nep-soc New Economics Papers
on Social Norms and Social Capital
Issue of 2006‒01‒29
twelve papers chosen by
Fabio Sabatini
Universitá degli Studi di Roma, La Sapienza

  1. Social Assets By George J. Mailath; Andrew Postlewaite
  2. Strong and Weak Ties in Employment and Crime By Calvó-Armengol, Antoni; Verdier, Thierry; Zenou, Yves
  3. Does it pay to be socially responsible? Evidence from Spanish retail banking sector By Callado-Muñoz, Francisco J; Utrero-González, Natalia
  4. Social Capital, Creative Destruction and Economic Development By Bezemer, Dirk; Dulleck, Uwe; Frijters, Paul
  5. Knowledge Integration and Network Formation. By Müge Ozman
  6. Hours of Work and Gender Identity: Does Part-Time Work Make the Family Happier? By Booth, Alison L; van Ours, Jan C
  7. Does the group leader matter? The impact of monitoring activities and social ties of group leaders on the repayment performance of groupbased lending Eritrea By Hermes, Niels; Lensink, Robert; Mehrteab, Habteab T.
  8. What Happiness Research Can Tell Us About Self-Control Problems And Utility Misprediction By Alois Stutzer; Bruno S. Frey
  9. Relative Income Position And Performance: An Empirical Panel Analysis By Benno Torgler; Sascha L. Schmidt; Bruno S. Frey
  10. What is an "exemplary workplace"? Evidence from Cuba By Cunha, Miguel Pina e; Cunha, Rita Campos e; Rego, Arménio
  11. Intellectual Capital and Maintance of Work Ability - The Wellbeing Perspective. By Tomi Hussi
  12. Individual vs. Parental Consent in Marriage: Implications for Intra-Household Resource Allocation and Growth By Edlund, Lena Cecilia; Lagerlöf, Nils-Petter

  1. By: George J. Mailath (Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania); Andrew Postlewaite (Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: We present a model incorporating both social and economic components, and analyze their interaction. The notion of a social asset, an attribute that has value only because of the social institutions governing society, is introduced. In the basic model, agents match on the basis of income and unproductive attributes. An attribute has value in some equilibrium social institutions (matching patterns), but not in others. We then show that productive attributes (such as education) can have their value increased above their inherent productive value by some social institutions, leading to the notion of the social value of an asset.
    Keywords: Social assets, social capital, social arrangements, nonmarket interactions, social norms
    JEL: D20 D31 D5 J41 Z13
    Date: 2002–02–07
  2. By: Calvó-Armengol, Antoni; Verdier, Thierry; Zenou, Yves
    Abstract: This paper analyses the interplay between social structure and information exchange in two competing activities, crime and labour. We consider a dynamic model in which individuals belong to mutually exclusive two-person groups, referred to as dyads. There are multiple equilibria. If jobs are badly paid and/or crime is profitable, unemployment benefits have to be low enough to prevent workers for staying too long in the unemployment status because they are vulnerable to crime activities. If, instead, jobs are well paid and/or crime is not profitable, unemployment benefits have to be high enough to induce workers to stay unemployed rather to commit crime because they are less vulnerable to crime activities. Also, in segregated neighbourhoods characterized by high interactions between peers, a policy only based on punishment and arrest will not be efficient in reducing crime. It has to be accompanied by other types of policies that take into account social interactions.
    Keywords: crime; forward-looking agents; labour market; social interaction
    JEL: A14 J40 K42
    Date: 2006–01
  3. By: Callado-Muñoz, Francisco J; Utrero-González, Natalia
    Abstract: This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of strategic competition in retail banking when some of the financial firms are non-profit organisations that invest in social activities. Banking literature about competition is fairly large, but the strategic interaction between profit maximizing and non profit maximizers has not been extensively analysed except for Purroy and Salas (1999). In this paper, a completely different approach is taken. An adaptation of Hotelling’s two stage model of spatial competition is developed to take into account consumer perceptions respect to the two different types of financial institutions. The empirical analysis confirms that consumers take into account other features different from the price, such as social contribution or closer service to make a deposit or mortgage decision. These conclusions are of interest in the debate about a firm’s social or ethical activities. It is shown that if consumers value social activities, firms can improve their results by behaving socially responsible.
    Keywords: Strategic competition; Hotelling´s model; Spanish banking; Corporate social responsibility
    JEL: D83 G21 D21
    Date: 2006–01
  4. By: Bezemer, Dirk; Dulleck, Uwe; Frijters, Paul (Groningen University)
    Abstract: This paper develops a conceptual framework for the role of social capital in the political economy of innovation, growth and reform, with illustrations from developing and transition countries. It identifies separate but related roles for the individual and communal interpretations of social capital. It argues that economic growth via innovation requires the creative destruction of individual social capital linkages and discusses the roles of communal social capital and formal market institutions in the process. A negative externality associated with creative destruction implies the possibility of growth accelerations as well as growth traps.
    Date: 2005
  5. By: Müge Ozman
    Abstract: In this paper, we highlight how inter-firm collaboration networks are influenced by the knowledge composition of goods in an industry. For this purpose, we carry out an agent based simulation study in which firms integrate their competencies under different knowledge base regimes. In this way networks form. The results reveal that, knowledge regime significantly influences the network structure, and interaction among firms is very intensive when the products are specialized but also have common knowledge among them.
    Date: 2006
  6. By: Booth, Alison L; van Ours, Jan C
    Abstract: Taking into account inter-dependence within the family, we investigate the relationship between part-time work and happiness. We use panel data from the new Household, Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia Survey. Our analysis indicates that part-time women are more satisfied with working hours than full-time women. Partnered women's life satisfaction is increased if their partners work full-time. Male partners' life satisfaction is unaffected by their partners' market hours but is increased if they themselves are working full-time. This finding is consistent with the gender identity hypothesis of Akerlof and Kranton (2000).
    Keywords: gender identity; happiness; part-time work
    JEL: I31 J16 J22
    Date: 2006–01
  7. By: Hermes, Niels; Lensink, Robert; Mehrteab, Habteab T. (Groningen University)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes whether the effects of monitoring and social ties of the group leader and other group members on repayment performance of groups differ, using data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We hypothesize that the monitoring activities and social ties of the group leader have a stronger positive impact on the repayment performance of groups. The results show that social ties of the group leader do have a positive effect on repayment performance of groups, whereas this is not true for social ties of other group members. We do not find evidence for the hypothesis that monitoring activities of the group leader have a stronger positive impact on group repayment performance. All variables measuring monitoring activities, either of the group leader or the other group members, are found to be statistically insignificant.
    Date: 2005
  8. By: Alois Stutzer; Bruno S. Frey
    Abstract: Neoclassical economic theory rules out systematic errors in consumption choice. According to the basic view, individuals know what they choose. They are able to predict how much utility an activity or a good produces for them now and in the future and they can maximize their utility. This implies that behavior reveals consistent preferences. This approach makes it impossible to detect and understand sub-optimal consumption decisions, due to problems of self-control and the misprediction of utility. We propose the economics of happiness as a methodological approach to study these phenomena. Based on proxy measures for experienced utility, it is, in principle, possible to directly address whether some observed behavior is sub-optimal and is therefore reducing a person’s well-being. We discuss recent evidence on smoking and eating habits, TV viewing and commuting choice.
    Keywords: adaptation, individual decision-making, revealed preference, self-control, subjective well-being, utility misprediction
    JEL: D00 D11 D12 D84 D91 I12 I31
    Date: 2006–01
  9. By: Benno Torgler; Sascha L. Schmidt; Bruno S. Frey
    Abstract: studies have established that people care a great deal about their relative economic position and not solely, as standard economic theory assumes, about their absolute economic position. However, behavioral evidence is rare. This paper provides an empirical analysis on how individuals’ relative income position affects their performance. Using a unique data set for 1114 soccer players over a period of eight seasons (2833 observations), our analysis suggests that the larger the income differences within a team, the worse the performance of the soccer players is. The more the players are integrated in a particular social environment (their team), the more evident this negative effect is.
    Keywords: Relative income, positional concerns, envy, performance, social integration
    JEL: D00 D60 L83
    Date: 2006–01
  10. By: Cunha, Miguel Pina e; Cunha, Rita Campos e; Rego, Arménio
    Abstract: Management researchers and practitioners have developed a marked interest for the notion of “good companies to work for”, “exemplary workplaces”, “meaningful work”, “virtuous organization”, “truly healthy organizations” or “authentizotic organizations”. We complement the previous studies, conducted in the context of capitalistic economies, with an analysis of the representation of the “exemplary organization” in the context of a communist country, Cuba. An inductive study with 39 managers suggests that some elements of the exemplary workplace profile are heavily influenced by the local conditions (e.g., transportation system), whereas others may be viewed as probably general (social contribution). We also conclude that the balance between material conditions and social issues is a major determinant of how people evaluate the “exemplarity” of their organization.
    Keywords: exemplary workplaces; meaning at work; Cuba
    Date: 2005
  11. By: Tomi Hussi
    Date: 2004–02–24
  12. By: Edlund, Lena Cecilia; Lagerlöf, Nils-Petter
    Abstract: Marrying individuals' consent has been requirement for marriage in Europe since the Middle Ages - in most of the rest of the world parental consent reigned until at least until the 1950s. This paper investigates the role of consent in marriage for intra-household allocation of resources and growth. We argue that a shift from parental to individual consent moves resources in the same direction, favouring young men and young women over old men. If young adults have greater incentives to invest in child human capital than the old (who will be around fewer periods), this may impact on growth. We formulate a simple endogenous growth model capturing these aspects.
    Keywords: arranged marriage; endogenous growth; individual consent; love marriage; parental consent
    JEL: J12 O17 O40
    Date: 2006–01

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