nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2023‒12‒18
eighteen papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar, Asian Development Bank

  1. 동남아·대양주 유권자들의 보호무역주의 성향 연구와 시사점: 필리핀, 태국, 호주, 뉴질랜드를 중심으로(Voters’Attitudes toward Protectionism in Southeast) Asia and Oceania: Evidence from the Philippines, Thailand, Australia, and New Zealand) By Kim, Nam Seok
  2. "E-ServQual role in Creating Consumer Trust towards Shopee Marketplace during the Covid-19 Pandemic " By Tri Palupi Robustin
  3. E-Commerce and Its Role during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia By Sawada, Yasuyuki; Elhan-Kayalar, Yesim; Shum, Matthew; Xu, Daniel Yi
  4. Financial development, income inequality and institutional quality: A multi-dimensional analysis By Huynh, Cong Minh; Tran, Hoai Nam
  5. Environmental Non-tariff Measures and Trade in APEC Member Economies By Hyun, Hea-Jung
  6. Managers As Decision Makers By Ramadhani, Salwa Sauma
  7. Disaggregated Inflation Dynamics in Thailand: Which Shocks Matter? By Nuwat Nookhwun; Pym Manopimoke
  8. managers as decision makers By Fadila, Hilda
  9. managers as decision makers By Nurlabibah, Putri Salwa
  10. Managers As Decision Makers By Novitasari, Rani Aprillia
  11. "Industrialising" the capacity building of local entrepreneurs. A case study of 1001fontaines' "4G Project" in Cambodia By Guillaume Martin
  12. Wages and the Great War: evidence from the largest draft lottery in history By Bruno Caprettini; Hans-Joachim Voth
  13. Robust discrete-time super-hedging strategies under AIP condition and under price uncertainty By Meriam El Mansour; Emmanuel Lepinette
  14. Global Linkages: Supply, Spillovers, and Common Challenges: A speech at 2023 Asia Economic Policy Conference, sponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Center for Pacific Basin Studies, San Francisco, California., November 16, 2023 By Lisa D. Cook
  15. Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) in the United States. A study of the prevalence, distribution, and impact of FGM/C in the U.S., 2015-2019. By Callaghan, Sean
  16. Public-private partnerships for the circular bio-economy in the Global South: lessons learned By Taron, Avinandan; Majumder, A.; Bodach, Susanne; Agbefu, Dzifa
  18. Resume 3_Perilaku Organisasi_PERCEPTIONS AND LEARNING IN ORGANIZATIONS By Nasruloh, Rido

    Abstract: 본 연구는 동남아·대양주 4개국(필리핀, 태국, 호주, 뉴질랜드) 유권자들의 보호무역주의 성향 결정 요인을 분석하고, 유권자들의 보호무역주의 성향이 투표행위와 연관이 있는지에 대해서 논한다. 유권자들의 보호무역에 대한 태도가 어떻게 형성되는지 이해하기 위해 국제경제학에서 연구되고 있는 내생적 무역정책 형성이론의 미시적 기초를 활용한다. 나아가 유권자들의 정당 지지가 그들의 보호무역정책에 대한 태도에 의해 설명될 여지가 있는지 살펴봄으로써 각국의 통상정책 기조의 변화가 정치경제적 배경에 의해 이해될 수 있음을 확인한다. 이번 연구의 분석 결과는 교역 상대국의 국내 정치경제 상황을 반영하여 통상교섭 전략을 고도화할 필요성을 반영한다. This research analyzes the determinants of voters’ attitudes towards protectionism in four Southeast Asian and Oceania countries (the Philippines, Thailand, Australia, and New Zealand) and discusses whether voters’ attitudes toward protectionism are related to their voting behavior. This study utilizes the endogenous trade policy formation theory in international economics to understand how voters’ attitudes toward protectionism are formed. Furthermore, by examining whether voters’ political party support can be explained by their attitudes toward protectionism, this study confirms that changes in each country’s trade policy orientation can be understood in the context of their domestic political-economic background. The main findings of this study are as follows: Voters in relatively labor-abundant countries such as the Philippines and Thailand prefer protectionist trade policies as their human capital attainment increases. In contrast, voters in relatively capital-abundant countries such as Australia and New Zealand prefer free trade policies as their human capital attainment increases. These findings align with the theoretical predictions of the Heckscher-Ohlin model-based factor endowment approach. However, since the factor endowment approach is based on the long-run assumption of free labor mobility across industries, it may deviate significantly from reality. To address this limitation, the analysis introduces a specific-factor approach that considers rigidities in the labor movement between industries to test whether there are differences in attitudes towards protectionism between voters in comparative advantage industries and voters in comparative disadvantage industries. The results of the analysis show that the theoretical predictions of the specific-factor approach did not have empirical validity for the voters in the four countries.(the rest omitted)
    Keywords: Protectionism; Trade Barrier; Trade Policy; Southeast Asia; Oceania
    Date: 2023–11–10
  2. By: Tri Palupi Robustin (Institut Teknologi dan Bisnis Widya gama Lumajang, Lumajang, East Java, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Author-2-Workplace-Name: Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: " Objective - During the pandemic of Covid-19, consumer behavior has dramatically changed, especially in shopping for daily life needs. The restriction on face-to-face or direct interaction has switched daily shopping transactions from conventional offline shopping to online-based shopping via e-commerce, including the marketplace. This research explores the role of E-Service Quality (E-ServQual) in creating consumers' trust in Shopee, one of the most famous marketplaces in Indonesia. Methodology/Technique - This research sample consisted of 87 respondents using an accidental sampling technique. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. Findings - The results of this study showed that four dimensions of E-ServQual partially affect consumer trust at Shopee, i.e., efficiency, fulfilment, privacy, and responsiveness. However, the three dimensions of E-ServQual, i.e., reliability, compensation, and contact, do not affect consumer trust. The research results also show that all E-ServQual dimensions simultaneously affect consumer trust. Novelty - However, the three dimensions of E-ServQual, i.e., reliability, compensation, and contact, do not affect consumer trust. Type of Paper - Empirical"
    Keywords: E-ServQual, Marketplace, Trust, Shopee.
    JEL: D12 M30 M39
    Date: 2023–06–30
  3. By: Sawada, Yasuyuki (University of Tokyo); Elhan-Kayalar, Yesim (Asian Development Bank); Shum, Matthew (California Institute of Technology); Xu, Daniel Yi (Duke University)
    Abstract: Micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) are recognized as crucial drivers of economic development, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The advent of digital platforms, characterized by economies of scale and significant cross-network externalities in two-sided markets, has brought about unprecedented changes to people’s daily lives, employment, businesses, and markets. These transformations have unlocked opportunities for MSMEs. In this paper, we analyze the dynamics of e-commerce and how they unfolded during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, using a unique, composite dataset focusing on GoFood merchants in Indonesia. This paper makes a notable contribution by expanding the analysis of the platform efficiency contributions into static efficiency and dynamic efficiency perspectives. Our analysis reveals three key findings. First, online platforms like Gojek offered a novel form of social safety nets for MSMEs. Second, as the COVID-19 pandemic intensified, we observed market congestion externalities and cannibalization tendencies. Third, women- and men-owned businesses opted for different crisis-mitigation and coping strategies. Vulnerable microenterprises, often owned by women merchants with limited support networks and business assets, were disproportionately affected by the pandemic. Overall, our study demonstrates that the rapid acceleration of digital transformation during the COVID-19 pandemic presents unique research opportunities on distributive justice, external effects, and scale economies, as well as related competition policies
    Keywords: digital platform; distributive justice; e-commerce; platform economies; MSMEs; scale economies; two-sided network externalities; competition policy; COVID-19 pandemic
    JEL: D22 D63 L25 L26
    Date: 2023–11–24
  4. By: Huynh, Cong Minh; Tran, Hoai Nam
    Abstract: Ambiguous impacts of financial development on income inequality in the literature imply that the impacts can be affected by other variables and may depend on different dimensions of financial development. This paper studies the effects of financial development with multi-dimensional analysis (financial depth, financial access and financial efficiency) of two main categories (financial institutions and financial markets) and institutional quality on income inequality in 30 Asian countries in the period 2000 – 2019. Results show that the financial institutions development (FI), the financial institutions access (FIA), the financial institutions efficiency (FIE), and the financial markets access (FMA) reduce income inequality; but the overall financial development (OFD), the financial markets development (FM), the financial institutions depth (FID), and the financial markets depths (FMD) increase it. Notably, better institutional quality not only lessens income inequality, but also moderates the effects of financial development on income inequality. Specifically, the improvement of institutional quality strengthens the beneficial effects of FI, FIA, FIE, and FMA on income inequality. Meanwhile, OFD, FM, FID, and FMD initially exacerbate income inequality until respective thresholds of institutional quality, and then beyond those levels of IQ, these indicators of financial development reduce income inequality. Results are robust with various estimators. These findings strongly support the importance of financial development with multi-dimensions and institutional reform in Asian countries as they have both direct and indirect impacts on income inequality through their mutual interactions.
    Keywords: Asian countries; Financial development; Income inequality; Institutional quality.
    JEL: D31 D53 E02 O16 P48
    Date: 2022–05–07
    Abstract: This study examines how environmental nontariff measures (NTMs) affect trade in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies. Using product-level panel data spanning 2009–2020, we find that stringent environmental NTMs reduce trade in APEC member economies, whereas no significant effect exists when exporting is destined to non-APEC economies. The trade-impeding effect of NTMs is prominent in exports of dirty goods from economies with high-intensity greenhouse gas emissions through additional adaptation costs to meet environmental standards set by high-income importing countries with the high-intensity imposition of the measure. Results imply that APEC economies need to enhance effective environmental regulations by taking the heterogeneous effects of NTMs on trade across industries and types of measures into account.
    Keywords: Environmental Nontariff Measure; Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT); Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measure (SPS); APEC; International Trade
    JEL: F13 F14 F15
    Date: 2023–11–23
  6. By: Ramadhani, Salwa Sauma
    Abstract: 1. Keputusan 2. Membuat pilihan dari dua alternatif atau lebih. 3. Proses Pengambilan Keputusan 4. Mengidentifikasi suatu masalah dan kriteria pengambilan keputusan serta pengalokasiannya bobot sesuai kriteria. 5. Mengembangkan, menganalisis, dan memilih alternatif yang bisa menyelesaikan masalahnya. 6. Menerapkan alternatif yang dipilih. 7. Mengevaluasi efektivitas keputusan
    Date: 2023–11–04
  7. By: Nuwat Nookhwun; Pym Manopimoke
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of sector-specific and common macroeconomic shocks towards explaining the dynamics of disaggregated price series and overall headline inflation in Thailand. Based on applying a Bayesian factor-augmented VAR model with zero and sign restrictions on a large dataset of macroeconomic and disaggregated price data, we identify domestic and global structural macroeconomic shocks and study their contributions to inflation volatility and dynamics. We find that sector-specific shocks account for over 80 percent of the variation in disaggregated price series. Common macroeconomic shocks, on the other hand, drive the majority of inflation dynamics at the aggregated level, in which most of these common shocks have origins that are global in nature. For Thailand, global demand and oil price shocks are the two main drivers of headline inflation, and transmit mainly through energy prices. We also find that the dominant role of global shocks helps explain the rather low persistence of Thai inflation movements, as they generate lower overall inflation persistence than domestically-oriented shocks.
    Keywords: Disaggregated prices; Inflation; Factor-augmented VAR; Sign restrictions; Monetary policy
    JEL: C32 E31 E37
    Date: 2023–12
  8. By: Fadila, Hilda
    Abstract: Pengambilan Keputusan 1. Keputusan Membuat pilihan dari dua alternatif atau lebih 2. Proses Pengambilan Keputusan 1) Mengidentifikasi suatu masalah dan kriteria pengambilan keputusan serta pengalokasiannya bobot sesuai kriteria 2) Mengembangkan, menganalisis, dan memilih alternatif yang bisa menyelesaikan masalahnya 3) Menerapkan alternatif yang dipilih. 4) Mengevaluasi efektivitas keputusan.
    Date: 2023–11–05
  9. By: Nurlabibah, Putri Salwa
    Abstract: 1. Pengambilan Keputusan o Keputusan o Membuat pilihan dari dua alternatif atau lebih. o Proses Pengambilan Keputusan o Mengidentifikasi suatu masalah dan kriteria pengambilan keputusan serta pengalokasiannya bobot sesuai kriteria. o Mengembangkan, menganalisis, dan memilih alternatif yang bisa menyelesaikan masalahnya. o Menerapkan alternatif yang dipilih. o Mengevaluasi efektivitas keputusan.
    Date: 2023–11–04
  10. By: Novitasari, Rani Aprillia
    Abstract: Pengambilan Keputusan a. Keputusan - Membuat pilihan dari dua alternatif atau lebih. b. Proses Pengambilan Keputusan - Mengidentifikasi suatu masalah dan kriteria pengambilan keputusan serta pengalokasiannya bobot sesuai kriteria. - Mengembangkan, menganalisis, dan memilih alternatif yang bisa menyelesaikan masalahnya. - Menerapkan alternatif yang dipilih. - Mengevaluasi efektivitas keputusan.
    Date: 2023–11–04
  11. By: Guillaume Martin (Humanis - Hommes et management en société / Humans and management in society - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg)
    Abstract: In Cambodia, only 16% of the population in rural areas has access to safely managed and clean water supply services, putting the health of 10.12 million people at stake. (Cambodia's Voluntary National Review 2019 of the Implementation of the 2030 SDG Agenda). 1001fontaines, a community-based enterprise located mainly in Cambodia, responds to this issue by enabling the production of safe drinking water directly in the targeted communities, through the establishment of small water enterprises. These units, called water kiosks, are entrusted to local entrepreneurs and supported in the long run thanks to a franchise model. In 2014, 1001fontaines su ered from low-performing water kiosks, which impacted the viability of the whole portfolio. As a result, 1001fontaines decided to launch the so-called "4G" capacity building project to upgrade the initial and continuing training of water entrepreneurs, expand distribution channels, and further leverage the local "O-We" brand to reach more bene ciaries. The "4G project" was implemented from 2014 to 2015, and resulted in the identi cation of best practices to be followed by every water entrepreneur. Since 2016, 1001fontaines has generalised the use of these best practices to build the capacities of new entrepreneurs. This case study aims to investigate the impact of the "4G project" and its conclusion on the water kiosks' performance and on 1001fontaines' ability to better and faster scale up its approach in Cambodia.
    Keywords: Capacity building local entrepreneurs scale-up social marketing sustainability, Capacity building, local entrepreneurs, scale-up, social marketing, sustainability
    Date: 2021–12–31
  12. By: Bruno Caprettini; Hans-Joachim Voth
    Abstract: Do veterans earn less? During WW I, the US organized “the greatest human lottery in history”: a random draft of 24 million men. Ultimately, 2.8 million Americans were selected to join the armed forces. We sample 10% of registrants of the 1917 lottery and match these men with the 1930 and 1940 US Federal Censuses. Low lottery numbers significantly increased the likelihood of serving in World War I. Importantly, military service also had a positive causal effect on earnings and occupational outcomes. Veterans joined professions with higher cognitive skill requirements, including higher intelligence, language, reasoning, and math requirements. Randomly-assigned military service had fundamentally different effects during World War I than in Vietnam. We rationalize this finding by analyzing complier characteristics.
    Keywords: Veterans’ income, lottery, IV, effect of war participation
    JEL: N42 J45 I23 J24 N32
    Date: 2023–11
  13. By: Meriam El Mansour; Emmanuel Lepinette
    Abstract: We solve the problem of super-hedging European or Asian options for discrete-time financial market models where executable prices are uncertain. The risky asset prices are not described by single-valued processes but measurable selections of random sets that allows to consider a large variety of models including bid-ask models with order books, but also models with a delay in the execution of the orders. We provide a numerical procedure to compute the infimum price under a weak no-arbitrage condition, the so-called AIP condition, under which the prices of the non negative European options are non negative. This condition is weaker than the existence of a risk-neutral martingale measure but it is sufficient to numerically solve the super-hedging problem. We illustrate our method by a numerical example.
    Date: 2023–11
  14. By: Lisa D. Cook
    Date: 2023–11–16
  15. By: Callaghan, Sean
    Abstract: This report reveals that previous FGM/C studies in the United States overestimated the affected population due to not accounting for the impact of migration. The previous estimate suggested over half a million impacted women and girls, while our calculation indicates 421, 000 affected individuals in 2019. Most of these were already living with FGM/C, with 31, 000 children at risk. Our study employs the extrapolation method, using prevalence rates from 26 countries of origin, population data from the 2015-2019 American Community Survey, and the impact of migration and acculturation on prevalence. When migration is considered, the estimated number of potentially impacted individuals increases to 577, 000, primarily due to migration into the U.S. Predominant communities identified were Egyptian, Somali, Ethiopian, Nigerian, Indonesian, Sudanese, and Malay. With the reduction in prevalence due to migration and acculturation, we estimated that 385, 000 women and girls were living with FGM/C in 2019, with 31, 000 girls at risk. Additionally, 5, 500 women and girls from the Dawoodi Bohra community were likely impacted, bringing the total to 421, 000. In 2019, half of the at-risk girls lived in six states: Minnesota, California, New York, Texas, Washington, and Virginia, with ancestral ties to the wider Horn of Africa. We also estimated 68, 000 women living with Type 3 FGM/C, with half residing in Minnesota, Ohio, California, Texas, and Washington. The impacted community was found to be poorer and more urban than the American average. This report includes state-by-state analyses for use in advocacy and education efforts. Furthermore, the report offers recommendations based on the 7P framework, centering on prevalence and framing responses (provision, prevention, protection, and prosecution) within policy and partnership. 1. **Prevalence**: Update estimates when new population data becomes available, and analyze the full census dataset for more accurate results. 2. **Partnership**: Establish and strengthen partnerships between affected communities, civil society organizations, service providers, and governments at various levels. 3. **Policy**: Shape policy using the 7P framework, emphasizing partnerships to enhance services for survivors and community-led prevention efforts. 4. **Provision**: Equip healthcare professionals to treat FGM/C survivors, including training in communication and cultural sensitivity. 5. **Prevention**: Initiate prevention strategies working with families before children are born and continuing through elementary school. 6. **Protection**: Consider the age of risk when designing protection mechanisms to balance the safeguarding of at-risk girls without discriminating against those who are not at risk. 7. **Prosecution**: Hone laws to comprehensively combat FGM/C in the United States, supporting survivors and professionals who may encounter FGM/C cases. A comprehensive approach that integrates prevalence, partnership, policy, provision, prevention, protection, and prosecution is essential to support the communities affected by this practice in the United States.
    Date: 2023–11–04
  16. By: Taron, Avinandan; Majumder, A.; Bodach, Susanne; Agbefu, Dzifa
    Abstract: Processing biomass from different waste streams into marketable products such as organic fertilizer and bio-energy is increasingly realized through public-private partnerships (PPPs). In developing countries, the private sector can be expected to contribute technical skills, organizational capabilities and marketing expertise, and leverage capital inflow. In contrast, the public sector will provide the regulatory framework and help its enforcement, plan public investment, involve and educate stakeholders, and ensure waste supply. This report reviews case studies that implemented PPPs in resource recovery and reuse (RRR) from waste streams with a particular focus on Asia and Africa, including those PPPs facilitated by the authors. Critical factors behind the success and failure of these cases are analyzed. The review indicates three key barriers to success: (i) waste-related bottlenecks, (ii) limited awareness about RRR products and their market(ing), and (iii) lack of proper institutional frameworks. Common shortfalls concern failure to meet commitments related to the quality and quantity of waste, missing understanding of the reuse market, etc. The report points out mitigation measures addressing possible challenges around appropriate technologies, finance and revenue streams, legal issues, as well as social and environmental concerns. It is required to establish close monitoring, appropriate procurement mechanisms and due diligence during the project preparation and pre-bid. If possible, such a PPP project should consider risk and commercial viability assessment as well as financial strategy planning (scaling). Successful involvement of the private sector in the RRR market is critical to close the resource loop and safeguard human and environmental health, which is the overarching objective of sustainable waste management.
    Keywords: Resource recovery; Resource management; Reuse; Circular economy; Bioeconomy; Public-private partnerships; Developing countries; Case studies; Waste management; Solid wastes; Recycling; Composting; Organic wastes; Organic fertilizers; Bioenergy; Biogas
    Date: 2023
  17. By: lestari, Nova dwi
    Abstract: PERSEPSI DALAM ORGANISASI Persepsi (Perception) adalah proses pemilihan, pengorganisasian, dan penafsiran informasi dalam rangka untuk memahami dunia di sekitar kita. Perhatian selektif (Selective attention). Apa yang orang anggap sebagai realitas sebenarnya disaring melalui proses persepsi yang tidak sempurna, yang disebut perhatian selektif bahwa informasi yang diterima, disaring oleh indera yang dipengaruhi oleh karakteristik dari orang atau objek yang dirasakan, dan dari individu yang melakukan pengamatan. Model mental (Mental Models). Teori yang digunakan (theories in-use) dalam memperkirakan keadaan dunia sekitarnya, sebagai panduan persepsi dan perilaku mereka
    Date: 2023–11–05
  18. By: Nasruloh, Rido
    Abstract: Persepsi (Perception) adalah proses pemilihan, pengorganisasian, dan penafsiran informasi dalam rangka untuk memahami dunia di sekitar kita. Perhatian selektif (Selective attention). Apa yang orang anggap sebagai realitas sebenarnya disaring melalui proses persepsi yang tidak sempurna, yang disebut perhatian selektif bahwa informasi yang diterima, disaring oleh indera yang dipengaruhi oleh karakteristik dari orang atau objek yang dirasakan, dan dari individu yang melakukan pengamatan. Model mental (Mental Models). Teori yang digunakan (theories in-use) dalam memperkirakan keadaan dunia sekitarnya, sebagai panduan persepsi dan perilaku mereka.
    Date: 2023–11–05

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