nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2024‒01‒01
23 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar, Asian Development Bank

  1. Foreign Direct Investment, Agglomeration, and Production Networks in Indonesian Manufacturing By Dionisius A. Narjoko
  2. New Strategies for Maintaining Durable Global Peace:Government consensus or declaration against the Anti-Human Holocaust By Liu, Li
  3. AnalisisiCapital Assets PricingiModeliSebagaiiDasariKeputusaniInvestasiiSaham Padai5 PerusahaaniFoodiandiBeveragesiyangiTerdaftaridi BEI periode 2022 (Studi Kasus Pada Perusahaan PTiIndofoodiSuksesiMakmuriTbk, PTiMayora Indah Tbk, iPT Siantar TopiTbk, PT. Kino Indonesia Tbk, PTiUltrajayaiMilkiTbk) By larasatu, adzkia; Puspitasari, Erinda Aprilia; Puspita, Nindya Cahya
  4. Effectiveness of Self-Regulating Sustainability Standards for the Palm Oil Industry By Etsuyo Michida
  5. The Effects of the United States-China Trade War During the COVID-19 Pandemic on Global Supply Chains: Evidence from Viet Nam By Duc Anh Dang; Ngoc Anh Tran
  6. Supply-leading or demand-following financial sector and economic development nexus: evidence from data-rich Indonesia By Mansur, Alfan; Nizar, Muhammad Afdi
  7. Beyond GDP and Public Policies for Gender Equality: Gender Budgeting in Asia Pacific. By Chakraborty, Lekha
  8. Investment Facilitation and Promotion in Cambodia: Impact of Provincial-level Characteristics on Multinational Activities By Shandre Mugan Thangavelu; Leng Soklong; Vutha Hing; Ratha Kong
  9. The Effects of Dynamic Capabilities on Operational Performance: An Empirical Study from Manufacturing Enterprises in Vietnam By Huynh, Cong Minh; Vo, Long Kiet
  10. Can Lebanon Export Cannabis for Medicinal Purposes? By Haidar, Jamal Ibrahim; Zeaiter, Hussein; Darwich, Salem
  11. ANALISIS KELAYAKAN BISNIS USAHA DINEMA PHOTO KOTA PALANGKA RAYA By Damayanti, Nurlia Eka; Novriyani, Nadila; Norliani, Norliani; Sari, Yolanda
  12. Structural Changes and the Impact of FDI on Singapore's Manufacturing Activities By Shandre Mugan Thangavelu
  13. Unveiling Structure and Dynamics of Global Digital Production Technology Networks: A new digital technology classification and network analysis based on trade data By Antonio Andreoni; Guendalina Anzolin; Mateus Labrunje; Danilo Spinola
  14. Managers As Decision Makers (Manajer Sebagai Pembuat keputusan) By Amalia, Welli Siti
  15. Managers As Decision Makers By Amalia, Welli Siti
  16. The COVID-19 Pandemic and World Machinery Trade Network By Kozo Kiyota
  17. Affiliate Ownership Structure Responses to FDI Liberalization Policies By Ryan, Michael; Tanaka, Ayumu
  18. Technological Innovation and the Development of the Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Industry Based on Patent Value Analysis By Yanfei Li; Jia Zhao; Jianjun Yan
  19. The gender gap in UK academic economics 1996-2018: progress, stagnation and retreat By Bateman, Victoria; Hengel, Erin
  20. State Repression, Exit, and Voice: Living in the Shadow of Cambodia's Killing Fields By Bühler, Mathias; Madestam, Andreas
  21. The impact of the euro area economy and banks on biodiversity By Ceglar, Andrej; Boldrini, Simone; Lelli, Chiara; Parisi, Laura; Heemskerk, Irene
  22. Divergence in Non-Tariff Measures and the Quality of Traded Products By Ha Thi Thanh Doan; Kunhyui Kim; Mahdi Ghodsi
  23. Perceptions and Learning in Organization By Mutmainna, Noor Syawa

  1. By: Dionisius A. Narjoko (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia)
    Abstract: This study examines the importance of globalisation - defined by international production networks - in determining foreign direct investment (FDI) flows into Indonesian manufacturing since 2000. It is motivated by the fact that the extent of connection between the Indonesian and the global economy had increased after the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis. Models of FDI are estimated by utilising plant-level data and various trade and tariff data. Production networks or agglomeration are found to play an important role in driving FDI in Indonesia's manufacturing sector, at least for the period 2000-2015. This study provides the insight that agglomeration could be utilised to increase FDI in Indonesia. This not only improves the productivity of the sector targeted by the investment but also promotes productivity growth. Creating more agglomeration areas could therefore be a policy direction taken by Indonesia to help increase FDI.
    Keywords: Indonesia, foreign direct investment, production networks, agglomeration
    JEL: O14 F12 F21
    Date: 2023–05–04
  2. By: Liu, Li
    Abstract: Abstract Over the past century, horrific genocide has occurred in Indonesia and Vietnam, resulting in the deaths of over two million Chinese immigrants and countless cases of rape against women. The properties of these immigrants were almost completely looted. However, the criminals responsible for these mass killings and their nations have not been adequately punished, and the victims and their families have received no compensation. The audacious criminal nation, Vietnam, even planned to occupy the U.S. and divide the world with the Soviet Union. Even in today's world, massacres continue to occur. In recent years, Myanmar has scammed and kidnapped more than 300, 000 Chinese people, subjecting many of them to torture, gang rape, forced organ harvesting, buried alive, and massacres. The Myanmar Government and military protect these criminals and continuously attack civilian armed groups opposing these genocidal acts. It is therefore necessary for the world to rapidly build a global governmental consensus against mass killings and to issue a United Nations declaration. Strict measures must be taken to punish, hold accountable, and combat the perpetrators and nations responsible for these genocides in order to reduce the occurrence of such atrocities and safeguard global peace.
    Date: 2023–11–29
  3. By: larasatu, adzkia; Puspitasari, Erinda Aprilia; Puspita, Nindya Cahya
    Abstract: Penelitian I bertujuan untuk I mengidentifikasi i dan menganalisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi keputusan investasi saham pada lima perusahaan tercatat pada industri makanan dan I minuman di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI) selama tahun 2022. Penelitian ini menggunakan Capital IAsset I Pricing IModel I(CAPM) sebagai dasar analisis yang mengevaluasi kinerja investasi saham pada industri yang berhubungan dengan konsumen. Metode penelitian I melibatkan pengumpulan data historis harga saham, sukuIbungaIbebas risiko, Idan pengembalianIindeks II pasar saham, serta analisis statistik untuk mengukur risiko sistematis dan imbal hasil dari investasi dalam perusahaan-perusahaan Food and Beverages. Data yang diambil mulai Desember 2021 hingga Desember 2022. Hasil perhitungan menunjukkan rata-rata βi bernilai kurang dari I1 (0, 2930 < 1) sehinggaisecaraiumum 5 saham perusahaan yang dijadikan sampelipenelitian memilikiirisiko sistematisiyang rendah dan cenderung kurang aktif dalam merespon perubahanI harga pasar. Berdasarkan hasil analisis selama 2022, dari 5 saham I perusahaan Iyang dijadikan sampel terdapat 1 saham yang Efisien yaitu saham PT Kino Tbk (KINO). I Kriteria penentuan keputusan investasi adalah dengan memilih I saham-saham yang efisien, yaitu saham-saham yang mempunyai I tingkat pengembalian tunggal yang lebih besar I dari tingkat I pengembalian yang I diharapkan (Ri>ERi), Idan mengeliminasi saham-saham yang berefisiensi I rendah, yaitu saham-saham dengan tingkat pengembalian tunggal. kurang dari tingkat pengembalian yang diharapkan. Kembali (Ri
    Date: 2023–11–28
  4. By: Etsuyo Michida (Institute of Development Economies, Japan External Trade Organization (IDE-JETRO))
    Abstract: National sustainability certification schemes for the palm oil sector such as Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO), and Malaysia Sustainable Palm Oil (MSPO) have emerged to address negative environmental externalities and increase productivity of the sector. However, their reach does not extend to international markets, with differing aspirations and compliance mechanisms compared to the globally recognised private certification scheme. Benchmarking and harmonisation across the schemes could have multiple benefits. First, it decreases fragmentation of standards and allows procurement of certified palm oil at lower costs. Second, a harmonised regional scheme rather than multiple national schemes makes communication on the improvement of sustainability standards with global users easier, while involvement of users in their revision is expected to lead to their global recognition. Third, having a harmonised ASEAN standard can help other member countries in the region or countries from other regions to benchmark and adopt it as a proxy global standard, which prevents further fragmentation and proliferation of local standards. Making sustainable palm oil certifications acceptable for international markets is expected to pave the way for similar programmes for other agricultural products. Lastly, as the proliferation of standards leads to confusion amongst consumers, a harmonised standard improves understanding and clarifies the expected impact on the palm oil sector
    Keywords: Certification, Palm oil, Standards, Sustainability
    JEL: Q24 Q21 P13 P28
    Date: 2023–06–09
  5. By: Duc Anh Dang (Central Institute for Economic Management, Viet Nam); Ngoc Anh Tran (Indiana University Bloomington)
    Abstract: The trade war between the United States (US) and China has affected their bilateral trade as well as that with other countries. This study investigates how Vietnamese firms performed during the COVID-19 pandemic under the shadow of this trade war. The change in the log of Vietnamese exports to the US from 2017 to 2020 is used to measure the impact of the trade war, and the change in the log of Chinese exports to the US is then used as an instrument for the Vietnamese export change during the same period. It is found that firms that faced more trade war exposure increased their investment, profit, and value added, which may be due to the market exit of unproductive firms. Moreover, the trade war impact is more pronounced for large firms. Foreign-invested firms gained less from trade war exposure. The pandemic weakened the trade war effect on firm performances; however, it exacerbated the trade tension effect on foreign-trade firms.
    Keywords: Trade diversion; Trade war; Pandemic
    JEL: F14 F16 R23
    Date: 2023–08–29
  6. By: Mansur, Alfan; Nizar, Muhammad Afdi
    Abstract: Supply-leading theory predicts that the financial sector development precedes economic development while demand-following theory believes that the economy should develop, then the financial sector follows. This study exploits the financial sector and economic development relationship in a data-rich environment. Besides the depth, financial access and efficiency are also vital in the financial sector development. We employ a FAVAR model using 22 financial development indicators and 12 economic variables of the monthly Indonesian data series 2015M1-2023M6. Our empirical results reveal the bi-causal relationships between the financial sector and economic development. Then, whether the relationship is more demand-following or supply-leading depends on the measures used and the time trajectory. While an expansion in real GDP seems to have a more persistent impact on the development of financial institutions such as the banking and insurance sectors (demand-following relationship), the supply-leading relationship is influential in the short run. We also find that boosting access to credit and both stock and bond markets provokes economic activities. In addition, the increasing usage of electronic money encourages more consumption of imported goods than domestic goods.
    Keywords: financial sector, economic activities, demand, supply, FAVAR
    JEL: C11 C38 C55 E44 G10 G18 G21 G28
    Date: 2023–11–10
  7. By: Chakraborty, Lekha (National Institute of Public Finance and Policy)
    Abstract: The paper analyses gender budgeting as a fiscal innovation to translate the public policies into 'beyond GDP' commitments incorporating a gender lens. Earmarking a specific proportion of fiscal allocations for gender budgeting can be only a second best principle of gender budgeting. With the advent of fiscal decentralisation, a few countries in the Asia Pacific region have experimented with gender budgeting as a PFM tool of accountability and fiscal transparency. However the lack of gender disaggregated data and lack of flexibility of finance at local levels thwarted the process of deepening gender budgeting. The legally mandated gender budgeting process led by Finance Ministries has been found as the sustainable model of gender budgeting to translate resources into results. Fiscal marksmanship (deviation between budget estimates and actual spending) is an important prerequisite for establishing such result-based fiscal frameworks of gender budgeting.
    Date: 2023–12
  8. By: Shandre Mugan Thangavelu (Jeffrey Cheah Institute for Southeast Asia, Sunway University and Institute for International University, University of Adelaide); Leng Soklong (Ministry of Economy and Finance, Cambodia); Vutha Hing (Institute for International Trade, University of Adelaide); Ratha Kong (Institute for International Trade, University of Adelaide)
    Abstract: This paper examines the foreign direct investment policy of Cambodia in terms of investment promotion and facilitation. The study examines the key factors affecting the location of foreign firms (with more than 10% ownership) in Cambodia accounting for key provincial-level (18 provinces) characteristics, such as infrastructure (roads), population density (young population), special economic zones (SEZs), the number of establishments, poverty rate, rainfall, water supply, electricity supply, sharing of an international border, sharing a coastal area, and consumption per capita. The paper uses administrative data from the Council for Development of Cambodia, which manages foreign direct investment and the special economic zones in Cambodia. The study consists of nearly 500 foreign firms that have been approved to invest in Cambodia from 2017 to 2020. The results indicate a positive impact of road infrastructure (national and provincial roads) on foreign investment activities as it improves the movement of people and goods, reduces transaction costs, increases market access, and increases the service linkages within the domestic economy. At the provincial level, we observe that electricity supply, rainfall (water supply), land area, and a young working population have a positive impact on the investment decisions of foreign investors in the provinces of Cambodia. We also observe a negative impact of SEZs on foreign investment in Cambodia. The results indicate an urgent need for structural transformation of the Cambodian economy in terms of investment in soft and hard infrastructure and the development of the critical skills and human capital of the labour force. It is important to improve and upgrade the SEZs with key technologies and innovation to be more competitive in attracting foreign investment activities, which will be critical for increasing the competitiveness of Cambodian industries in global value chain activities.
    Keywords: Cambodia, Investment Facilitation
    JEL: F2 F23 O11
    Date: 2023–08–03
  9. By: Huynh, Cong Minh; Vo, Long Kiet
    Abstract: This research investigates the complex impact of supply chain dynamic capabilities through various dimensions (including cooperation, integration, agility, and responsiveness) on operational performance at the manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam. The results highlight the crucial importance of cooperation in promoting innovation, integration in facilitating decision-making processes, agility in navigating unpredictable circumstances, and responsiveness in serving the needs of customers. The aforementioned observations have significant ramifications for both the academic and industrial sectors. We offer valuable empirical support for researchers to conduct more in-depth inquiries, along with providing practical strategies for businesses to optimize their supply chain operations. This study also makes a valuable contribution to the developing discipline of supply chain management by elucidating the mechanisms through which dynamic capabilities drive operational excellence in a swiftly changing industrial environment.
    Keywords: Collaboration capability, Integration capability, Responsiveness capability, Agility capability, Dynamic capability
    JEL: L10 L20 M10
    Date: 2023–11–15
  10. By: Haidar, Jamal Ibrahim; Zeaiter, Hussein; Darwich, Salem
    Abstract: The sale and consumption of cannabis are becoming more broadly accepted worldwide as research into its medicinal uses accelerates. Revenue in the global medical cannabis market is projected to reach 12.92 billion US dollars (USD) in 2023, and is expected to grow by 13.16% annually, resulting in a market volume of USD 23.97 billion by 2028. Moreover, Colombia, Costa Rica, Malaysia, Morocco, Thailand, Ukraine, the United States, and European Union countries have created regulatory frameworks for cannabis derivatives manufacturing and export and import licenses. As we previously argued, the goal of exporting cannabis from Lebanon for pharmaceutical processing and medicinal purposes should be welcome, despite many misunderstandings about Lebanon’s informal cannabis sector, as well as what would be required to establish a formal sector and ensure buy-in along the cannabis cultivation and export value chain. Among these challenges are cannabis importing country requirements and Lebanon’s ability to meet them.
    Keywords: cannabis; Lebanon; exports
    JEL: F0 I0 I00
    Date: 2023–09–23
  11. By: Damayanti, Nurlia Eka; Novriyani, Nadila; Norliani, Norliani; Sari, Yolanda
    Abstract: Studi kelayakan bisnis merupakan langkah krusial bagi Usaha Mikro Kecil Menengah (UMKM) seperti Dinema Photo, sebuah perusahaan fotografi di Kota Palangka Raya, Kalimantan Tengah. UMKM, sebagai tulang punggung ekonomi Indonesia, memiliki peran penting dalam pertumbuhan ekonomi dan penciptaan lapangan kerja. Namun, tantangan dalam mengadopsi teknologi yang tepat dapat menghadirkan risiko bagi kesuksesan UMKM. Dinema Photo menawarkan solusi signifikan dalam pemenuhan kebutuhan fotografi di wilayahnya dan telah mengadopsi tren terkini untuk tetap relevan dalam industri fotografi yang kompetitif. Fokus pada layanan Wedding Photo dan Video, Photobook, dan layanan khusus acara, mencerminkan respons terhadap kebutuhan pasar yang berkembang di Kota Palangka Raya. Studi ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis kelayakan bisnis Dinema Photo dari segi keuangan, pasar, pemasaran, sumber daya manusia, lingkungan, budaya dan ekonomi, serta aspek hukum. Dengan pendekatan kualitatif, data dikumpulkan melalui observasi, wawancara, dan dokumentasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan Dinema Photo memiliki modal awal yang solid, melibatkan lebih dari 100 juta Rupiah, dengan potensi pertumbuhan signifikan pada periode tertentu. Dalam aspek pasar, perusahaan berhasil membedakan diri melalui strategi harga dan fokus pada kualitas pelayanan. Target pasar utama adalah kalangan anak muda yang mengikuti tren terkini. Aspek sumber daya manusia menunjukkan tim Dinema Photo memiliki keahlian dan pengalaman yang solid, dengan lebih dari 10 anggota tim. Lingkungan operasional Dinema Photo dianggap aman, sementara kontribusinya pada acara budaya dan ekonomi setempat memperkuat posisinya di komunitas. Dari segi hukum, Dinema Photo memastikan kepatuhan pada peraturan dan memiliki izin usaha sejak tahun 2020. Keseluruhan, Dinema Photo dapat dianggap sebagai bisnis yang solid, memberikan kontribusi pada ekonomi dan budaya lokal sambil tetap mematuhi norma-norma hukum dan lingkungan. Studi ini memberikan wawasan mendalam mengenai potensi dan tantangan yang dihadapi oleh Dinema Photo, memperkuat dasar untuk pertumbuhan yang berkelanjutan. Kata Kunci: UMKM Fotografi, Kelayakan Bisnis, Dinema Photo
    Date: 2023–11–29
  12. By: Shandre Mugan Thangavelu (Jeffrey Cheah Institute for Southeast Asia, Sunway University and Institute for International Trade, University of Adelaide)
    Abstract: This chapter examines the investment and foreign direct investment (FDI) policy of Singapore's economy in terms of the structural transformation of the economy from 1998 to 2018. The study also examines the impact of FDI on the productivity of the Singapore manufacturing industries in a panel framework from 2017 to 2019. The results indicate that FDI activities have a positive impact on labour productivity. The export activities of multinational businesses have a positive impact on labour productivity. We also observe agglomeration effects from FDI activities (average FDI activities over 3 years) in Singapore's manufacturing industries. However, we observe a negative impact of outsourcing labour productivity. The study also derives policy implications for forwardlooking policies in terms of the position of Singapore in the global production value chain.
    Keywords: Structural Transformation, FDI Policy
    Date: 2023–06–09
  13. By: Antonio Andreoni (Department of Economics, SOAS University of London); Guendalina Anzolin (Centre for Science, Technology and Innovation Policy, Institute for Manufacturing, University of Cambridge); Mateus Labrunje (Centre of Development Studies and Cambridge Industrial Innovation Policy, University of Cambridge); Danilo Spinola (College of Accounting, Finance and Economics, Birmingham City Business School; Maastricht Economic Research Institute for Innovation and Technology (UNU-Merit); and South African Research Chair in Industrial Development, University of Johannesburg)
    Abstract: This research pioneers the construction of a novel Digital Production Technology Classification (DPTC) based on the latest Harmonised Commodity Description and Coding System (HS2017) of the World Customs Organisation. The DPTC enables the identification and comprehensive analysis of 127 tradable products associated with digital production technologies (DPTs). The development of this classification offers a substantial contribution to empirical research and policy analysis. It enables an extensive exploration of international trade in DPTs, such as the identification of emerging trade networks comprising final goods, intermediate components, and instrumentation technologies and the intricate regional and geopolitical dynamics related to DPTs. In this paper, we deploy our DPTC within a network analysis methodological framework to analyse countries' engagements with DPTs through bilateral and multilateral trade. By comparing the trade networks in DPTs in 2012 and 2019, we unveil dramatic shifts in the global DPTs' network structure, different countries' roles, and their degree of centrality. Notably, our findings shed light on China's expanding role and the changing trade patterns of the USA in the digital technology realm. The analysis also brings to the fore the increasing significance of Southeast Asian countries, revealing the emergence of a regional hub within this area, characterised by dense bilateral networks in DPTs. Furthermore, our study points to the fragmented network structures in Europe and the bilateral dependencies that developed there. Being the first systematic DPTC, also deployed within a network analysis framework, we expect the classification to become an indispensable tool for researchers, policymakers, and stakeholders engaged in research on digitalisation and digital industrial policy.
    Keywords: Digital Production Technology (DPT), DPT Classification, Network Analysis, Bilateral Trade, Digitalisation patterns.
    JEL: O14 O33 F14
    Date: 2023–12
  14. By: Amalia, Welli Siti
    Abstract: 1. Decision Making : Pengambilan Keputusan • Keputusan Membuat pilihan dari dua alternatif atau lebih. • Proses pengambilan keputusan Mengidentifikasi suatu masalah dan kriteria pengambilan keputusan serta pengalokasiannya bobot sesuai kriteria Mengembangkan, menganalisis, dan memilih alternatif yang bisa menyelesaikan masalahnya Menerapkan alternatif yang dipilih. Mengevaluasi efektivitas keputusan.
    Date: 2023–11–03
  15. By: Amalia, Welli Siti
    Abstract: 1. Decision Making : Pengambilan Keputusan • Keputusan Membuat pilihan dari dua alternatif atau lebih. • Proses pengambilan keputusan Mengidentifikasi suatu masalah dan kriteria pengambilan keputusan serta pengalokasiannya bobot sesuai kriteria Mengembangkan, menganalisis, dan memilih alternatif yang bisa menyelesaikan masalahnya Menerapkan alternatif yang dipilih. Mengevaluasi efektivitas keputusan.
    Date: 2023–11–02
  16. By: Kozo Kiyota (Keio University, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI), and Tokyo Center for Economic Research (TCER))
    Abstract: In light of the importance of the machinery trade in global trade, this study examines whether the patterns of machinery exports changed significantly after the COVID19 pandemic. Frameworks of network analysis and structural break analysis are applied to monthly level bilateral export data from January 2016 to March 2022. The main findings are threefold. First, positive structural change is found in exports in major machinery-exporting countries. Second, negative structural change in centrality is found in Japan and some ASEAN Member States (AMS), which implies a decline in the relative importance of these countries in the global machinery network. Third, the decline in Japanese centrality was not caused by the decline in export values or number of destination countries. Rather, it is attributable to the decline in the centrality of Japan's export destination countries such as AMS. Noting that Japan has a relatively strong trade relationship with AMS, these results together suggest that the negative shock of the pandemic spread throughout the supply chain, which led to the decline in the relative importance of some countries - such as Japan - in the global machinery trade network.
    Keywords: Machinery trade; COVID-19 pandemic; Network; Centrality
    JEL: F14 F40
    Date: 2023–08–16
  17. By: Ryan, Michael; Tanaka, Ayumu (Aoyama Gakuin University)
    Abstract: The 1990s saw many countries liberalize their inward foreign direct investment (FDI) policies. From a macro view, the speed of liberalization varied, with most countries gradually liberalizing. Korea, however, implemented rapid FDI liberalization after the 1997 Asian currency crisis and provides an ideal case for our analysis. Using matched parent-firm-foreign subsidiary data, this study analyzes how multinational enterprises (MNEs) changed their ownership ratios, FDI stock, and the number of subsidiaries in response to liberalization. Our difference-in-differences (DiD) analysis of the Korean liberalization case shows that MNEs did not increase their FDI stock but increased their ownership ratio and the number of subsidiaries in Korea. At the same time, we also find that the ownership ratio of Japanese firms in Korea is still lower than that in other developed countries, suggesting that there is a strong hysteresis effect at work in the subsidiary ownership ratio.
    Date: 2023–11–20
  18. By: Yanfei Li (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA)); Jia Zhao (Hunan University of Technology and Business); Jianjun Yan (Hunan University of Technology and Business)
    Abstract: Currently, major economies are competing on the technological and industrial development of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). This paper discusses the relationship between the patent value of FCEVs and the commercialisation of this technology. First, the patent data of FCEVs are analysed, focusing on data of China, Germany, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the United States. Then, the paper constructs the FCEV patent value index framework based on the technological value and economic value of patents. Finally, this paper conducts an empirical study to analyse the influence of patent value on the development of the FCEV industry. It is found that, under the current situation, individual patent value can significantly promote the development of the FCEV industry, whilst the gross patent value of a certain country even has a negative impact. In addition, the increase of hydrogen infrastructure, research and development expenditure, and market demand will significantly promote the development of the FCEV industry. The development level of related industries such as the battery electric vehicle industry and the reduction of environmental pollution are also significant drivers of the development of FCEVs
    Keywords: FCEV, patent value, industry development
    Date: 2023–06–09
  19. By: Bateman, Victoria; Hengel, Erin
    Abstract: This article reports on women’s representation in UK economics over the last quarter century. While progress has been made, women in 2018 were only 32 percent of economics undergraduate students and 26 percent of academic economists. Our data also suggest several areas of stagnation and retreat. First, the percentage of female UK nationals studying economics is low and falling over time. Second, female economists are substantially more likely to be employed at lower academic ranks and in fixed-term—and generally lower status—teaching- and research-only positions. Third, the representation of women is especially low among ethnic minorities studying for an economics PhD. And finally, the percentage of economics professors with Asian ethnicity who are women has been falling over time, and at no point between 2012-2018 was a Black female professor of economics employed anywhere in the UK.
    Keywords: gender; diversity; labour market equality; women in the economics profession; gender gap
    JEL: J24 I23 J44 A11
    Date: 2023–06–01
  20. By: Bühler, Mathias; Madestam, Andreas
    JEL: D72 D74 N4 O1
    Date: 2023
  21. By: Ceglar, Andrej; Boldrini, Simone; Lelli, Chiara; Parisi, Laura; Heemskerk, Irene
    Abstract: Biodiversity – the variety of life on Earth – is essential for sustaining the healthy ecosystems that our economy and banks depend on. Despite the clear benefits of a healthy natural world for people and the economy, humanity is putting immense pressure on nature and biodiversity. Economic activities that rely on healthy nature are often responsible for generating environmental pressures. It is important to assess the impact that firms and financial institutions have on nature degradation, in order to reveal their exposure to transition risk and highlight the need to move towards an economic system that values nature, rather than putting it at risk. This study analyses the contribution of euro area economic activities – and the bank loans provided to enable them – to biodiversity loss by estimating biodiversity footprints. The datasets we use account for approximately €4.3 trillion in corporate loans to around 4.2 million companies located in the euro area, issued by more than 2, 500 unique consolidated euro area banks. Considering two primary drivers of biodiversity loss (land-use change and climate change), the results show that the economy has had a significant impact on biodiversity, equivalent to the loss of 582 million hectares of “pristine” natural areas worldwide. Even though the impact on biodiversity is highest in Europe, the supply chains of companies are important determinants of their indirect biodiversity footprint worldwide. Asia and Africa have the largest areas impacted by activities that take place in company supply chains. Additionally, financing of economic activities with a high global impact on nature is concentrated: the ten banks with the highest financing share are responsible for financing around 40% of the total global impact of euro area firms. [...] JEL Classification: C55, G21, G38, Q5
    Keywords: biodiversity loss, climate-nature nexus, economy, impact, input-output table, materiality score, nature degradation
    Date: 2023–12
  22. By: Ha Thi Thanh Doan (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia); Kunhyui Kim (Nagoya University); Mahdi Ghodsi (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies)
    Abstract: : Non-tariff measures (NTMs) constitute a grey area where trade policy meets public policy goals. NTMs comprise a diverse set of regulatory policy measures, including testing and certification, rather than traditional international trade policy measures such as tariffs or tariff-rate quotas. Regulatory NTMs protect plants, animals, humans, and consumers from imported harmful products containing diseases; regulate the use of hazardous substances in production; ensure conformity with common standards; and protect the environment. Trade literature has focused on the impact of NTMs on trade flows, whereas few studies address the potential welfare-improving effects of these measures. This paper fills this gap by examining the relationship between NTM applications and the quality of traded products. Two questions are addressed. First, do more or additional burdens of NTMs in the foreign market incur a higher quality of exported products? Second, is the quality impact of NTMs in different sectors different between food and other manufacturing goods? We adopt a recently developed indicator to capture the additional requirements for exporters stemming from importers' imposition of NTMs, and a quality estimator that controls for price. Our empirical results indicate that, overall, divergence in sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures between the two trading partners reduces the quality of traded goods. Furthermore, while the divergence in SPS measures reduces the quality of traded goods in the manufacturing sector, the divergence in technical barriers to trade shows no statistically significant impact on the quality of traded goods between the two trading partners. The results imply that additional costs from technical barriers to trade are negligible compared with those from SPS measures in the manufacturing sector.
    Keywords: additional compliance requirements indicator, international trade, non-tariff measures, quality of traded goods
    JEL: F13 F14
    Date: 2023–05–09
  23. By: Mutmainna, Noor Syawa
    Abstract: Persepsi (Perception) adalah proses pemilihan, pengorganisasian, dan penafsiran informasi dalam rangka untuk memahami dunia di sekitar kita. Perhatian selektif (Selective Attention), apa yang orang anggap sebagai realitas sebenarnya disaring melalui proses persepsi yang tidak sempurna, yang disebut perhatian selektif bahwa informasi yang diterima, disaring oleh indera yang dipengaruhi oleh karakteristik dari orang atau objek yang dirasakan, dan dari individu yang melakukan pengamatan. Memilih informasi yang relevan sebagai bahan pertimbangan pengambilan keputusan. Model mental (Mental Models), teori yang digunakan (theories in-use) dalam memperkirakan keadaan dunia sekitarnya, sebagai panduan persepsi dan perilaku mereka.
    Date: 2023–11–03

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