nep-soc New Economics Papers
on Social Norms and Social Capital
Issue of 2011‒03‒19
ten papers chosen by
Fabio Sabatini

  1. Network Formation through a Gender Lens. Insights from rural Nicaragua By Holvoet, Nathalie; D'Exelle, Ben
  2. Conflict, Ideology and Foreign Aid By Jean-Louis Arcand; Adama Bah; Julien Labonne
  3. Is corporate social responsibility associated with lower wages? By Nyborg, Karine; Zhang, Tao
  4. Measuring the interaction between parents and children in Italian families: a structural equation approach By Anna Maccagnan
  5. Dynamic linear economies with social interactions By Onur Ozgur; Alberto Bisin
  6. Near and Generous? Gift Propensity and Chosen Emotional Distance By H. Eika, Kari
  7. Information, Matching and Outcome Selection By Virginie Masson
  8. Resources Flows Asymmetries in Strict Nash Networks with Partner Heterogeneity By Pascal Billand; Christophe Bravard; Sudipta Sarangi
  9. Keeping up with the Joneses by finding a better-paid job - The effect of relative income on job mobility By Kronenberg, Kristin; Kronenberg, Tobias
  10. Lifelong learning inequality? The relevance of family background for on-the-job training By Antoni, Manfred

  1. By: Holvoet, Nathalie; D'Exelle, Ben
    Abstract: This paper examines the relation between gender and network formation in rural Nicaragua. Applying dyadic regression techniques and controlling for individual socio-economic characteristics, we obtain insights into the determinants of the size and density as well as the socio-economic heterogeneity of individual networks. Assuming these network characteristics correlate with one's agency and benefits from network participation, we look for differences between men's and women's networks and its relation with gender. In general, the gendered private/public dichotomy and labor division is replicated in men's and women's networks. Furthermore, consistent with the restricted mobility of poor rural women, we observe that geographic distance limits the networks of women but not men. Next, female education and mobility, and newly-residing men, have a positive influence on the integration between men and women. Finally, clique formation is stronger around women than men.
    Keywords: Social network analysis; dyadic regression; gender sorting; social integration
    Date: 2011–01
  2. By: Jean-Louis Arcand (The Graduate Institute, Geneva); Adama Bah (CERDI Université d'Auvergne); Julien Labonne (University of Oxford)
    Abstract: In this paper, we present a rent-seeking model of conflict, which highlights the role of ideology in determining whether the government or the rebels take the initiative. We use the model to interpret the impact of a large-scale Community-Driven Development project on civil conflict in the Philippines. The country is characterized by the presence of two rebel groups, the New People's Army (NPA) and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), with two distinct ideologies. We use a unique geo-referenced panel dataset on the occurrence of conflicts in 2003 and 2006 gathered from local newspapers that we match with nationally representative household survey and budget data on all municipalities in the country. Consistent with our model's predictions, using a variety of estimation strategies, we find robust evidence that the project leads to a decline in MILF-related events and to an increase in NPA-related events.
    Date: 2010–12
  3. By: Nyborg, Karine (Dept. of Economics, University of Oslo); Zhang, Tao (Ragnar Frisch Center for Economic Research)
    Abstract: Firms with a reputation as socially responsible may have an important cost advantage: If workers prefer their employer to be socially responsible, equilibrium wages may be lower in such firms. We explore this hypothesis, combining Norwegian register data with data on firm reputation collected by an employer branding firm. Adjusting for a large set of background variables, we find that the firm’s social responsibility reputation is significantly associated with lower wages.
    Keywords: Self-regulation; wage differentials; CSR
    JEL: C51 D21 D64 Q56
    Date: 2011–01–28
  4. By: Anna Maccagnan
    Abstract: In this paper we theoretically and empirically analyse the capability to social interaction between parents and children in Italy, within a capability approach framework. For this purpose, after having identified the functionings and conversion factors related to this capability, we have built an integrated dataset for year 2008 with a procedure inspired to the propensity score matching. This allows us to work on a wide set of information, both on the realized functionings, ands on the personal and familiar factors that are likely to affect children?s attainments. We have analysed this data using descriptive statistics and structural equation modelling. Our results suggest lower levels of interaction for fathers that for mothers. Further, children?s capability to interact with the parents is negatively affected by the number of siblings in the household, by child?s increasing age and by living in the South of Italy. Also parents? characteristics are crucial: highly educated fathers tend to perform better in their interaction with the child and father-child relationship, furthermore, is positively affected by the fact that the mother is employed, while mother-child interaction does not significantly change.
    Keywords: Capability Approach; Human Development; Structural Equation Models;
    JEL: C1 D6
    Date: 2011–02
  5. By: Onur Ozgur; Alberto Bisin
    Date: 2011–03–11
  6. By: H. Eika, Kari (Ministry of Health and Care Services)
    Abstract: This experimental study asks whether generosity decreases emotional distance, a question pertinent to human service quality. Highly vulnerable service recipients may not enforce quality standards. Quality can then be viewed as an act of generosity, a gift from the provider to the recipient. For a human service provider that sympathizes with the recipient, delivering poor quality is psychologically costly. To reduce this cost she may increase emotional distance. Since human service quality presupposes social interaction and involvement, quality is reduced further. The mechanism – which can account for vicious and virtuous circles in the provision of quality – is explored in a binary dictator game where the recipients pay-off is uncertain. The dictator decides whether to know the recipients pay-off and how. Subjects are more eager to inquire about their recipients pay-off when they themselves have been generous, and to do so by contacting the recipient when the recipient correctly perceives that action to be kind.
    Keywords: human services; emotional distance; cognitive dissonance; generosity; dictator game
    JEL: C90 D23 D64 I11 I21
    Date: 2010–07–10
  7. By: Virginie Masson (School of Economics, University of Adelaide)
    Abstract: We consider a finite population of agents who exchange information and are paired every period to play a game with tension between risk dominance and Pareto efficiency. Agents sample past plays and corresponding payoffs from their information neighborhood, and choose one of two possible actions using either best response or imitation. Information exchanges and possible matchings each constitutes a network. We first provide a complete description of the medium run outcomes and show that in the medium run only information matters. We then identify the conditions whereby either the risk dominant or the Pareto efficient convention is stochastically stable, and show how efficiency in the long run depends on the matching network.
    Keywords: Contagion, networks, coordination games, best response, imitation
    JEL: C73 D85
    Date: 2011–03
  8. By: Pascal Billand (GATE Lyon Saint-Etienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS : UMR5824 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - École Normale Supérieure de Lyon); Christophe Bravard (GATE Lyon Saint-Etienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS : UMR5824 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - École Normale Supérieure de Lyon); Sudipta Sarangi (Department of Economics, Louisiana State University - Department of Economics, Louisiana State University)
    Abstract: This paper introduces a partner heterogeneity assumption in the one-way flow model of Bala and Goyal (2000, [1]). Our goal consists in the characterization of strict Nash networks with regard to the set of resources obtained by players. We use the notion of condensation network which allows us to divide the population in sets of players who obtain the same resources and we order these sets according to the resources obtained. Accordingly, we can examine the relationship between heterogeneity and asymmetries in networks. We establish that the nature of heterogeneity plays a crucial role on asymmetries observed in equilibrium networks.
    Keywords: Nash networks; one-way flow model; condensation networks; chain; inf-semi-lattice
    Date: 2011
  9. By: Kronenberg, Kristin; Kronenberg, Tobias
    Abstract: It has been shown that a person’s relative income – compared to a reference group – has a negative impact on self-reported happiness. This suggests that people who aim at increasing their happiness should try to find a better-paid job if their relative income is low. In this paper we study this hypothesis by estimating the effect of relative income on job mobility, using a dataset containing information on roughly four million Dutch employees. We consider three different reference groups: people who live in the same neighborhood, people who work for the same employer, and people who share certain demographic characteristics. Our findings suggest that workers compare their own income to that of their neighbors, and low relative income is associated with higher job mobility. We conclude that low relative income (compared to the neighbors) reduces workers’ happiness, and workers react to this by finding a new job which may offer the prospect of higher pay.
    Keywords: Relative income; job mobility; happiness; social status
    JEL: J62 D10 R23
    Date: 2011–03–08
  10. By: Antoni, Manfred (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "Despite ample evidence on intergenerational persistence of formal education as well as on the determinants of non-formal training, these issues have not yet been analysed jointly. The question remains whether people from low-qualified family backgrounds make up for their relatively sparse own formal education by means of non-formal training during adulthood. Hypotheses based on economic theory and findings from various other disciplines suggest otherwise. I use the German ALWA survey to estimate the influence of family background on non-formal training participation. Count data analyses show that a low-qualified family background is negatively related to both likelihood and frequency of on-the-job training. This result holds when controlling for education, ability and personality as well as job and firm characteristics." (author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    JEL: C25 I21 J24 J62
    Date: 2011–03–10

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