes–a history of within-group heterogeneity can turn ethnic diversity into an advantage for long-run development. I collect new data from a natural experiment regarding Peru's colonial history: the forced resettlement of native populations in the 16th century. This intervention forced together various ethnic groups into new jurisdictions. In those jurisdictions where colonial officials concentrated individuals with a history of within-group heterogeneity, who, prior to colonization, worked in complementary climates of the Andes, ethnic diversity results in systematically lower costs and may even become advantageous. Neither precolonial groups' political complexity nor their degree of economic development explain this result. The transmission of prosocial behavior is one likely channel. I also find evidence consistent with a positive role of economic complementarities between ethnic groups.
    Keywords: Ethnic Diversity, Within-Group Heterogeneity, Long-Run Economic Development
    JEL: J15 N16 O10 O12 Q56 Z10
    Date: 2022–04–16
  7. By: Hassan Afrouzi; Carolina Arteaga; Emily Weisburst
    Abstract: Can political leaders change constituents’ beliefs? If so, is it rhetoric, identity, or the interaction of the two that matters? We construct a large-scale experiment where participants are exposed to anti-immigrant and pro-immigrant speeches from both Presidents Obama and Trump. We benchmark these treatments to versions recorded by an actor to control for speech messages. Our findings show that both leader messages and sources matter. Holding messages fixed, leaders persuade when participants hear unanticipated messages from sources perceived as reliable, consistent with a Bayesian framework. This evidence supports the hypothesis that individuals will “follow their leader” to new policy positions.
    Keywords: leaders, political beliefs, partisan identity, polarization, immigration
    JEL: D83 C90
    Date: 2022
  8. By: Lukas Block (Paderborn University)
    Abstract: We study the structure of power networks in consideration of local protests against certain power lines ('not-in-my-backyard'). An application of a network formation game is used to determine whether or not such protests arise. We examine the existence of stable networks and their characteristics, when no player wants to make an alteration. Stability within this game is only reached if each player is sufficiently connected to a power source but is not linked to more players than necessary. In addition, we introduce an algorithm that creates a stable network. (abstract of the paper)
    Keywords: Network formation, NIMBY, Power networks, Nash stability
    JEL: C71 D72 D74
    Date: 2022–04

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