nep-soc New Economics Papers
on Social Norms and Social Capital
Issue of 2021‒03‒08
twenty-two papers chosen by
Fabio Sabatini
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Institutions and Opportunistic Behavior: Experimental Evidence By Antonio Cabrales; Irma Clots-Figueras; Roberto Hernán-González; Praveen Kujal
  2. Social Norms and Elections: How Elected Rules Can Make Behavior (In)Appropriate By Arno Apffelstaedt; Jana Freundt; Christoph Oslislo
  3. Social norms and market behavior: Evidence from a large population sample By Riehm, Tobias; Fugger, Nicolas; Gillen, Philippe; Gretschko, Vitali; Werner, Peter
  4. Trust we lost: The Treuhand experience and political behavior in the former German Democratic Republic By Kellermann, Kim Leonie
  5. Affinity, Trust, and Information By Luigi Guiso; Alexey Makarin
  6. Persecution and Escape : Professional Networks and High-Skilled Emigration from Nazi Germany By Becker, Sascha O.; Lindenthal, Volker; Mukand, Sharun; Waldinger, Fabian
  7. Social Capital and Large-Scale Agricultural Investments: An Experimental Investigation By Khadjavi, Menusch; Sipangule, Kacana; Thiele, Rainer
  8. Peers' Race in Adolescence and Voting Behavior By Polipciuc, Maria; Cörvers, Frank; Montizaan, Raymond
  9. Revenge of the Experts: Will COVID-19 Renew or Diminish Public Trust in Science? By Barry Eichengreen; Cevat Giray Aksoy; Orkun Saka
  10. Faith and Assimilation: Italian Immigrants in the US By Stefano Gagliarducci; Marco Tabellini
  11. A Social Norm Nudge to Save More: A Field Experiment at a Retail Bank By Robert Dur; Dimitry Fleming; Marten van Garderen; Max van Lent
  12. Culture, Institutions & the Long Divergence By Alberto Bisin; Jared Rubin; Avner Seror; Thierry Verdier; Thierry Verdier
  13. Social capital and economic growth in the regions of Europe By Muringani, Jonathan; Dahl Fitjar, Rune; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés
  14. Lab-Sophistication: Does Repeated Participation in Laboratory Experiments Affect Pro-Social Behaviour? By Tiziana Medda; Vittorio Pelligra; Tommaso Reggiani
  15. Priming prosocial behavior and expectations in response to the Covid-19 pandemic -- Evidence from an online experiment By Valeria Fanghella; Thi-Thanh-Tam Vu; Luigi Mittone
  16. Oops! I Did It Again: Understanding Mechanisms of Persistence in Prosocial Behavior By Adrian Bruhin; Lorenz Goette; Simon Haenni; Lingqing Jiang
  17. Gender Norm Conflict and Marital Outcomes By Antman, Francisca M.; Kalsi, Priti; Lee, Soohyung
  18. Communities and Testing for Covid-19 By Steven Stillman; Mirco Tonin
  19. How Cultures Converge: An Empirical Investigation of Trade and Linguistic Exchange By Arthur Blouin; Julian Dyer
  20. Impact of Social Identity and Inequality on Antisocial Behaviour By Lata Gangadharan; Philip J. Grossman; Mana Komai; Joe Vecci
  21. The political cost of lockdown´s enforcement By Andrea Fazio; Tomasso Reggiani; Fabio Sabatini;
  22. Intergroup contact and its effects on discriminatory attitudes: Evidence from India By Shreya Bhattacharya

  1. By: Antonio Cabrales (Dept. of Economics, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid); Irma Clots-Figueras (School of Economics, University of Kent); Roberto Hernán-González (Burgundy School of Business); Praveen Kujal (Dept. of Economics, Business School, Middlesex University)
    Abstract: Risk mitigating institutions have long been used by societies to protect against opportunistic behavior. We know little about how they are demanded, who demands them or how they impact subsequent behavior. To study these questions, we run a large-scale online experiment where insurance can be purchased to safeguard against opportunistic behavior. We compare two different selection mechanisms for risk mitigation, the individual and the collective (voting). We find that, whether individual or collective, there is demand for riskmitigating institutions amongst high-opportunism individuals, while low-opportunism individuals demand lesser levels of insurance. However, high-opportunism individuals strategically demand lower insurance institutions when they are chosen collectively through voting. We also find that the presence of risk mitigating institutions crowds out reciprocity. Reciprocity is lower when the no-insurance option is chosen among other insurance options than when it is not available. Finally, we also observe higher gains from exchange in lowopportunism groups than in more opportunistic ones.
    Keywords: institutions; trust; trustworthiness; voting; insurance
    JEL: C92 D02 D64
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Arno Apffelstaedt (University of Cologne, Center for Social and Economic Behavior (C-SEB) and ECONtribute; Albertus-Magnus-Platz, 50931 Cologne, Germany); Jana Freundt (University of Fribourg, Department of Economics and University of Pennsylvania, School of Arts and Sciences; University of Fribourg, Boulevard de Perolles 90, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland); Christoph Oslislo (University of Cologne, Institute for Economic Policy; Pohligstraße 1, 50969 Cologne, Germany)
    Abstract: Can elections change people’s ideas about what is ethically right and what is wrong? A number of recent observations suggest that social norms can change rapidly as a result of election outcomes. We explore this conjecture using a controlled online experiment. In our experiment, participants rate the social appropriateness of sharing income with poorer individuals. We compare situations in which a rule has been elected that asks people to share or not to share, respectively, with situations in which no rule has been elected. In the absence of an election, sharing is widely considered socially appropriate, while not sharing is considered socially inappropriate. We show that elections can change this social norm: They shift the modal appropriateness perception of actions and, depending on the elected rule, increase their dispersion, i.e. erode previously existing consensus. As a result, actions previously judged socially inappropriate (not sharing) can become socially appropriate. This power prevails, albeit in weaker form, even if the election is subject to controversial practices such as vote buying or voter disenfranchisement. Drawing on behavioral data from another experiment, we demonstrate that election-induced norm shifts predict behavior change.
    Keywords: social norms, elections, prosocial behavior, rule compliance
    JEL: D02 D91 C91
    Date: 2021–02
  3. By: Riehm, Tobias; Fugger, Nicolas; Gillen, Philippe; Gretschko, Vitali; Werner, Peter
    Abstract: We test the importance of social norms for market interactions associated with negative real-world externalities in a large-scale experiment with a heterogeneous population sample from Germany. The majority of experimental participants refuses to trade, thus behaving in a moral way. Our data suggest the importance of norm conformity for the decision to trade as a significant share of buyers and sellers condition market entry on the decisions of others. Moreover, a majority of observers is willing to incur personal costs to sanction trading. Moral behavior is significantly linked to demographic characteristics and stated preferences and attitudes of the participants.
    Keywords: Markets,moral behavior,negative externalities,social norms,punishment,large population sample,experiment
    JEL: D01 D62 D64 C93
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Kellermann, Kim Leonie
    Abstract: We study whether the experience of losing one's job due to the Treuhand activities in the early 1990s affected long-term political behavior among citizens of the former German Democratic Republic. During the German Reunification process, the Treuhand coordinated the privatization of former GDR firms at the cost of massive job losses. We exploit individual and spatial variation in Treuhand layoffs between 1990 and 1994, based on micro-level survey data from the German Socio-economic Panel and firm data from the IWH Treuhand Database to examine the effects on various behavioral outcomes in later years. Our results suggest that former GDR citizens who have experienced a Treuhand layoff are significantly more likely to prefer a radical party, are less interested in politics and tend to have less trust in others. At the aggregate level, districts with relatively more layoffs exhibit higher radical left vote shares in federal elections. Investigating the underlying mechanisms, we find that the effects of Treuhand job losses are relatively stronger for respondents who stayed in East Germany after Reunification. Furthermore, it seems to be nostalgia and disappointment with the transition process which drive the effects, rather than financial grievances.
    Keywords: GDR,trust agency,political behavior,unemployment,radical voting
    JEL: D72 E24 L33
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Luigi Guiso (EIEF and CEPR); Alexey Makarin (EIEF and CEPR)
    Abstract: Mutually beneficial trades often rely on both trust and trustworthiness. In exchanges where no history of behavior is observable, however, where does trust come from? Recent evidence suggests that the level of affinity parties in an exchange feel for each other positively affects trustworthiness and can, therefore, affect trust. We propose a simple model that predicts a positive relationship between trust beliefs, affinity, and trustworthiness and a negative relationship between the dispersion of trust beliefs and affinity level. Furthermore, the model suggests that trust should be slower to update after a shock to trustworthiness when affinity is high. We show that the model’s predictions are supported by data from two unrelated datasets—a proprietary survey of Italian entrepreneurs and an extensive international survey (Eurobarometer). Finally, using data on international trade, we show that, in line with our model, adverse shocks to trustworthiness cause a reallocation of trade from low-affinity to high-affinity partners, and especially so in trust-intensive industries.
    Date: 2020
  6. By: Becker, Sascha O. (Monash University and University of Warwick); Lindenthal, Volker (University of Munich); Mukand, Sharun (University of Warwick); Waldinger, Fabian (University of Munich)
    Abstract: We study the role of professional networks in facilitating the escape of persecuted academics from Nazi Germany. From 1933, the Nazi regime started to dismiss academics of Jewish origin from their positions. The timing of dismissals created individual-level exogenous variation in the timing of emigration from Nazi Germany, allowing us to estimate the causal effect of networks for emigration decisions. Academics with ties to more colleagues who had emigrated in 1933 or 1934 (early émigrés) were more likely to emigrate. The early émigrés functioned as “bridging nodes†that helped other academics cross over to their destination. Furthermore, we provide some of the first empirical evidence of decay in social ties over time. The strength of ties also decays across space, even within cities. Finally, for high-skilled migrants, professional networks are more important than community networks.
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Khadjavi, Menusch; Sipangule, Kacana; Thiele, Rainer
    Abstract: Following the 2007–8 global food crisis, agricultural producers have invested in large tracts of land in developing countries. We investigate how the arrival of large-scale farms changes inter-personal trust and reciprocity, important components of social capital, in traditional villages. We elicit trust and reciprocal behaviour in villages that lie near large-scale farms and compare them with villages at a distance. Our data reveal greater trust in villages close to large-scale farms. Reciprocity is more frequent after farm employment. These results are likely driven by communal coping and reputation building. A natural field measure shows that trust correlates with public good sharing.
    Keywords: social capital,market exposure,cooperation,large-scale agricultural investments,field experiment,smallholder agriculture,Zambia
    JEL: C93 O10 O13 P14 Q12 Q15
    Date: 2020
  8. By: Polipciuc, Maria (Maastricht University); Cörvers, Frank (ROA, Maastricht University); Montizaan, Raymond (ROA, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: Using a representative longitudinal survey of U.S. teenagers, we investigate how peer racial composition in high school affects individual turnout of young adults. We exploit across-cohort, within-school differences in peer racial composition. One within-school standard deviation increase in the racial diversity index leads to a 2.2 percent increase in the probability of being registered to vote seven years later and to a 2.6 percent higher probability of voting six years later. These effects are likely due to positive interracial contact when socialization has long-lasting effects: higher racial diversity in school is linked to more interracial friendships in school and later on.
    Keywords: voting behavior, school-cohort racial diversity, peers
    JEL: D72 I24 J15
    Date: 2021–02
  9. By: Barry Eichengreen; Cevat Giray Aksoy; Orkun Saka
    Abstract: It is sometimes said that an effect of the COVID-19 pandemic will be heightened appreciation of the importance of scientific research and expertise. We test this hypothesis by examining how exposure to previous epidemics affected trust in science and scientists. Building on the “impressionable years hypothesis” that attitudes are durably formed during the ages 18 to 25, we focus on individuals exposed to epidemics in their country of residence at this particular stage of the life course. Combining data from a 2018 Wellcome Trust survey of more than 75,000 individuals in 138 countries with data on global epidemics since 1970, we show that such exposure has no impact on views of science as an endeavor but that it significantly reduces trust in scientists and in the benefits of their work. We also illustrate that the decline in trust is driven by the individuals with little previous training in science subjects. Finally, our evidence suggests that epidemic-induced distrust translates into lower compliance with health-related policies in the form of negative views towards vaccines and lower rates of child vaccination.
    Keywords: epidemics, trust, scientists, impressionable years
    JEL: D83 F50 I19
    Date: 2021
  10. By: Stefano Gagliarducci (University of Rome Tor Vergata, EIEF and IZA); Marco Tabellini (Harvard Business School and CEPR)
    Abstract: We study the effects of religious organizations on immigrants' assimilation. We focus on the arrival of Italian Catholic churches in the US between 1900 and 1920, when four million Italians had moved to America, and anti-Catholic sentiments were widespread. We combine newly collected Catholic directories on the presence of Italian churches across years and counties with the full count US Census of Population. We find that Italian churches reduced the social assimilation of Italian immigrants, lowering intermarriage rates and increasing ethnic residential segregation. We find no evidence that this was the result of either lower effort exerted by immigrants to “fit in” the American society or increased desire to vertically transmit national culture. Instead, we provide evidence for other two, non-mutually exclusive, mechanisms. First, Italian churches raised the frequency of interactions among fellow Italians, likely generating peer effects and reducing contact with other groups. Second, they increased the salience of the immigrant community among natives, thereby triggering backlash and discrimination.
    Date: 2021
  11. By: Robert Dur; Dimitry Fleming; Marten van Garderen; Max van Lent
    Abstract: A large fraction of households have very little savings buffer and are therefore vulnerable to financial shocks. This paper examines whether a social norm nudge can induce such households to save more. We ran a large-scale field experiment at a retail bank in the Netherlands. We find that households who are exposed to the social norm nudge click more often on a link to a personal web page where they can start or adjust an automatic savings plan. However, analyzing detailed bank data, we find no treatment effect on actual savings, neither in the short run nor in the long run. Our null findings are quite precisely estimated. A complementary small-scale survey experiment suggests that people did notice the social norm nudge and also that it had an impact on savings intentions.
    Keywords: household savings, field experiment, nudges, social norms
    JEL: C93 D14 D90 E21 G40
    Date: 2021
  12. By: Alberto Bisin; Jared Rubin; Avner Seror; Thierry Verdier; Thierry Verdier
    Abstract: Recent theories of the Long Divergence between Middle Eastern and Western European economies focus on Middle Eastern (over-)reliance on religious legitimacy, use of slave soldiers, and persistence of restrictive proscriptions of religious (Islamic) law. These theories take as exogenous the cultural values that complement the prevailing institutions. As a result, they miss the role of cultural values in either supporting the persistence of or inducing change in the economic and institutional environment. In this paper, we address these issues by modeling the joint evolution of institutions and culture. In doing so, we place the various hypotheses of economic divergence into one, unifying framework. We highlight the role that cultural transmission plays in reinforcing institutional evolution toward either theocratic or secular states. We extend the model to shed light on political decentralization and technological change in the two regions.
    Keywords: long divergence, cultural transmission, institutions, legitimacy, religion
    JEL: O10 P16 P48 N34 N35 Z12 O33
    Date: 2021
  13. By: Muringani, Jonathan; Dahl Fitjar, Rune; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés
    Abstract: Social capital is an important factor explaining differences in economic growth among regions. However, the key distinction between bonding social capital, which can lead to lock-in and myopia, and bridging social capital, which promotes knowledge flows across diverse groups, has been overlooked in growth research. In this paper, we address this shortcoming by examining how bonding and bridging social capital affect regional economic growth, using data for 190 regions in 21 EU countries, covering eight waves of the European Social Survey between 2002 and 2016. The findings confirm that bridging social capital is linked to higher levels of regional economic growth. Bonding social capital is highly correlated with bridging social capital and associated with lower growth when this is controlled for. We do not find significantly different effects of bonding social capital in regions with more or less bridging social capital, or vice versa. We examine the interaction between social and human capital, finding that bridging social capital is fundamental for stimulating economic growth, especially in low-skilled regions. Human capital also moderates the relationship between bonding social capital and growth, reducing the negative externalities imposed by excessive bonding.
    Keywords: social capital; bonding; bridging; regions; economic growth; EU; forthcoming
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2021–02–15
  14. By: Tiziana Medda (University of Turin); Vittorio Pelligra (University of Cagliari); Tommaso Reggiani (Cardiff University, Masaryk University, IZA)
    Abstract: Experimental social scientists working at research-intensive institutions deal inevitably with subjects who have most likely participated in previous experiments. It is an important methodological question to know whether participants that have acquired a high level of lab-sophistication show altered pro-social behavioral patterns. In this paper, we focus both on the potential effect of the subjects’ lab-sophistication, and on the role of the knowledge about the level of lab-sophistication of the other participants. Our main findings show that while lab-sophistication per se does not significantly affect pro-social behaviour, for sophisticated sub-jects the knowledge about the counterpart’s level of (un)sophistication may systematically alter their choices. This result should induce caution among experimenters about whether, in their settings, information about labsophistication can be inferred by the participants, due to the characteristics of the recruitment mechanisms, the management of the experimental sessions or to other contextual clues.
    Keywords: Lab-sophistication; Experimental Methodology; External Validity; Pro-social behaviour; Cooperation
    JEL: D03 D83 C91 C92
    Date: 2021–02
  15. By: Valeria Fanghella; Thi-Thanh-Tam Vu; Luigi Mittone
    Abstract: This paper studies whether and how differently projected information about the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic affects individuals' prosocial behavior and expectations on future outcomes. We conducted an online experiment with British participants (N=961) when the UK introduced its first lockdown and the outbreak was on its growing stage. Participants were primed with either the environmental or economic consequences (i.e., negative primes), or the environmental or economic benefits (i.e., positive primes) of the pandemic, or with neutral information. We measured priming effects on an incentivized take-and-give dictator game and on participants' expectations about future environmental quality and economic growth. Our results show that primes affect participants' expectations, but not their prosociality. In particular, participants primed with environmental consequences hold a more pessimistic view on future environmental quality, while those primed with economic benefits are more optimistic about future economic growth. Instead, the positive environmental prime and the negative economic prime do not influence expectations. Our results offer insights into how information affects behavior and expectations during the Covid-19 pandemic.
    Date: 2021–02
  16. By: Adrian Bruhin; Lorenz Goette; Simon Haenni; Lingqing Jiang
    Abstract: We test whether asking individuals to donate blood leads to a persistent change in behavior, and examine the underlying mechanism. In a field experiment, we randomize a phone call, asking blood donors to turn out, and follow them over up to 18 months. We observe significant behavioral persistence for at least one year. We use naturally occurring rainfall as a second instrument for donor turnout to test whether behavioral persistence is due to habit formation (Stigler and Becker, 1977) or a persistent increase in motivation independent of past donation. Our results strongly favor habit formation as the underlying mechanism.
    Keywords: Prosocial behavior, Habit formation, Field experiment, Natural experiment
    JEL: C93 D04 D91 C36
    Date: 2020–12
  17. By: Antman, Francisca M. (University of Colorado, Boulder); Kalsi, Priti (University of Rochester); Lee, Soohyung (Seoul National University)
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of male-female conflict over gender norms on marital outcomes. As marriage requires mutual agreement regarding the role of husband and wife, we hypothesize that a person who is less likely to encounter a potential mate with similar gender norms will face a lower chance of marrying. Even if two parties marry despite a difference in gender norms, their marriage may be more vulnerable to external shocks, making divorce more likely relative to their counterparts without gender norm conflict. Finally, we predict that in the presence of gender norm conflict, high-skilled individuals may be less likely to get or stay married relative to low-skilled individuals, as the former group faces better outside options. Estimates from an analysis of U.S. marriage markets differentiated by birth cohort, state, race, and skill level, support our theoretical predictions. Additional extensions explore heterogeneous effects and additional outcomes such as the presence of children in the household.
    Keywords: gender, marriage, social norms, divorce, skill gap
    JEL: J12 J16 J24
    Date: 2021–02
  18. By: Steven Stillman (Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy); Mirco Tonin (Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy)
    Abstract: The response to the Covid-19 epidemic requires people to undertake actions like maskwearing or vaccination that also confer benefits to the whole community and, therefore, are akin to public good contributions. This is the case also for participation to the mass testing that took place between November 18th and 25th, 2020 in the South Tyrol region of Italy, where 361,781 out of 500,607 (72.3 percent) eligible residents volunteered to take a Covid-19 rapid antigen test. We examine the community characteristics that are associated with higher testing rates. Our findings point to a number of key community determinants of people’s willingness to volunteer. Convenience and social capital were important factors. Beyond that, socioeconomic status and religiosity were also both positively related to greater testing.
    Keywords: Covid-19; testing; volunteer; social capital; religion
    JEL: I12 I18
    Date: 2021–02
  19. By: Arthur Blouin; Julian Dyer
    Abstract: This paper empirically investigates whether potential gains from trade influence cultural convergence. We develop a model of linguistic convergence where individuals adopt another language to facilitate trade with that group, and diffuse elements of the language throughout their own culture. The model maps to a dataset of linguistic adoption, featuring nearly all words in all languages. We construct a society-pair measure of language adoption that we show is related to welfare gains from agricultural trade. In particular, we show empirically that (1) improved trade-partner quality can cause cultural convergence; (2) adoption is inverse-U shaped in the quantity of trade-partners; (3) economic leverage determines the direction of convergence. We also provide evidence that the language adoption we identify is cultural rather than purely functional by showing that religious and social organization word-types (amongst others) are heavily adopted.
    Keywords: Language Evolution; Linguistic Distance; Linguistic Exchange; Loanwords; Trade Incentives
    JEL: O11 O12 O13
    Date: 2021–02–25
  20. By: Lata Gangadharan; Philip J. Grossman; Mana Komai; Joe Vecci
    Abstract: Antisocial behaviour can be observed in response to social comparisons with advantaged others. This paper uses a laboratory experiment to examine if social group affiliation mitigates or increases antisocial behaviour in the presence of inequality. While research has documented the harmful effects of inequality, less is known about how social identity may interact with income inequality to influence antisocial behaviour. In our experiment, participants play a modified version of an investment game in which they can reduce others’ payoff at a cost to themselves. Participants are identified by their income groups and/or social groups. We use naturally occurring, exogenous social groups to capture social identity and vary the combination of income identity and social identity. We find little difference in rates of antisocial behaviour across the environments. However, in a setting with revealed social identity and income identity we observe a redirection in antisocial behaviour relative to a setting in which social identity is not revealed. We find that low income participants are more likely to be antisocial towards someone from a different income or social group. In contrast, high income participants do not vary their behaviour. The targeting of antisocial behaviour by low income individuals is consistent with our theoretical framework and suggests that identity politics causes low income people who are already in conflict with one another to shift their blame culturally. Our findings suggest that the context in which inequality exists may have important effects on antisocial behaviour. Classification-JEL Codes: C91, D003, D6
    Keywords: Social Identity, Income inequality, Antisocial behaviour, Experiment, Natural groups
    Date: 2019–06
  21. By: Andrea Fazio (Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Economics and Law, Rome, Italy); Tomasso Reggiani (Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, United Kingdom, Masaryk University, Department of Public Economics - MUEEL Lab, Brno, Czech Republic, IZA, Bonn, Germany); Fabio Sabatini (Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Economics and Law, Rome, Italy, IZA, Bonn, Germany);
    Abstract: We study how the political cost of enforcing a lockdown in response to the COVID-19 outbreak relates to citizens’ propensity for altruistic punishment in Italy, the early epicenter of the pandemic. Approval for the government’s management of the crisis decreases with the amount of the penalties that individuals would like to see enforced for lockdown violations. People supporting stronger punishment are more likely to consider the government’s reaction to the pandemic as insufficient. However, after the establishment of tougher sanctions for risky behaviors, we observe a sudden flip in support for government. Higher amounts of the desired fines become associated with a higher probability of considering the government’s policy response as too extreme, lower trust in government, and lower confidence in the truthfulness of the officially provided information. Lockdowns entail a political cost that helps explain why democracies may adopt epidemiologically suboptimal policies.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Lockdown, Law enforcement, Altruistic punishment, In-cumbent support, Trust in institutions, Italy
    JEL: D12 D83 I12 K40
    Date: 2021–02
  22. By: Shreya Bhattacharya
    Abstract: The contact hypothesis posits that having diverse neighbours may reduce one's intergroup prejudice. This hypothesis is difficult to test as individuals self-select into neighbourhoods. Using a slum relocation programme in India that randomly assigned neighbours, I examine the effects of exposure to other-caste neighbours on trust and attitudes towards members of other castes. Combining administrative data on housing assignment with original survey data on attitudes, I find evidence corroborating the contact hypothesis.
    Keywords: Caste, Slums, India, Trust, Discrimination, Survey data
    Date: 2021

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