nep-soc New Economics Papers
on Social Norms and Social Capital
Issue of 2019‒08‒12
ten papers chosen by
Fabio Sabatini
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Trust and reciprocity in youth labor markets. An experimental approach to analyzing the impact of labour market experiences on young people By Niall O'Higgins; Marco Stimolo
  2. Never Forget the First Time: The Persistent Effects of Corruption and the Rise of Populism in Italy By Arnstein Aassve; Gianmarco Daniele; Marco Le Moglie
  3. Are Millennials Really So Selfish? Preliminary Evidence from the Philanthropy Panel Study By Harvey S. Rosen; Peter Koczanski
  4. The differential effects of Jesus and God on distributive behaviour By Tom Lane
  5. Crime-related Exposure to Violence and Social Preferences: Experimental Evidence from Bogotá By Francesco Bogliacino; Camilo Gómez; Gianluca Grimalda
  6. Peer and network effects in medical innovation: the case of laproscopic surgery in the English NHS By Barrenho, E.;; Miraldo, M.;; Propper, C;; Rose, C.;
  7. Electoral Democracy at Work By Philippe Askenazy; Thomas Breda
  8. Identity, Beliefs, and Political Conflict By Nicola Gennaioli; Guido Tabellini
  9. Social Networks and Mental Health Outcomes: Chinese Rural-Urban Migrant Experience By Meng, Xin; Xue, Sen
  10. Gender division of household labor: How does culture operate? By Marcén, Miriam; Morales, Marina

  1. By: Niall O'Higgins; Marco Stimolo
    Abstract: In this experiment, we study whether individuals' labour market state (i.e. employed, student or NEET) affect their trusting and trustworthy behavior. To identify both the effect of labour market state and the effect of information on others' labour market state over one's behavior, we implement an experiment with two one-shot trust games with random and anonymous matching: in the first game, subjects receive no information on the counterpart; in the second one, the labour market state of both players is common knowledge. We find that, amongst the different sub-categories of NEETs, the status of unemployed has a markedly negative effect on trust and trustworthiness. Furthermore, precariousness in the labour market results to be as damaging as unemployment for trust and trustworthiness.
    Keywords: Trust game; Reciprocity; Youth labor market.
    Date: 2019–07–27
  2. By: Arnstein Aassve; Gianmarco Daniele; Marco Le Moglie
    Abstract: The paper studies the long term impact of corruption on trust towards institutions. Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to corruption may lower institutional trust in the short run. Whether those short term effects translate into a persistent effect is not known. We study the onset of a corruption shock that took place in Italy between 1992 and 1994. Using recent data from the Trustlab project, coordinated by the OECD, we find that young first time voters exposed to the corruption scandal still today, 25 years later, exert significantly lower institutional trust. A follow up survey reveals that their exposure to corruption also affected their current voting behavior and political preferences. In particular, those young first time voters exposed to the corruption were more likely to vote for populist parties at the 2018 national elections and to have less favourable attitudes towards immigrants and refugees.
    Keywords: Corruption, Institutional trust, Populism, First-time voter, Italy
    JEL: P16 D72 D73
    Date: 2018
  3. By: Harvey S. Rosen (Princeton University); Peter Koczanski (Princeton University)
    Abstract: We use panel data on charitable donations to analyze how the philanthropic behavior of the Millennials (born between 1981 and 1996) compares to that of earlier generations. On the basis of a multivariate analysis with a rich set of economic and demographic variables, we find that conditional on making a gift, one cannot reject the hypothesis that the Millennials donate more than members of earlier generations. However, Millennials are somewhat less likely to make any donations at all than their generational predecessors. Our findings suggest a more nuanced view of the Millennials' prosocial behavior than is suggested in popular accounts.
    Keywords: generosity, Millennials, selfishness, charity
    JEL: D64
    Date: 2019–05
  4. By: Tom Lane (University of Nottingham, Ningbo)
    Abstract: This study shows that different belief concepts within the same religion can have different effects on distributive behaviour. A dictator game experiment measures the causal effects of the concepts of God and Jesus on both the pro-sociality of Christians and their propensity to discriminate against LGBTQ people. The concept of Jesus significantly raises the amounts Christians donate, but the concept of God does not. Christians are found, at borderline significance, to discriminate against LGBTQ people, but this discrimination is not significantly increased by the concepts of Jesus or God. Neither concept significantly affects the behaviour of a non-Christian sample.
    Keywords: Christianity; Dictator Game; Pro-sociality; Discrimination; LGBTQ
    Date: 2019–05
  5. By: Francesco Bogliacino; Camilo Gómez; Gianluca Grimalda
    Abstract: In this paper, we study the relationship between exposure to violence (ETV) and pro-social behavior using two artefactual field experiments in Bogotá, Colombia. We focus on two dimensions of ETV: trauma and negative economic shock. In our first experiment, after manipulating a recall of ETV, we collate a number of decisions from a trust game and a dictator game. Using a design inspired by Falk and Zehnder (2013), we compare the measures of in-group bias at the district level. In our companion experiment, we use a similar design, which includes a Prisoners’ Dilemma, and we introduce a 2-by-2 design where we attempt to disentangle the effect of trauma and a negative wealth shock. Our results suggest that there is a positive relationship between ETV and pro-social behavior, driven by both trauma and shock. Finally, there is evidence of in-group bias at the district level in Bogotá, but this is task specific. When we explore possible mediating variables proposed by the literature, we find that only beliefs seem to be affected, however the result is not robust. On the other hand, evidence is consistent with a generalized explanation based on either the dual system theory or the role of negative emotions. *** En este artículo estudiamos la relación entre exposición a violencia (ETV) y comportamiento prosocial usando dos experimentos de campo artefactuales en Bogotá (Colombia). Nos centramos en dos dimensiones de ETV: trauma y choque económico negativo. En el primer experimento, recolectamos una serie de decisiones a partir de un juego de confianza y un juego del dictador, después de manipular un recuerdo de exposición a violencia. Usando un diseño inspirado por Falk y Zehnder (2013), recolectamos medidas de sesgo intra-grupo a nivel de localidad. En el experimento complementario usamos un diseño similar, pero incluimos un dilema del prisionero y un diseño 2x2 donde intentamos separar los efectos del trauma y de un choque negativo de riqueza. Nuestros resultados sugieren una relación positiva entre ETV y comportamiento prosocial, guiado tanto por el trauma como por el shock. Finalmente, hay evidencia de un sesgo intragrupo a nivel de localidad en Bogotá, sin embargo, es específico a la tarea. Cuando exploramos posibles variables mediadoras propuestas por la literatura, encontramos que solo las creencias parecen ser afectadas, pero este resultado no es robusto, mientras que la evidencia es consistente con una explicación generalizada basada en la teoría del sistema dual o en el papel de las emociones negativas.
    Keywords: discrimination; trust; trustworthiness; cooperation; violence; third party punishment, social heuristics hypothesis
    JEL: D63 D64 D91 C91
    Date: 2019–07–23
  6. By: Barrenho, E.;; Miraldo, M.;; Propper, C;; Rose, C.;
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of peers and networks on the uptake of innovation in surgery.Using a rich matched patient-surgeon data set covering all relevant surgeons, we construct a wide set of time varying measures of peer behaviour and network effects. Our estimates allow for simultaneity bias and treatment of the network as partially unknown. The findings show the importance of multiple channels in affecting the diffusion of innovative behaviour across individual surgeons.
    Keywords: innovation; peer effects; unknown networks;
    Date: 2019–07
  7. By: Philippe Askenazy (CMH - Centre Maurice Halbwachs - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Thomas Breda (PSE - Paris School of Economics, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We evaluate the short- to medium-run effects on unionization and employers' and workers' trust in unions, of an important reform of French employment relations in 2008. This reform made the conditions for union recognition more liberal and democratic after 2008 in private firms with 11 employees or more. The law gave equal chances to all unions to be recognized for bargaining, putting an end to the quasi-monopoly given to five historical unions until then. The law also introduced votes and minimal electoral requirements to obtain union recognition. These new regulations only became fully effective at the first firms' work councils elections happening after January 1st, 2009. Those elections occur within each firm according to a pre-defined frequency - usually every four years -, so that election dates only depend on former election dates, and can be considered as quasi-random with respect to the application date of the new law, at least in firms that are old enough. The identification thus relies on a regression discontinuity design in which the running variable is the firms' work councils election date: we compare in early 2011 firms that had those elections just before or just after January 1st, 2009. We find that the democratic rules introduced in 2008 quickly improved employers' satisfaction and trust towards unions by around 45% of a standard deviation. Union coverage and membership at the establishment level also increased strongly due to the reform and work stoppages became more likely. Together, these results suggest that the introduction of electoral democracy in French firms managed to improve workers' participation in unions and their ability to voice concerns while also improving employers' opinions of unions.
    Keywords: Union Representativeness,Democracy,Unionization,Social Capital
    Date: 2019–07
  8. By: Nicola Gennaioli; Guido Tabellini
    Abstract: We present a theory of identity politics that builds on two ideas. First, voters identify with the social group whose interests are closest to theirs and that features the strongest policy conflict with outgroups. Second, identification causes voters to slant their beliefs of self and others toward group stereotypes. The theory yields two main implications: i) voters’ beliefs are polarized along the distinctive features of salient groups; ii) economic shocks that render new groups salient bring about large and non standard changes in beliefs and policies across many issues. In particular, exposure to globalization or cultural changes may induce voters to switch identities, dampening their demand for redistribution and exacerbating conflicts in other social dimensions. We show that survey evidence is broadly consistent with these implications.
    JEL: H00 Z10
    Date: 2019
  9. By: Meng, Xin; Xue, Sen
    Abstract: Over the past two decades, more than 160 million Chinese rural workers have migrated to cities to work. They are separated from their familiar rural networks to work in an unfamiliar, and often hostile environment. Many of them thus face significant mental health challenges. This paper is the first to investigate the extent to which migrant social networks in host cities can mitigate these adverse mental health effects. Using a unique longitudinal survey data of Rural-to-Urban Migration in China (RUMiC), we find that network size matters significantly for migrant workers. Our preferred IV estimates suggest that one standard deviation increase in migrant city networks, on average, reduces the measure of mental health problem by 0.47 to 0.66 of a standard deviation. Similar effects are found among less educated, those working longer hours, and those without access to social insurance. The main channel of the network effect is through boosting confidence and reducing anxiety of migrants.
    Keywords: Mental Health,Social Networks,Migration,China
    JEL: I12 I15 J61
    Date: 2019
  10. By: Marcén, Miriam; Morales, Marina
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine whether culture plays a role in the gender division of household labor. To explore this issue, we use data on early-arrival first and second generation immigrants living in the United States. Since all these individuals have grown up under the same laws, institutions, and economic conditions, then the differences between them in the gender division of housework may be due to cultural differences. We find that the higher the culture of gender equality in the country of ancestry, the greater the equality in the division of housework. This is maintained when we consider both housework and childcare as household labor. Our work is extended by examining how culture operates and is transmitted. We study whether culture may influence by and with whom housework activities are performed and the timing of the day when this happens, which can help us to understand how culture operates in the family life of couples. Results indicate that the more culture of gender equality is associated with greater probability that individuals report performing housework when they are with their partner in the evening, which may improve family live by making housework a non-individual task. The cultural impact is also observed in the case of working days, but it is not so clear during public holidays, which can be explained by the fact that those individuals originating from less egalitarian countries work longer work hours than those from egalitarian countries.
    Keywords: Culture,immigrants,housework,childcare
    JEL: D13 J13 Z13
    Date: 2019

This nep-soc issue is ©2019 by Fabio Sabatini. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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