nep-soc New Economics Papers
on Social Norms and Social Capital
Issue of 2006‒02‒05
thirty-one papers chosen by
Fabio Sabatini
Universita degli Studi di Roma, La Sapienza

  1. Heterogenous Groups and Rent-Seeking for Public Goods By Cheikbossian, Guillaume
  2. Social Networks in the Boardroom By Francis Kramarz; David Thesmar
  3. Giving in Dictator Games: Regard for Others or Regard by Others? By Alexander K. Koch; Hans-Theo Normann
  4. Boundaryless Management - Creating, transforming and using knowledge in inter-organizational collaboration. A literature review By Blomberg, Jesper; Werr, Andreas
  5. Cultural gateways - building partnerships for sustainable development in destination regions By Antonio Russo
  6. Institutions and Economic Performance: Endogeneity and Parameter Heterogeneity By Eicher, Theo; Leukert, Andreas
  7. Usage de l'Internet et investissement en capital social By Thierry Penard; Nicolas Poussing
  8. Internal Migration between US States - A Social Network Analysis By Gunther Maier; Michael Vyborny
  9. Understanding urban networks through accessibility By Jianquan Cheng; Frank Le Clercq; Luca Bertolini
  10. Social Segregation and the Dynamics of Group Inequality By Samuel Bowles; Rajiv Sethi
  11. Governance, Democracy and Poverty Reduction: Lessons drawn from household surveys in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America By Javier Herrera; Mireille Razafindrakoto; Francois Roubaud
  12. Knowledge spillovers within regional networks of innovation and the contribution made by public research By Martina Kauffeld-Monz
  13. Neighborhood Satisfaction in Modern and Old Neighborhoods in Ýstanbul By Emine Ümran Topçu
  14. Gated ‘communities’ - their lifestyle versus urban governance By Peer Smets
  15. Emergent topological and dynamical properties of a real inter-municipal commuting network - perspectives for policy-making and planning By Marc Barthélémy; Michele Campagna; Alessandro Chessa; Andrea De Montis; Alessandro Vespignani
  16. Gender Role Beliefs and Family Migration Decision-Making - Consequences for Married Women's Economic and Labor Force Success By Thomas Cooke
  17. Innovation networks in metropolitan regions - the case of the Vienna urban region By Alexander Kaufmann
  18. Technology Incubators as Nodes in Knowledge Networks By Danny Soetanto; Marina Van Geenhuizen
  19. The Quiet Revolution that Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and Family By Claudia Goldin
  20. Who Goes? The direct and indirect effects of family background on access to post-secondary education By Finnie, Ross; Lascelles, Eric; Sweetman, Arthur
  22. They Come to Play: Supply Effects in an Economic Experiment By Jeffrey Carpenter; Allison Liati; Brian Vickery
  23. The spatial dimensions of innovation By Anne Lorentzen
  24. Knowledge Sharing in Public Sector Organizations: The Effect of Organizational Characteristics on Interdepartmental Knowledge Sharing. By A. WILLEM; M. BUELENS
  25. proximity conflict's resolution and innovation networks of French biotechnology SMe's By Delphine Gallaud
  26. The contribution of leisure and entertainment to the evolving polycentric urban network on regional scale - towards a new research agenda By Arie Romein
  27. Corruption and the Shadow Economy: An Empirical Analysis By Axel Dreher; Friedrich Schneider;
  28. Neighbourhood inequality, relative deprivation and self-perceived health status By Hou, Feng; Myles, John
  29. Networks in Berlin’s Music Industry – A Spatial Analysis By Marco Mundelius; Wencke Hertzsch
  30. Urban Dynamics and Networking in Coastal Cities -The case of tourism By Dimitrios Economou; Maria Vrassida
  31. Ethnic neighbourhoods and male immigrant earnings growth: 1981 through 1996 By Warman, Casey

  1. By: Cheikbossian, Guillaume
    Abstract: We present a model of endogenous public good provision and group rent-seeking influence e.g. lobbying. Specifically, two groups with different preferences over public good consumption and different sizes engage in rent-seeking activities to influence policymaking in their preferred direction. When there is within-group cooperation in lobbying, both groups neutralize each other in the political process. Without within-group cooperation, the free-rider problem in lobbying makes the smaller group politically influent. In both cases, rent-seeking by each group is increasing in the degree of preference heterogeneity and in membership size of both groups.
    Keywords: Public Goods; Rent-seeking; Free-rider problem
    JEL: D72 H41 H73
    Date: 2005
  2. By: Francis Kramarz (CREST-INSEE, CEPR and IZA Bonn); David Thesmar (HEC and CEPR)
    Abstract: This paper provides empirical evidence consistent with the facts that (1) social networks may strongly affect board composition and (2) social networks may be detrimental to corporate governance. Our empirical investigation relies on a unique dataset on executives and outside directors of corporations listed on the Paris stock exchange over the 1992-2003 period. This data source is a matched employer employee dataset providing both detailed information on directors/CEOs and information on the firm employing them. We first find a very strong and robust correlation between the CEO's network and that of his directors. Networks of former high ranking civil servants are the most active in shaping board composition. Our identification strategy takes into account (1) differences in unobserved directors' "abilities" and (2) the unobserved propensity of firms to hire directors from particular networks, irrespective of the CEO's identity. We then show that the governance of firms run by former civil servants is relatively worse on many dimensions. Former civil servants are less likely to leave their CEO job when their firm performs badly. Secondly, CEOs who are former bureaucrats are more likely to accumulate directorships, and the more they do, the less profitable is the firm they run. Thirdly, the value created by acquisitions made by former bureaucrats is lower. All in all, these firms are less profitable on average.
    Keywords: networks, corporate governance
    JEL: J40 L20 Z13
    Date: 2006–01
  3. By: Alexander K. Koch (Department of Economics, Royal Holloway, University of London); Hans-Theo Normann (Department of Economics, Royal Holloway, University of London)
    Abstract: Recent bargaining experiments demonstrated an impact of anonymity and incomplete information on subjects' behavior. This has rekindled the question whether “fair” behavior is inspired by regard for others or is explained by external forces. To test for the importance of external pressure we compare a standard double blind dictator game to a treatment which provides no information about the source of dictator offers, and where recipients do not even know that they participate in an experiment. We find no differences between treatments. This suggests that those dictators who give are purely internally motivated, as asserted by models of other-regarding preferences.
    Keywords: dictator games, altruism, social preferences
    JEL: A13 C91 D64
    Date: 2005–08
  4. By: Blomberg, Jesper (Center for People and Organization); Werr, Andreas (Center for People and Organization)
    Abstract: Current literature on organizations often argues that firms are becoming increasingly dependent on knowledge residing outside their own boundaries requiring organizations to increase their entrepreneurial abilities and make their boundaries more flexible and permeable. This paper reviews the literature on what might be called interorganizational knowledge work. Implied in this focus is an assumption of clear organizaitonal boundaries. Rather than taking these boundaries and their importance for granted, the current review, however, aims at relativizing these boundaries. By focusing the empirical phenomenon of collaboration between individuals in different organizations, four different streams of literature with different constructions of the organizational boundary and its importance were identified: the literature on learning in alliances and joint ventures, the literature on collaboration in industrial networks, the literature on social networks and communities of practice and finally the literature on geographical clusters and innovation systems. The above four streams of the literature are reviewed with a special focus on the following three questions: 1. What is the role of (organizational) boundaries in interorganizational knowledge work? 2. What do we know about how these boundaries can be overcome? 3. What are the implications for managing interorganizational knowledge work spelled out in the literature?
    Keywords: Interorganizational collaboration; Knowledge Management; Literature review
    Date: 2006–01–27
  5. By: Antonio Russo
    Abstract: This paper introduces the main findings of the CULTURAL GATEWAYS project caried out during 2004-2005 by the author wiht a eserach fellowship at Universitat Autonoma, Barcelona. The aim of the project is the development of a sustainable urban-rural relationship in the organisation of tourist regions around main urban destination. The projects analyses existing visitation models and cognitive processes of visitors in main destinations, as well as existing organisations that produce culture in peripheral areas, elaborating strategies to promote and diffuse these less-known assets. A key motive is to build on the existing tourist potential, developing “gateways” (both physical and virtual) that reconnect the cultural heritage of peripheral communities to existing value chains. The departure point is that the preservation of cultural heritage through responsible tourism is the key to generating both wealth and well being in host communities. Experience demonstrates that host communities are better able to cope with existing problems and new challenges, when all concerned parties jointly attempt to find a balanced solution through mutual consultation, business-to-business co-operation and public-private partnerships. The main challenge to that respect is that many local communities do not realise the interest value that features of their local community may have to the outside world. It is believed that the “metropolitan” or “regional” dimension of tourism governance, and thus necessarily of cultural strategies, is the key to a more sustainable use of the heritage and cultural assets for community development. A restructured core-periphery visitation pattern benefits the communities involved, in terms of lower pressure levels and crowding of central destinations, of enhanced entrepreneurial capacity in rural areas, and of a more articulated visitor mobility on the territory, rebalancing the costs and revenues generated by tourism and boosting the spin-off potential of tourism in areas with a weak economic basis but rich in culture. On this account, ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) are seen as a promising tool that achieves a number of desirable outcomes: o global access to local cultural knowledge, o interactivity between the local cultural and foreign audiences with the establishment of “cultural empathy” between hosts and guests, o integration of the peripheral tourist areas in the distribution channels of core products, o empowerment and training for entrepreneurs in the cultural industries. The effects of global-urban-rural partnership through e-Strategies are tested in a number of pilot destination regions, including the Catalan and the Galician Communities in Spain and the Veneto Region in Italy. The project will analyse how the introduction of ICT tools for tourism and cultural marketing has changed (or is likely to change) visitors’ attitudes and community involvement for a more sustainable tourism. An attempt will be made at generalising the results providing guidelines for regional managers.
    Date: 2005–08
  6. By: Eicher, Theo; Leukert, Andreas
    Abstract: The hallmark of the recent development and growth literature is a quest to identify institutions that explain a significant portion of the observed differences in living standards across countries. Empirical work in the area focuses almost exclusively on either the global sample or on developing nations. Certainly it is important to know which institutions are lacking in these developing countries, but the analysis provides little evidence for us to know to what extend a common set of institutions actually matters in advanced and developing countries. In this paper we examine parameter heterogeneity in prominent approaches to institutions and economic performance. We find that a new set of instruments is necessary to control for endogeneity, but that a common set of economically important institutions does indeed exist among advanced and developing nations. The impact of these institutions does vary substantially across samples; it is about three times as high in developing countries as compared to OECD countries.
    JEL: P0 O4 O1
    Date: 2006–01
  7. By: Thierry Penard (CREM - Centre de Recherche en Economie et Management - - CNRS : UMR6211 - Université Rennes I;Université de Caen); Nicolas Poussing (CREM - Centre de Recherche en Economie et Management - - CNRS : UMR6211 - Université Rennes I;Université de Caen)
    Abstract: L'objectif de cet article est d'étudier le rôle d'Internet dans la formation du capital social. L'usage d'Internet a-t-il un impact sur la nature et l'intensité des investissements d'un individu dans des réseaux sociaux formels et informels ? Cette question est d'abord examinée d'un point de vue théorique à l'aide d'un modèle microéconomique d'investissement en capital social. Puis, à partir de données luxembourgeoises nous tentons d'identifier empiriquement les déterminants de l'investissement en capital social hors Internet et via Internet. Nous mettons en évidence un effet positif de l'usage d'Internet sur l'engagement dans des réseaux sociaux. Par ailleurs, nous montrons que la majorité des investissements en capital social via Internet viennent en complément des investissements hors Internet (investissements directs), sauf pour les individus ayant connu une mobilité ou une rupture dans le passé (géographique, professionnelle, affective). Ces derniers semblent tirer des bénéfices importants de l'usage de l'Internet, pour entretenir ou renouveler leur capital social.
    Keywords: Capital social, usage d'Internet, fracture numérique
    Date: 2006–01–26
  8. By: Gunther Maier; Michael Vyborny
    Abstract: In this paper we use the novel (at least in regional science) technique of social network analysis and apply it to one of the most analyzed topics in the discipline, US internal migration. We want to see whether social network analysis can yield any new insights into this well known process. We want to compare the technique to more conventional methods of analysis in migration. The paper will give an overview of recent literature about internal migration between US states and summarize the main findings. It will then present an overview of social network analysis, define key concepts and describe the main components of the technique. This discussion will also involve a discussion of currently available software for social network analysis. Then, we will apply the technique to the official data about internal migration between US states as published by the US bureau of the census, to see whether the technique can reproduce the main results of the traditional techniques and whether it can yield any new insights.
    Date: 2005–08
  9. By: Jianquan Cheng; Frank Le Clercq; Luca Bertolini
    Abstract: The question to be investigated in the paper is how to characterize urban networks, taking both place-bound activities and (quality of) transport networks into account. The description should help formulate planning questions about the development of urban networks. Urban networks can morphologically be characterized as concentrations of land uses in a geographical area. Beyond this morphological description, places in the area can also be characterized by the amount and diversity of activities to be accessed by means of a physical transport network. So, each place can be valued in terms of opportunities within reach, depending on its links to the transport network, the attractiveness of activities within given travel time or costs, and spatial interaction with other places. The changes of activities at one place (e.g. amount of workers or jobs) can thus, in combination with changes in the transport network (e.g. travel speeds), influence the position of places elsewhere because of competition between places. The process of influence will be spatially diffused further. It indicates that spatial competition is a hidden determinant of an urban network. The paper will illustrate these different components of the urban network for the northern part of the Randstad Holland conurbation (the greater Amsterdam area) by means of different accessibility measures. The comparisons between the patterns of two urban networks (morphological and opportunity based, or ‘virtual’) can help explore the changing urban network, giving rise to planning questions such as: -what should be the planning aim for urban networks: making places more homogenous, more diverse or rather make them subject to (controlled) competitive developments? -improvements in the transport system may have more or less exogenous impacts on the competitive position of urban places. How should these impacts be acknowledged in transport planning? -are comprehensive planned (and controlled) interventions thinkable in urban networks, or are urban networks rather the outcome of adaptively evolving, and necessarily partial planning interventions, as those responding to traffic congestion, the need for urban expansion, changes in location preferences, etc.? Answers to these questions will be tentatively addressed to formulate a planning research agenda for urban networks.
    Date: 2005–08
  10. By: Samuel Bowles (Santa Fe Institute, University of Siena and University of Massachusetts); Rajiv Sethi (Barnard College, Columbia University)
    Abstract: We explore the dynamics of group inequality when segregation of social networks places the initially less affluent group at a disadvantage in acquiring human capital. Extending Loury (1977), we demonstrate that (i) group differences in economic success can persist across generations in the absence of either discrimination or group differences in ability, provided that social segregation is sufficiently great, (ii) there is threshold level of integration above which group inequality cannot be sustained, (iii) this threshold varies systematically but non-monotonically with the population share of the disadvantaged group, (iv) crossing the threshold induces convergence to a common high level of human capital if the less affluent population share is suf- ficiently small (and the opposite, otherwise), and (v) a race-neutral policy that reduces the cost of acquiring human capital can expand the range over which reducing segregation can be Pareto-improving. JEL Categories: D31, Z13, J71
    Keywords: segregation, networks, group inequality, human capital
    Date: 2006–01
  11. By: Javier Herrera (DIAL, Paris); Mireille Razafindrakoto (DIAL, Paris); Francois Roubaud (DIAL, Paris)
    Abstract: Public statistics face quite a challenge when it comes to measuring new dimensions of development (institutions, governance, and social and political participation). To take up this challenge, modules on Governance, Democracy and Multiple Dimensions of Poverty have been appended to household surveys by National Statistics Institutes in twelve African and Latin-American developing countries. This paper presents the issues addressed and the methodological lessons learnt along with a selection of findings to illustrate this innovative approach and demonstrate its analytic potential. We investigate, for instance, the population’s support for democratic principles, the respect for civil and political rights and the trust in the political class; the “need for the State”, particularly of the poorest; the extent of petty corruption; the reliability of expert surveys on governance; the perception of decentralisation policies at local level; the level and vitality of social and political participation, etc. The conclusive appraisal made opens up prospects for the national statistical information systems in the developing countries. The measurement and tracking of this new set of objective and subjective public policy monitoring indicators would benefit from being made systematic.
    Keywords: Africa, Latin America, Democracy, Monitoring Mechanism, Household Surveys,
    JEL: I31 I32 I38 H11 D73 O54 O55
    Date: 2006–01–06
  12. By: Martina Kauffeld-Monz
    Abstract: Usually, analyses of knowledge spillovers, if not relying on aggregated data, are based either on surveys conducted with enterprises or on surveys conducted with research establishments. Comparative case studies on micro level that include both groups are rather the exception. Therefore the knowledge transfer mostly can be illustrated just for one of these groups. Moreover knowledge and information rarely are differentiated. The set of data used in this paper allows to overcome these weaknesses. Based on 23 innovation networks located in the eastern part of Germany, the knowledge and information transfer between almost 700 participants, which interacted during a period of 5 years, can be observed. Following the pattern of regional systems of innovation (RIS) within the dataset the distinction of certain groups of participants is arranged (e.g. manufacturing enterprises, service enterprises, universities, non-university research establishments). Their uniform and common reference system - the respective regional innovation network – can be seen as additional quality of the data. The first part of the paper focuses on the determinants of knowledge spillovers within these innovation networks. It is analyzed, in what respect the co-operation experiences and in particular the network experience of the participants have a relevance regarding the knowledge transfer. Beyond that it is examined whether network characteristics (e.g. the coherence of the network on the whole; strength of ties in detail) affect the knowledge transfer. It is also examined whether intensive contacts affect only the transfer of knowledge, or whether the intensity of contact equally shape the information flow. Finally it is analysed, if division of labour is connected with the range of knowledge transfer. In the second part of the paper empirical results are presented that demonstrate the central role played by public research institutions in the process of knowledge transfer. The results indicate that universities are adding most information and most knowledge within the networked process of innovation. The winners of knowledge exchange – considering absolute as well as relative profits – are the manufacturing enterprises. Further the results confirm the assumption that public research holds an “antenna function” (boundary spanning function) for the enterprises due to its integration into the international science community.
    Date: 2005–08
  13. By: Emine Ümran Topçu
    Abstract: There is growing interest among academics and policy makers in both Turkey and abroad to monitor social progress. As a result of this, much activity is focused on measuring quality of neighborhood life, via the development and implementation of subjective indicators. Neighborhood satisfaction would appear prima facie to be a more appropriate variable to use as a measure of the overall quality of neighborhood life. This paper undertakes a case of satisfaction on the Anatolian side of Ýstanbul.The objective of the paper is to determine how the characteristics of a neighborhood influence quality of life in a traditional locale. A second objective of this paper is how to develop and use quality of life indicators to achieve a healthier and more sustainable community. Finding out who is most satisfied with the neighborhoods should provide policy makers with information on where to target neighborhood improvements. In this paper , a regression model of an individual neighborhood satisfaction is developed by using data from a 2002 survey, neighborhood satisfaction being used as the dependent variable.
    Date: 2005–08
  14. By: Peer Smets
    Abstract: Today there is a widespread fear of crime on a global scale. This can be seen as a response to social inequalities, social polarisation and the fragmentation of cities, which has been caused by neo-liberalism. Worldwide, an increasing number of higher income groups have looked to security measures, such as cameras, fences, walls and gates, to separate themselves from other people in the city. These physical measures, in combination with hired guards, replace the ‘older’ social control mechanisms, which are based on social cohesion within the community concerned. One may question whether those living in gated ‘communities’ indeed feel responsible for other urbanites. In other words, will such a hard closure (physically-marked segregation) lead to soft closure, reflected in social-cultural and political segregation. What is the impact of the lifestyle(s) of those living in gated communities on the dynamics of the city, urban identity and urban governance?
    Date: 2005–08
  15. By: Marc Barthélémy; Michele Campagna; Alessandro Chessa; Andrea De Montis; Alessandro Vespignani
    Abstract: A variety of phenomena can be explained by means of a description of the features of their underlying network structure. In addition, a large number of scientists (see the reviews, eg. Barabasi, 2002; Watts, 2003) demonstrated the emergence of large-scale properties common to many different systems. These various results and studies led to what can be termed as the “new science of complex networks” and to emergence of the new “age of connectivity”. In the realms of urban and environmental planning, spatial analysis and regional science, many scientists have shown in the past years an increasing interest for the research developments on complex networks. Their studies range from theoretical statements on the need to apply complex network analysis to spatial phenomena (Salingaros, 2001) to empirical studies on quantitative research about urban space syntax (Jiang and Claramunt, 2004). Concerning transportation systems analysis, interesting results have been recently obtained on subway networks (Latora and Marchiori, 2002; Gastner and Newman, 2004) and airports (Barrat et al, 2004). In this paper, we study the inter-municipal commuting network of Sardinia (Italy). In this complex weighted network, the nodes correspond to urban centres while the weight of the links between two municipalities represents the flow of individuals between them. Following the analysis developed by Barrat et al. (2004), we investigate the topological and dynamical properties of this complex weighted network. The topology of this network can be accurately described by a regular small-world network while the traffic structure is very rich and reveals highly complex traffic patterns. Finally, in the perspective of policy-making and planning, we compare the emerging network behaviors with the geographical, social and demographical aspects of the transportation system.
    Date: 2005–08
  16. By: Thomas Cooke
    Abstract: Despite significant gains in educational attainment and attitudes toward women in the labor force, women continue to lag behind men in economic and labor market success. The role of family migration in social science and policy discussions of this gender-gap has gone unnoticed, in spite of the fact that nearly 25 years ago the noted economist Jacob Mincer proposed that “Tied migration ranks next to child rearing as an important dampening influence in the life-cycle wage evolution of women.” Decades of family migration research have concluded that migration harms the economic and labor force status of married women, that the effect of family migration on married women cannot be entirely explained by economic factors, and that family-based gender roles likely explain much of this effect. However, only three quite limited and dated analyses have directly considered how gender-related processes contribute to the observed effects of moving on women’s economic status. Thus, we are left with the conclusion that all of the empirical evidence points toward gender role beliefs as the key variable shaping family migration outcomes but without any empirical evidence to support the conclusion. This research seeks to determine if the accepted explanation for the trailing wife effect is indeed true by constructing measures of the gender role beliefs of husbands and wives and developing empirical methods for determining their effect on both the migration decision and the outcomes of migration. Data for the analysis is drawn from Waves 1 through 3 of the National Survey of Families and Households. In particular, it is expected that economically “rational” migration decisions and outcomes will only occur when both the husband and the wife share strong progressive gender role beliefs. In all other cases, the migration decision is expected to be largely dominated by the husband’s labor market characteristics and that the effect of migration will be to harm the economic status of women. The analysis will provide a new and unique perspective from which to evaluate decades of evidence regarding family migration and will have an impact on public policy debates concerning the gender-gap in economic and labor market success.
    Date: 2005–08
  17. By: Alexander Kaufmann
    Abstract: Metropolitan regions are important locations of innovation networks. They comprise a broad variety of high tech firms, producer services, research organizations, financial organizations, training institutions and other private and public organizations which are contributing to innovation. Such regions, however, are typically larger than the administrative entity of the core city. This applies also to the greater Vienna urban region, the most important concentration of innovation-related institutions in Austria. This paper analyses the potential role of the municipal authorities of Vienna in supporting and shaping the metropolitan innovation system. This is a complex task because many important elements of the innovation networks of local firms are located outside the city or the metropolitan region. And even those organizations which have their physical location in the city are sometimes controlled from abroad (e.g. foreign owned subsidiaries) or by other, in particular national, administrative levels (e.g. federal universities). Based on a survey of innovation networks in the Vienna urban region, basic structural features of these networks - types of partners, their location and the kind of relations between them - are presented. From these results, conclusions concerning the design of urban innovation policy - its potential scope and effectiveness, reasonable priorities and inevitable limits - are drawn.
    Date: 2005–08
  18. By: Danny Soetanto; Marina Van Geenhuizen
    Abstract: It is widely accepted that new knowledge underpinned innovation and growth influences economic activities. Economic agents rely not only on their own knowledge but also knowledge from others, whether it be codified and ’transferred via ICT’ or in tacit form. Moreover, it has long been argued that the acquisition of latter type of knowledge is influenced by geographic proximity. Based on this argument, it follows that the part firms’ supply of knowledge depends on how close, in terms of physical distance, to other firms, suppliers, customers, and research institutions, they are located. They are all can be categorize as a pool of knowledge that important for the firms’ growth and innovation capacity. Today, we witness many initiatives from policy makers around the world to compete in an increasingly technology- driven global economy through the establishing of technology incubators. Technology incubators can be conceived as organizations and/or facilities to enhance high-technology firm establishment and survival. Mostly they are located near the university or research center. There are many success stories on the contribution of incubators to the regional growth. At the same time, technology incubators have been widely criticized in the academic literature when judged in terms of regional innovation and knowledge development. The critics include the relying on an outdated, linear, model of innovation, which assumes that knowledge can be transferred directly from university to firms. However, innovation is now widely recognized as a complex non-linear process involving feedback loops and the creation of synergies through a diverse range of knowledge networks. Therefore, our understanding about knowledge spillover processes connected with incubator is yet poor. Very little is known about the mechanisms of knowledge exchange and spillover initiated by incubator and their role in supporting the growth of the firm. In this study we draw on the current body of literature, mainly agglomeration theories, and use the concepts of tacit knowledge and context to understand how knowledge spillovers actually take place. Our objective is to build a conceptual framework that describes how technology incubators operate as a mediator of knowledge for their tenants. In addition, based on empirical data of high-technology start-ups at TU Delft (The Netherlands), this study tests the proposition that not only geographic proximity to the university, but also that relations with other firms, particularly customers and suppliers matters. We also consider the function of ICT in shaping the new role of technology incubators in providing knowledge support. By explicitly analyzing the knowledge spillovers and mediation role offered by technology incubators, we seek to open up the ‘black box’ of the incubation process as a source of learning and gaining knowledge resources. We conclude the paper with a few recommendations for policymaking and further research.
    Date: 2005–08
  19. By: Claudia Goldin
    Abstract: The modern economic role of women emerged in four phases. The first three were evolutionary; the last was revolutionary. Phase I occurred from the late nineteenth century to the 1920s; Phase II was from 1930 to 1950; Phase III extended from 1950 to the late 1970s; and Phase IV, the "quiet revolution," began in the late 1970s and is still ongoing. Three aspects of women's choices distinguish the evolutionary from the revolutionary phases: horizon, identity, and decision-making. The evolutionary phases are apparent in time-series data on labor force participation. The revolutionary phase is discernible using time-series evidence on women's more predictable attachment to the workplace, greater identity with career, and better ability to make joint decisions with their spouses. Each of these series has a sharp break or inflection point signifying social and economic change. These changes, moreover, coincide by birth cohort or period. The relationship between the development of modern labor economics and the reality of women's changing economic role is explored. The paper concludes by assessing whether the revolution has stalled or is being reversed. Women who graduated college in the early 1980s did not "opt-out,"but recent cohorts are too young to evaluate.
    JEL: J1 J2 N3
    Date: 2006–01
  20. By: Finnie, Ross; Lascelles, Eric; Sweetman, Arthur
    Abstract: This research finds that family background (parental education level, family type, ethnicity, location) has important direct and indirect effects on post-secondary participation. The indirect effects of background operate through a set of intermediate variables representing high school outcomes and related attitudes and behaviours. Overall, the large fraction of the family background effect that operates through indirect channels indicates that the period of life before post-secondary financing and related issues become important is crucial for equitable and efficient post-secondary access. These results are based on two sex-specific measures of access (Any Post-secondary, and University) obtained from Statistics Canada's School Leavers and Follow-Up Surveys.
    Keywords: Social conditions, Education, Families, Educational attainment
    Date: 2005–01–18
  21. By: Marisa Hidalgo (Universidad de Alicante)
    Abstract: The belief that peers' characteristics influence the behavior and outcomes of students in school has been important in shaping public policy. How peers affect individuals depends on the educational system prevailing. I analyze two different systems: tracking and mixing, and I propose several criteria to compare them. I find that at compulsory level, average human capital across the population is maximized under tracking, although tracking does not dominates mixing according to first order stochastic dominance. The education system that maximizes college attendance depends on the income level in the population and on the opportunity cost of college attendance.
    Keywords: Peer Effects, Tracking, Mixing, Income Premium
    JEL: D63 I28 J24
    Date: 2005–03
  22. By: Jeffrey Carpenter; Allison Liati; Brian Vickery
    Abstract: Our experiment challenges the standard, social preference, interpretation of choices in the double blind dictator game. In our bilateral treatment both groups are endowed with $20, any fraction of which can be passed to a randomly determined player in the other group. Because both groups have $20 to start, neither inequality aversion nor altruism should motivate people to give. Despite this, the allocations in this treatment are identical to our replication of the standard double blind game implying that altruism might be the wrong interpretation of giving. Instead, we hypothesize that giving might be driven by participants coming to the lab ready “to play.” The fact that there is a strong correlation between participant responses to an attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder questionnaire and both the rate and level of giving provides direct support for this hypothesis. We also show that having players earn their endowments attenuates the bias.
    Keywords: experiment, social preference, altruism, dictator game, impulsivity, demand effect
    JEL: C91
    Date: 2006–02
  23. By: Anne Lorentzen
    Abstract: The paper discusseses the spatial dimensions of innovation in Polish manufacturing companies. The conceptual framework of the paper is an understanding of social networks as a potential resource of the company, whether they are internal or external. Whether the company benefits from the potential resources attached to the network depends on the capabilities characterising the firm in terms of qualifications, organisational characteristics and attitude towards employees and towards other firms. This again is not only determined by personal characteristics of the management and staff, but also by the common perceptions, and the institutional infrastructure prevailing in the (local) society. In Poland the latter is closely connected with the process of transition since 1990. The paper reports from a study among Polish manufacturing companies. It categorises the types of innovation prevailing in the companies and detects the role of networks in the innovation process of the companies. To what extend do the companies draw on external networks, on what points of the innovation process are the networks involved, what kind of networks are involved, and not least, what are the spatial characteristics of the networks (local, national international). Finally how can the network strategy of the companies be explained? What factors seem to determine an active involvement of networks and what other factors seem to explain a self-sufficient strategy of innovation? What is the spatial extension of the networks, and are there systematic differences in the spatial extension of the networks? Does the transitional situation of the Polish society seem to favour certain strategies of innovation?
    Date: 2005–08
    Abstract: Public sector organizations are mainly knowledge-intensive organizations and to exploit their knowledge, effective knowledge sharing among the different departments is required. We focus on specific characteristics of public sector organizations that increase or limit interdepartmental knowledge sharing. Three types of organization-specific coordination mechanisms directly influence knowledge sharing between units. Organizations are also characterized by members’ social identification and trust, which in the absence of power games are assumed to create a knowledge sharing context. Data are presented from a questionnaire survey in the public sector. The sample consists of 359 cooperations between departments in more than 90 different public sector organizations. Structural equation modelling reveals the importance of lateral coordination and trust. The combination of power games and informal networking seems to be remarkably beneficial for knowledge sharing. Furthermore, compared with other public sector organizations, government institutions have organizational characteristics that are less beneficial for knowledge sharing.
    Keywords: coordination mechanisms, knowledge sharing, organization structure, public sector organizations
    Date: 2005–11
  25. By: Delphine Gallaud
    Abstract: During the eighties, small Sme’s of the so-called « Third Italy » obtain high performances. So Italian scholars ( Baganasco, 1977, Becattini, 1979, Brusco, 1982) underline some elements that remind the English districts studied by Marshall. These works open the way to a set of theories based on the same hypothesis of the importance of geographic proximity to innovate. Between them one can list innovative milieux (Aydalot, 1986, Camagni, 1991, Maillat, 1995), national and regional systems of innovation (Lundvall, 1992, Nelson, 1993, Edquist, 1997), local productive systems (Courlet, Pecqueur, 1989), technological districts (Saxenian, 1994) and clusters (Porter, 1998). But all these works have often postulated the real importance of geographic proximity to innovate, and the one of cooperation. Besides, the part of organizational proximity has been underestimated. So our problematic is to bring to the fore what are the factors which explain the coupling of geographic and organizational proximity. Biotechnology present important specificity, especially in terms of the importance of cooperation. But conflicts become very important too in this industry, besides they may increase because of the modification of property rights. We studied innovation networks of French biotechnology Sme’s. As a first result, we brought to the fore that networks can use three kinds of global geographic proximity. Then we demonstrate that the kind of conflict’s resolution explain the coupling of geographic and organizational proximity. Cooperative resolution is coupled with geographic proximity to solve conflicts and with organizational proximity (in the similarity logic). Avoiding resolution is coupled with no geographic proximity to solve conflicts (ICT are used to solve these conflicts), and with belonging kind of organizational proximity. At last, forcing resolution is coupled with belonging but with a little of geographic proximity to solve conflicts.
    Date: 2005–08
  26. By: Arie Romein
    Abstract: The urban landscape in advanced economies transforms from monocentric cities to polycentric urban networks on regional scale. The growing amount of research that is being devoted to this transformation sticks to classic activity systems like residential development, economic production and employment and commuting. Synchronous to this transformation, a 'new' activity system, outdoor leisure and entertainment, increasingly leaves its stamp on the economic performance and spatial organisation of urban areas in general. Due to tremendous dynamics of consumption, production, and urban politics with regard to this activity system, it is subject of a composite of spatial pressures for centralisation in inner-cites, de-concentration away form central cities and (re-)concentration in suburbs and exurban places. Notwithstanding this composite spatial dynamics, leisure and entertainment are not part of the research agenda on regional polycentric urban networks. Based on brief overviews of literature on both polycentric urban development and the dynamics of leisure and entertainment in urban areas, this paper presents a few basic research questions in order to initiate the research agenda on the contribution of the leisure activity system to the development of polycentric urban networks on regional scale.
    Date: 2005–08
  27. By: Axel Dreher (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich); Friedrich Schneider (University of Linz and IZA Bonn);
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the influence of the shadow economy on corruption and vice versa. We hypothesize that corruption and shadow economy are substitutes in high income countries while they are complements in low income countries. The hypotheses are tested for a crosssection of 120 countries and a panel of 70 countries for the period 1994-2002. Our results show that the shadow economy reduces corruption in high income countries, but increases corruption in low income countries. We also find that stricter regulations increase both corruption and the shadow economy.
    Keywords: corruption, shadow economy, regulation, tax burden
    JEL: D73 H26 O17 O5
    Date: 2006–01
  28. By: Hou, Feng; Myles, John
    Abstract: This study examines the relationship between individuals' health status and the socio-economic composition of the neighbourhoods in which they live. It combines individual microdata from Statistics Canada's 1996-97 National Population Health Survey (NPHS) with neighbourhood-level characteristics estimated from the 1996 Census of Canada.
    Keywords: Social conditions, Health, Families, Health status indicators
    Date: 2004–09–27
  29. By: Marco Mundelius; Wencke Hertzsch
    Abstract: In addition to a distinct regional concentration of the branch in a few, large metropolitan areas in Germany, Berlin shows inner-city (inner-regional) concentrations of the music industry and its players linked with the value chain as well as branch-relevant institutions. By means of a written survey of companies in the media and IT industries in Berlin and Brandenburg plus expert interviews, an analysis of the Berlin music branch, regarding its spatial as well as organizational concentration and how this concentration is perceived by companies, has been carried out. A comparison of the results within the branch and with the Brandenburg region can be made on the basis of a differentiation of the media branch in the analysis. This analysis found that creative milieus are of particular importance as they perform the role of being the driving force in developing the field of music. Therefore this paper examines spillovers into this industry, as a first step of spatial concentration in terms of networks of music companies, institutions, and the specific and innovative milieu and the geographical dimension of knowledge. Furthermore, evidence has been found through the use of economic and socio-cultural indicators. Urbanization economies become especially clear (apparent) for the region in the examination of Berlin’s music industry with their intersectoral integration and cross-sectoral stimilus to settlement and formation of companies.
    Date: 2005–08
  30. By: Dimitrios Economou; Maria Vrassida
    Abstract: Traditionally coastal cities had a role as trading ports or gates of entry connecting the hinterland other parts of the world or the country, and acting as points of departure or arrival for goods and people. Trade and industry, were the spine of the economy for many years and a network was created between ports and coastal cities in order to move people (workforce), goods, and materials. Tourism is a dynamic spontaneous phenomenon, which creates opportunities for many coastal cities to participate in a different network of exchange. Tourism is considered an activity that does not create networks in the traditional sense but as mobility increases information and familiarity could pose as a new kind of connection between coastal cities. This paper aims to explore the structure and dynamics of such a network at an inter-intra regional level. The focus is on coastal cities since they are very popular tourism destinations and they account for the majority of visits in Europe. Reference will be made to the Greek middle size coastal cities since many of their traditional activities are degrading, they already attract a large number of visitors and they provide the opportunity for regeneration through tourism. The paper will be based on a questionnaire survey of visitors conducted during the summer months (June-August 2003) in Volos a middle size coastal city in Greece. The questionnaire is part of a broader survey of tourism in Volos aiming to explore tourism characteristics, flows and to evaluate the tourism product of the city. This network relationship will be examined in terms of complementary and competition and the impacts on city-region relations. Finally the policy implications and the potential for expanding and planning this network in order to contribute and promote sustainable development of coastal cities will be explored.
    Date: 2005–08
  31. By: Warman, Casey
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of ethnic neighbourhoods on wage growth as well as other labour market outcomes of immigrant men in Canada using the 1981, 1986, 1991 and 1996 Censuses. While the primary measure of affiliation is country of birth, ethnicity, language and visible minority status are also examined to determine the robustness of the findings. Consistent with U.S. findings, ethnic neighbourhoods based on country of birth are found to have a negative impact on the ten-year wage growth of immigrants. Further, the model for wage growth is found to be robust to different lengths of time and different base years as well as the specification of language and ethnicity as the affiliation grouping. Using country of birth as the affiliation index, exposure is also found to have a negative impact on the growth of total and weekly earnings as well as the initial wages of entry cohorts. While little evidence is found on the effects of ethnic neighbourhoods on changes in employment, a negative effect of exposure is found on entry employment rates of the most recent landing cohorts. Although the overall effect of ethnic neighbourhoods on wage growth is negative, ethnic neighbourhoods are found to have a divergent effect on different landing cohorts, having a positive impact on the wage growth of the more recent cohorts and a negative impact on earlier cohorts.
    Keywords: Population and demography, Ethnic origin
    Date: 2005–02–25

This nep-soc issue is ©2006 by Fabio Sabatini. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.