nep-soc New Economics Papers
on Social Norms and Social Capital
Issue of 2005‒10‒04
six papers chosen by
Fabio Sabatini
Universitá degli Studi di Roma, La Sapienza

  1. Human capital development in a complex learning system: the virt uous interaction between individuals, organizations and communiti es By Luciano PILOTTI; Silvia Rita SEDITA
  2. Inequality and Crime: Separating the Effects of Permanent and Transitory Income By Dahlberg, Matz; Gustavsson, Magnus
  3. Innovation in Enterprise Clusters:Evidence from Dutch Manufacturing By Bert Diederen; Pierre Mohnen; Franz Palm; Wladimir Raymond; Sybrand Schim van der Loeff
  4. Social group disparities and poverty in India By Rohit Mutatkar
  5. The Political Economy of Elite Dominance and Ethnic By Sarmistha Pal; Sugata Ghosh
  6. Sociopolitical Instability and Long Run Economic Growth: a Cross Country Empirical Investigation." By James L.Butkiewicz ; Halit Yanikkaya

  1. By: Luciano PILOTTI; Silvia Rita SEDITA
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to find a framework for understanding dyn amics of the learning process at different levels, occurring thro ugh different forms of education. The purpose is to consider the impact of formal, informal, non-formal learning on firms’ perform ance. For sure R&D expenses and market are really important t o foster innovation and drive firms towards better performances, but they need to take place in a learning oriented environment. O ur target of analysis are micro and small firms learning processe s, which we look at using secondary data from different sources. The paper proceeds as follow. Firstly, the main aim of the work a nd research questions are presented, secondly, we focus on the re lationships between human capital and innovation in SMEs. Thirdly , we illustrate what we mean for learning, paying particular atte ntion to the differences between education and learning. Fourthly , we propose our interpretative framework, analysing in details i ts components.
    Keywords: Knowledge, learning, education, human capital, SMEs, LPSs, ICTs
  2. By: Dahlberg, Matz (Department of Economics); Gustavsson, Magnus (Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Earlier studies on income inequality and crime have typically used total income or total earnings. However, it is quite likely that it is changes in permanent rather than in transitory income that affects crime rates. The purpose of this paper is therefore to disentangle the two effects by, first, estimating region-specific inequality in permanent and transitory income and, second, estimating crime equations with the two separate income components as explanatory variables. The results indicate that it is important to separate the two effects; while an increase in the inequality in permanent income yields a positive and significant effect on total crimes and three different property crimes, an increase in the inequality in transitory income has no significant effect on any type of crime. Using a traditional, aggregate, measure of income yields mainly insignificant effects on crime.
    Keywords: Crime; Earnings dynamics; Inequality
    JEL: C33 D31 J39 K40
    Date: 2005–06–27
  3. By: Bert Diederen; Pierre Mohnen; Franz Palm; Wladimir Raymond; Sybrand Schim van der Loeff
    Abstract: This paper explores the aggregation problem and illustrates its relevance using data for the Netherlands from the third Community Innovation Survey (CIS3), and production and financial statistics. It compares the results of an innovation output equation that was estimated using data on enterprises (bedrijfseenheid), domestic enterprise clusters (onderneming), and those enterprise clusters with foreign inward or outward investments. <P>Cette étude aborde et illustre un problème d’agrégation qui peut se poser dans les études d’innovation. Les données utilisées sont celles de la troisième enquête innovation aux Pays-Bas, qui sont jumelées aux statistiques de la production et aux données financières des sociétés. Nous comparons les résultats de l’estimation d’une équation d’innovation, obtenus tour à tour à partir de données au niveau des entreprises (bedrijfseenheid), des grappes d’entreprises domestiques (onderneming), et des grappes d’entreprises ayant des filiales à l’étranger ou contenant des filiales de firmes étrangères installées aux Pays-Bas.
    Keywords: innovation, aggregation, innovation, agrégation
    JEL: D21 O33 O52
    Date: 2005–09–01
  4. By: Rohit Mutatkar (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research)
    Abstract: This paper seeks to provide a profile of social group disparities and poverty in India, where social groups are classified as scheduled caste, scheduled tribe and other social groups, and examine the factors underlying differences in levels of living between these groups and for each group separately. The paper argues that social group disparities in levels of living are the result of historically rooted `social disadvantages' for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, by way of social exclusion and physical exclusion respectively, which continue to operate in contemporary Indian society.
    Keywords: Poverty, Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe, Exclusion, India
    JEL: I3
    Date: 2005–09
  5. By: Sarmistha Pal (Department of Economics & Finance, Brunel University); Sugata Ghosh (Department of Economics & Finance, Brunel University)
    Abstract: Despite more than four decades of planning efforts with an emphasis on balanced regional development, inter- and intra-state disparities in key indicators of quality of life in India are striking. Using Indian state- level data for the period 1960-92, the present paper examines the nature of political economy of elite dominance and ethnic heterogeneity, both of which could in principle be responsibel for lower the provision of public services. Fixed–effects panel data estimates seem to confirm that (a) greater degree of elite dominance lowers the spending on education (but not that on health) while greater degree of ethnic heterogeneity lowers spending on both health and education. (b) Also, predominance of Indian National Congress regime has been higher in states with greater dominance of elite upper class and ethnic heterogeneity. Thus there is a close correspondence between political regimes and social development spending in the sample states though there is a clear lack of convergence in state spending on health and education suggesting the divergent agenda of the state governments in India.
    Keywords: Social development, Minority groups, Elite dominance, Ethnic heterogeneity.
    JEL: I18 I28
    Date: 2005–09–27
  6. By: James L.Butkiewicz  (Department of Economics,University of Delaware); Halit Yanikkaya (Department of Economics, Celal Bayar University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of sociopolitical instability on long-run growth. The impacts of socio-political instability are estimated by cross-country growth regressions for a panel of nations over a thirty-year sample period. Overall, our results are consistent with the existing literature implying that, at best, a weak relationship exists between sociopolitical instability and growth. More importantly, this relationship depends crucially on the measure of sociopolitical instability used. Specifically, while government instability and social instability measures typically have weak and, in some instances, a positive, relationship with growth, political violence indicators have a negative and significant impact on growth. Furthermore, our results indicate that sociopolitical instability has larger adverse effects on countries with higher levels of development and democracy. Although the issue of potential reverse causality is widely emphasized in the literature, our IV estimation results imply that simultaneity is not a severe problem for estimates of empirical growth models including sociopolitical instability measures. On the contrary, the effects of outlier countries and, to a lesser degree, parameter heterogeneity are much more serious problems for estimates using these variables. Length pages: 30 pages
    Keywords: Socio-political Instability; Political Violence; Growth
    JEL: O40 K40
    Date: 2004

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