nep-soc New Economics Papers
on Social Norms and Social Capital
Issue of 2015‒04‒02
fourteen papers chosen by
Fabio Sabatini
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”

  1. Making Democracy Work: Culture, Social Capital and Elections in China By Padró i Miquel, Gerard; Qian, Nancy; Xu, Yiqing; Yao, Yang
  2. Can ethnic-linguistic diversity explain cross-country differences in social capital formation? By Cong Wang; Bodo Steiner
  3. Not in My Community: Social Pressure and the Geography of Dismissals By Bassanini, Andrea; Brunello, Giorgio; Caroli, Eve
  4. Facebook use and individual well-being: Like me to make me happier! By Thierry Pénard; Alexandre Mayol
  5. Equal distribution or equal payoffs? Reciprocity and inequality aversion in the investment game By Rodriguez-lara, Ismael
  6. Religion and Innovation By Bénabou, Roland; Ticchi, Davide; Vindigni, Andrea
  7. The Strength of Long Ties and the Weakness of Strong Ties: Knowledge diffusion through supply chain networks By TODO Yasuyuki; Petr MATOUS; INOUE Hiroyasu
  8. The effects of emotions on preferences and choices for public goods By Christopher Boyce; Mikołaj Czajkowski; Nick Hanley; Charles Noussair; Michael Townsend; Steve Tucker
  9. Influence Networks and Public Goods By Dunia López-Pintado
  10. The reasons for the resignation of activity on social networking sites By Andrzej Szymkowiak
  11. The effect of neighborhood management based on\ By Seyedeh Maedeh Ghorashi; Pejman Pashmchi Zadeh; masih rahimabadi
  12. Trust towards Administrative Institutions among Youth in Turkey: the Case of Konya By Erhan Örselli; Esra Banu Sipahi
  13. How important is privacy concern and behaviour on Facebook? By Yolanda Jordaan
  14. Capital social y desempeño empresarial: La industria metalmecánica en Ciudad Juárez, México By Rámses Jiménez; Gabriela Sánchez Bazán

  1. By: Padró i Miquel, Gerard; Qian, Nancy; Xu, Yiqing; Yao, Yang
    Abstract: This paper aims to show that culture is an important determinant of the effectiveness of formal democratic institutions, such as elections. We collect new data to document the presence of voluntary and social organizations and the history of electoral reforms in Chinese villages. We use the presence of village temples to proxy for culture, or more specifically, for social (civic) capital and show that their presence greatly enhances the increase in public goods due to the introduction of elections. These results support the view that social capital complements democratic institutions such as elections.
    Keywords: Civic Capital; History; Institutions; Public Goods; Trust
    JEL: H41 P16
    Date: 2015–03
  2. By: Cong Wang (Department of Border Region Studies, University of Southern Denmark); Bodo Steiner (Department of Border Region Studies, University of Southern Denmark)
    Abstract: Motivated by theoretical arguments that assert a negative impact of ethnolinguistic diversity on social capital, this paper aims to provide some empirical evidence on the relationship between the two variables. In particular, using a cross section sample of 68 developed and developing countries, this paper has found a significant negative effect of ethnolinguistic diversity on social capital. Countries with fractionalized ethnic and linguistic groups as captured by both log number of languages and Desmet et al. (2012) and La Porta et al. (1999)’s measures on linguistic diversity tend to have lower levels of social trust, fewer memberships in social organizations, deteriorated social norms and structure, hence, lower overall social capital stock.
    Keywords: Ethnic and Linguistic Diversity, Social Capital, Economic Growth
    JEL: E0 D72 Z10
    Date: 2015–03
  3. By: Bassanini, Andrea (OECD); Brunello, Giorgio (University of Padova); Caroli, Eve (Université Paris-Dauphine)
    Abstract: We investigate the role of local social pressure in shaping the geographical pattern of firms' firing decisions. Using French linked employer-employee data, we show that social pressure exerted by the local communities where firms' headquarters are located induces CEOs to refrain from dismissing at short distance from their headquarters. More specifically, we find that, within firms, secondary establishments located further away from headquarters have higher dismissal rates than those located closer, taking into account the possible endogeneity of plant location. We also find that the positive effect of distance on dismissals increases with the visibility of the firm in the local community of its headquarters. These effects are stronger the greater the degree of selfishness of the community in which the headquarters are located. This suggests that local social pressure at headquarters is a key determinant of the positive relationship between distance to headquarters and dismissals. We show that our results cannot be entirely accounted for by alternative explanations of the distance-dismissal relationship that are put forward in the literature – e.g. monitoring costs or asymmetric information.
    Keywords: social pressure, layoffs, adjustment costs, selfishness, firm visibility, distance to headquarters
    JEL: J23 J63 M51 R12
    Date: 2015–03
  4. By: Thierry Pénard (CREM UMR CNRS 6211, University of Rennes 1, France); Alexandre Mayol (PSE, University Paris 1)
    Abstract: This paper aims to study how Facebook use influences individual well-being. We use a survey conducted on a representative sample of 2,000 French Facebook users. Our results show that Facebook interferes with subjective well-being through its effects on friendships and self-esteem. Hence we find a positive relation between receiving a great number of Likes and comments from Facebook friends and the level of life satisfaction. By contrast, people that would like to receive more Likes tend to be more unsatisfied with their life. The latter result suggests that Facebook use can exacerbate frustration and envy. Finally, the time spent on Facebook, the intensity of online interactions as well as the number of Facebook friends have no direct impact on life satisfaction. All these findings underlines the ambivalence of Facebook use with both positive and negative psychological effects on well-being.
    Keywords: dévaluation, Facebook, self esteem, well-being, Internet, online sociability
    Date: 2015–03
  5. By: Rodriguez-lara, Ismael
    Abstract: We report experimental evidence on second-movers' behavior in the investment game (also known as the trust game) when there exists endowment heterogeneity. Using a within-subject analysis, we investigate whether second-movers have a tendency to be reciprocal (i.e., they return to first movers at least what they have received from them), or exhibit some taste for inequality aversion (i.e., they return a larger (smaller) share of the available funds to first-movers who are initially endowed with a lesser (larger) endowment, respectively). Our results suggest that second-movers' behavior is consistent across distribution of endowments, what indicates that second-movers (on average) do not take into consideration the level of endowments when making their decisions. This finding, in turn, implies that subjects behave according to our definition of reciprocity and that inequality-aversion receives little support from our data.
    Keywords: reciprocity, inequality aversion, investment game, trust game, endowment heterogeneity
    JEL: C72 C91 D3 D63
    Date: 2015–03–25
  6. By: Bénabou, Roland; Ticchi, Davide; Vindigni, Andrea
    Abstract: In earlier work (Bénabou, Ticchi and Vindigni 2013) we uncovered a robust negative association between religiosity and patents per capita, holding across countries as well as US states, with and without controls. In this paper we turn to the individual level, examining the relationship between religiosity and a broad set of pro- or anti-innovation attitudes in all five waves of the World Values Survey (1980 to 2005). We thus relate eleven indicators of individual openness to innovation, broadly defined (e.g., attitudes toward science and technology, new versus old ideas, change, risk taking, personal agency, imagination and independence in children) to five different measures of religiosity, including beliefs and attendance. We control for all standard socio-demographics as well as country, year and denomination fixed effects. Across the fifty-two estimated specifications, greater religiosity is almost uniformly and very significantly associated to less favorable views of innovation.
    Keywords: attitudes; beliefs; creativity; culture; dogma; growth; ideas; innovation; religion; risk-taking; science; technical progress; tolerance; values
    JEL: D83 O31 O43 Z1 Z12
    Date: 2015–03
  7. By: TODO Yasuyuki; Petr MATOUS; INOUE Hiroyasu
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of the structure of supply chain networks on productivity and innovation capability through knowledge diffusion, using large firm-level panel data for Japan. We find that ties with distant suppliers improve productivity, as measured by sales per worker, possibly attributed to intermediates from distant firms embodying more diversified knowledge than from neighboring firms. Ties with neighboring clients also improve productivity, which may be a result of diffusion of disembodied knowledge from neighboring clients being more effective than from distant clients. By contrast, ties with distant suppliers and clients improve innovative capability, as measured by the number of patent applications, suggesting the importance of a diversity of knowledge from distant firms for innovation. In addition, the density of a firm's ego network, which is measured by how densely its supply chain partners transact with each other, is found to have a negative effect on productivity and innovative capability, implying knowledge redundancy in dense networks. Overall, our results emphasize the importance of diversified partners in knowledge diffusion through supply chain networks.
    Date: 2015–03
  8. By: Christopher Boyce (Management School, University of Stirling); Mikołaj Czajkowski (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Nick Hanley (Department of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St Andrews); Charles Noussair (Department of Economics, Tilburg University); Michael Townsend (National Institute for Water and Atmosphere Ltd); Steve Tucker (School of Management, University of Waikato)
    Abstract: This paper tests whether changes in “incidental emotions” lead to changes in economic choices. Incidental emotions are experienced at the time of an economic decision but are not part of the payoff from a particular choice. As such, the standard economic model predicts that incidental emotions should not affect behavior, yet many papers in the behavioral science and psychology literatures find evidence of such effects. In this paper, we used a standard procedure to induce different incidental emotional states in respondents, and then carried out a choice experiment on changes to an environmental good (beach quality). We estimated preferences for this environmental good and willingness to pay for changes in this good, and tested whether these were dependent on the particular emotional state induced. We also tested whether choices became more or less random when emotional states were induced, based on the notion of randomness in a standard random utility model. Contrary to our a-priori hypothesis we found no significant evidence of treatment effects, implying that economists need not worry about the effects of variations in incidental emotions on preferences and the randomness of choice, even when there is measured (induced) variation in these emotions.
    Keywords: choice experiments, behavioral economics, ecosystem services, emotions, rationality
    JEL: Q51 Q57 D03 D87
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Dunia López-Pintado (Universidad Pablo de Olavide)
    Abstract: We consider a model of social interactions in which agents are assumed to acquire information from others through a certain sampling process that generates an influence network. These networks comprise a wide array of options depending on the level of correlation assumed between agents' in and out degree. We study the provision of public goods in influence networks and show that the equilibrium (of the corresponding best-shot game) always exists and it is unique. We derive further insights for this problem by performing a comparative statics analysis.
    Keywords: influence networks; public goods; out-degree; in-degree; best-shot game
    JEL: D85 H41
    Date: 2015–03
  10. By: Andrzej Szymkowiak (Poznań University of Economics)
    Abstract: More than 628.8 million people aged 18-34 years have a Facebook account. After more than a decade of functioning of the social networking site, its further development is dependent, inter alia, of user loyalty and willingness to continue actively use this tool of communication. Popularity portal may, however, adversely affect the attitude of the consumers, who can decide not to use this communication tool or change the social networking site they use most actively. It areas represent two distinct groups of reasons. In the first case, the decision is based on uprising lead hazards and weaknesses of the opportunities and strengths of this tool. The second group is related to comparative assessments with respect to newer ICTs. In this article the author made about the reasons for the resignation of activity on social networks of the indicated age group. The hypothesis put in the work is that consumers cease activity on the social network because of privacy protection. The initial study was carried out in 2 stages. First, qualitative research was conducted in the form of 27 partially structured in-depth interviews. The study allowed the identification of different possible causes and deepening problems. In the survey, the author quantitatively verified the preliminary findings and hypotheses. For this purpose, a survey was conducted among 209 consumers who have or had an account on Facebook. The study used a 5-step Likert scale and the allocation pool of points. The results obtained with the current activity of the respondents, both in terms of time spent on the site, the characteristics of the user (passive and active), the length of an account and gender.
    Keywords: social networking sites, consumer behavior, Internet marketing,
    JEL: D12 M31
    Date: 2014–10
  11. By: Seyedeh Maedeh Ghorashi (Azad University in Science and Research Branch); Pejman Pashmchi Zadeh (Municipality); masih rahimabadi (Ministry of Finance)
    Abstract: Tehran over the past several decades have had a rapid growth and extensive development and the result of such rapid growth, is the weaken the balance between social stability and trust and social capital of citizens.This particular issue was raised at the neighborhood level and this is one of the main reasons for the managers to manage urban neighborhoods and thriving discussion centered in this area in the recent.In this context, this paper, based on the findings of a survey in the region 3 of Tehran Municipality has been carried out, Sought to examine the impact of neighborhood management based on the trust of the citizens of the municipal entity.The findings of this study show that the "participation rate", "SPM", "responsibility", "Networking - Building" and "interpersonal trust", according to the theoretical model of neighborhood management component can be ignited, and there is a range of social trust relations Also, examine the multivariate relationships among the five indicators that show mentioned, the only indication of "interpersonal trust" direct communication with the citizens' trust in city management and an indirect effect through other variables as interpersonal trust can be.
    Keywords: Neighborhood -based management, social trust, urban management, cognitive value of the trust
    Date: 2014–06
  12. By: Erhan Örselli (Necmettin Erbakan University); Esra Banu Sipahi (Necmettin Erbakan University)
    Abstract: The concept of trust is one of the important signs of living together and a reflection of one’s feelings about social others. Although social, administrative and political consequences of the concept has been a subject of research, there is an increase in the attention paid to the concept after Putnam’s inclusion of trust as one of the component of social capital. The concept of trust is defined very differently in different social science disciplines and therefore there is no consensus on a single definition. Coleman has defined the concept as ‘decision to cooperate under uncertainity’ while Hardin defines it ‘interconnected interests’. According to Braun, trust is a characteristic of a the relationship between two people. Miller and Listhaug defines the concet as a summary of those attitudes that political system will be responsive even when there is no permanent survelliance. Since trust towards public institutions is an abstract concept, it is difficult to measure it. In the literature, there are different theories about the source of trust and its determining factors as well as its explanations. Trust emerges from the legitimacy of administrative-political system, specific experiences of public insitutions and services and the dynamic interaction between these two factors. Further, the volatility of public opinion about public institutions and cognitive chaos makes research about the concept of trust more problematic.Young people are most dynamic actors of social and political life. Notwithstanding their dynamism, recent research shows that among youth there is a decrease in interest and trust towards political and social life. This study aims to understand the level of trust among youth in Turkey towards social, administrative and political institutions. The study utilizes Uslaner’s three dimensional classification and defines trust as ‘trust towards institutions’. A survey has been conducted among mainly university students in Konya to determine their level of trust towards institutions. The study uses data from a 2012-2013 Project to increase political participation of youth and supported by the Ministry of Turkish Youth.
    Keywords: Trust, trust towards institutions, Youth
    JEL: H83
    Date: 2014–06
  13. By: Yolanda Jordaan (University of Pretoria)
    Abstract: Social Networking Sites (SNS) encourage users to post and share personal information as part of their online social interactions to build and maintain social relations amongst likeminded people. The uniqueness of these SNS is that it allows individuals to meet strangers, but also enable users to make their own social networks visible. SNS require users to build a personal profile by providing personal information which might put users at risk of a breach in their privacy. The uses and gratifications theory asserts that people use SNSs to fulfil their needs for entertainment, relationships and identity construction, and this overrides their privacy concern. In the Facebook environment where the aim is to find other users, the challenge of dealing with the issue of privacy is an important aspect. The paper aims to investigate the differences between high and low Facebook intensity groups with regards to the importance they attach to a set of privacy concern and behaviour factors. Data was obtained by collecting 575 surveys via a nonprobability, convenience sampling method. Privacy concern was measured by means of a 7-point, 10-item Likert scale using the Internet users’ information privacy concerns scale (IUIPC) of Malhotra, Kim, and Agarwal (2004). Online privacy behaviour was measured by a 7-point, six item Likert scale developed by Buchanan, Paine, Joinson and Reips (2007). A stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to examine a list of 16 items consisting of both privacy concern and behaviour factors for each of the identified groups.The findings indicate that (a) users’ right to control decisions regarding the sharing of private information, and (b) their belief that control is lost through marketing transactions are the two most powerful privacy factors under consideration. For the low Facebook intensity group, the decision making control (the decision to provide companies with personal information) is the most important factor. For the high Facebook intensity group, users’ right to control decisions regarding the sharing of private information is the most important factor. These aspects may give Facebook insight into the areas to focus on in particular when considering the continuous evolution of the privacy model for this particular social networking site. This study provides an understanding of users’ SNS perceptions related to the levels of importance of privacy concern and behaviour for Facebook users of both high and low Facebook intensity groups. References available upon request.
    Keywords: privacy concern, privacy behaviour, Facebook intensity, online, discriminant analysis
    JEL: D18 M31 C83
    Date: 2014–07
  14. By: Rámses Jiménez (Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez); Gabriela Sánchez Bazán (UPAEP)
    Abstract: In this paper three components of social capital (collaboration, trust and reciprocity) on the local metalworking industry are analyzed. These components relate to contribute to the coordination on transmission of information from agents. The processes, for innovation and technological development locally and inter-business administrative management through inter-firm collaboration are analyzed. The statistical data analyzed comes from the application of a survey of 45 companies from the local metalworking. The indicators of the components are not very high but they have great potential as precursors of the local business performance. Trust is the weakest element in the analysis. Usually distrusts of agents who do not represent the companies in the industry and in particular the government. Reciprocity suggests low quality and quantity of contact between agent and industry, as well as low or almost zero frequency among agents. High levels of relational capital is recognized, however they are not factors that affect the local industrial performance. It is important to design public policies to improve the components of social capital through perspectives "bottom-up". A “critical” variable that show low levels of social capital, is the effect of insecurity and violence experienced by the region for some time.
    Keywords: Social capital, local development.
    JEL: O10 Z13
    Date: 2015–03–01

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