nep-soc New Economics Papers
on Social Norms and Social Capital
Issue of 2018‒04‒09
ten papers chosen by
Fabio Sabatini
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Individual Social Capital and Migration By Hotchkiss, Julie L.; Rupasingha, Anil
  2. Does upward mobility harm trust? By Rémi Suchon; Marie Claire Villeval
  3. Growth Maximizing Government Size and Social Capital. By Carmeci, Gaetano; Mauro, Luciano; Privileggi, Fabio
  4. Pay-What-You-Want to Support Independent Information - A Field Experiment on Motivation By Alessandra Casarico; Mirco Tonin
  5. Genetic Diversity and Economic Development : Assessing the Key Findings in Ashraf and Galor (2013) By Raymond Caraher; Michael Ash
  6. Trust and Growth Revisited By Asongu, Simplice; Kodila-Tedika, Oasis
  7. Gender Norms and the Motherhood Penalty: Experimental Evidence from India By Bedi, Arjun S.; Majilla, Tanmoy; Rieger, Matthias
  8. Welfare-Based Altruism By Breitmoser, Yves; Vorjohann, Pauline
  9. Social Capital, Migration, and Social Integration By Mai Le Thi
  10. An Analysis of Peer Effects on Vaccination Behavior Using a Model of Privately Provided Public Goods By Yoko Ibuka; Jun-ichi Itaya; Naomi Miyazato

  1. By: Hotchkiss, Julie L. (Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta); Rupasingha, Anil (U.S. Department of Agriculture)
    Abstract: This paper determines how individual, relative to community, social capital affects individual migration decisions. We make use of nonpublic data from the Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey to predict multidimensional social capital for observations in the Current Population Survey. We find evidence that individuals are much less likely to have moved to a community with average social capital levels lower than their own and that higher levels of community social capital act as positive pull-factor amenities. The importance of that amenity differs across urban/rural locations. We also confirm that higher individual social capital is a negative predictor of migration.
    Keywords: social capital; migration; Current Population Survey; amenities; nonpublic data; factor analysis
    JEL: C36 C38 D71 R23
    Date: 2018–03–01
  2. By: Rémi Suchon (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Marie Claire Villeval (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: While considered as appealing for positive and normative reasons, anecdotal evidence suggests that upward social mobility may harm interpersonal interactions. We report on an experiment testing the effect of upward social mobility on interpersonal trust. Individuals are characterized both by a natural group identity and by a status awarded by means of relative performance in a task in which natural identities strongly predict performance. Upward mobility is characterized by the access to the high status of individuals belonging to the natural group associated with a lower expected performance. We find that socially mobile individuals trust less than those who are not socially mobile, especially when the trustee belongs to the same natural group. In contrast, upward mobility does not affect trustworthiness. We find no evidence that interacting with an upwardly mobile individual impacts trust or trustworthiness.
    Keywords: experiment, social identity, trustworthiness, social mobility,Trust
    Date: 2018
  3. By: Carmeci, Gaetano; Mauro, Luciano; Privileggi, Fabio (University of Turin)
    Abstract: Our paper intersects two topics in growth theory: the growth maximizing government size and the role of social capital in development. We modify a simple OLG framework by introducing two key features: endogenous growth and a role for public officials in monitoring the public expenditures for intermediate goods and services supplied to private firms. Public officials have the opportunity to steal a fraction of public resources under their own control, subject to a probability of being caught and pay a fine. Hence, not all tax revenues raised by the Government reach private firms, as a fraction of them is being diverted by public officials, thus hampering growth. Under certain conditions on parameters, our main result establishes that, if the probability of detection or the fine charged on public officials who are caught stealing, or both, increase, then an increase of the tax rate is required in order to maintain an optimal growth rate, provided that also the number of public officials is increased as well. As both the probability of detection and the fine positively depend on the Social Capital level, we conclude that maximum growth rates are compatible with Big Government size, measured both in terms of expenditures and public officials, only when associated with high levels of Social Capital.
    Date: 2018–03
  4. By: Alessandra Casarico; Mirco Tonin
    Abstract: Pay-what-you-want schemes can be a useful tool to finance high quality and independent news media without restricting readership, therefore guaranteeing maximum diffusion. We conduct a field experiment with the Italian information site to explore how to structure a campaign in a way that maximises readers’ willingness to contribute. We compare messages stressing two possible motivations to contribute, namely the public good component of the news or the importance of the individual contributions. We also test the effect of including information about the tax allowance associated with donations. While the particular motivation stressed does not have a significant impact, information about tax allowances surprisingly reduces overall donations, due to a reduction in the number of (small) donors. Stable unsubscriptions from the newsletter suggest that the campaign does not have an adverse effect on readers.
    Keywords: field experiment, pay-what-you-want, tax allowances, media
    JEL: C93 D64 H41
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Raymond Caraher (Hampshire College); Michael Ash (Department of Economics and School of Public Policy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst)
    Abstract: We replicate Ashraf and Galor (2013) and find that its conclusions concerning the association between human genetic diversity and economic development depend substantially on coding errors and sample selection. We correct the coding errors and add or update data on genetic diversity and population density from high-quality sources. We find little support for the hypothesis that variation in genetic diversity among subpopulations has a systematic relationship with economic development.
    Keywords: genetics, development
    JEL: N10 N30 N50 O10 O50 Z10
    Date: 2018
  6. By: Asongu, Simplice; Kodila-Tedika, Oasis
    Abstract: The paper extends Breggren et al. (2008, EE) on ‘trust and growth: a shaky relationship” by incorporating recent developments in the trust-growth literature and using a robust methodological underpinning that accounts for the presence of outliers. The empirical evidence is based on 63 countries. Two main findings are established. First, the substantially documented positive trust-growth nexus is broadly confirmed. Second, when initial levels of growth come into play in determining the relationship, only the 25th quartile and 90th decile confirm the positive nexus. The results suggest that the trust-growth nexus cannot be generalized for all countries as some previous studies have concluded. Accordingly, trust-growth policies should be contingent on existing levels of development and tailored differently across rich and poor countries.
    Keywords: Trust; Growth; Conditional Effects
    JEL: A13 O40 Z13
    Date: 2017–01
  7. By: Bedi, Arjun S. (ISS, Erasmus University Rotterdam); Majilla, Tanmoy (ISS, Erasmus University Rotterdam); Rieger, Matthias (ISS, Erasmus University Rotterdam)
    Abstract: This paper uses a field experiment to study the effect of perceived gender norms on the motherhood penalty in the Indian labor market. We randomly reported motherhood on fictitious CVs sent to service sector job openings. We generated exogenous variation in gender norms by prominently signaling patrilineal or matrilineal community origins of applicants. Employers are less likely to callback mothers relative to women or men without children, but only if they are of patrilineal origin. Mothers of matrilineal origin face no such penalty. We discuss the results in relation to the competing influence of ethnicity, the Indian context and theories of discrimination.
    Keywords: gender, culture, motherhood penalty, ethnic discrimination, field experiment, India
    JEL: J16 J71
    Date: 2018–02
  8. By: Breitmoser, Yves (HU Berlin); Vorjohann, Pauline (HU Berlin)
    Abstract: Why do people give when asked, but prefer not to be asked, and even take when possible? We show that standard behavioral axioms including separability, narrow bracketing, and scaling invariance predict these seemingly inconsistent observations. Specifically, these axioms imply that interdependence of preferences (\"altruism\") results from concerns for the welfare of others, as opposed to their mere payoffs, where individual welfares are captured by the reference-dependent value functions known from prospect theory. The resulting preferences are non-convex, which captures giving, sorting, and taking directly. Re-analyzing choices of 981 subjects in 83 treatments covering many variants of dictator games, we find that individual reference points are distributed consistently across studies, allowing us to classify subjects as either non-givers, altruistic givers, or social pressure givers and use welfare-based altruism to reliably predict giving, sorting, and taking across experiments.
    Keywords: social preferences; axiomatic foundation; robustness; giving; charitable donations;
    JEL: C91 D64 D03
    Date: 2018–03–28
  9. By: Mai Le Thi (Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam)
    Abstract: Objective –This paper focuses on exploring the ways in which social capital is utilised to promote the integration of Vietnamese women who married Taiwanese husbands into host families and the host. Methodology/Technique – Data was derived from a case study undertaken in 2014 on the Penghu Islands and in Taipei, Taiwan, with interviews and the observation of 31 people including Vietnamese women who married Taiwanese husbands, local people. Findings – Findings reveal the values and norms of responsibility of Vietnamese women in family that were educated themselves, have been practiced effectively by Vietnamese women married to Taiwanese husbands to integrate into their families. Research limitations/implications - The regulations and legal environment for immigrants have created favourable conditions for their integration into the host families. Traditional Vietnamese cooking skills are chosen by many Vietnamese women as a kind of social capital for their access to the Taiwanese job market. The social integration is reflected through social-economic, culture integration, and citizenship. Originality/value - It is hoped that study results will serve as the useful scientific basis for developing policies that promote the social integration of immigrants for the development of individuals and the social community.
    Keywords: Social Capital; Social Integration; Migration Marriage.
    JEL: O30 O39
  10. By: Yoko Ibuka; Jun-ichi Itaya; Naomi Miyazato
    Abstract: Traditional economic models of vaccination behavior simply assume that agents free-ride on the vaccination decisions of others. We provide three different models of private provision of a public good, such as a joint production model and a conjectural variation model, to explain how a positive peer effect regarding vaccination behavior arises. We conduct two empirical studies using Japanese data in these models. The first empirical analysis, using a data set on the vaccination behavior of neighbors residing in the same block of a city, finds the existence of positive peer effects on individuals’ vaccination decisions. The second empirical analysis also confirms that there are peer effects on the vaccination decisions of members of the same household using a dataset from the national survey we conduct.
    Keywords: peer effect, public good, vaccination, free-rider
    JEL: H41 H12
    Date: 2018

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