nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2023‒11‒27
twenty-six papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar, Asian Development Bank

  1. Literature Review : Perkembangan Cryptocurrency dan Potensi Pajaknya Di Indonesia By Wicaksono, Achmad
  3. The Relationship Between Risky Behaviors and Lifestyle and Socioeconomic Factors in Indonesian Urban Areas By Naufal Mohamad Firdausyan; Arif Anindita; Novat Pugo Sambodo; Gumilang Aryo Sahadewo
  4. The Effect of Monetary Policy & Macroprudential Policy and Their Interaction on Bank Risk-Taking in Indonesia By Hero Wonida; Sekar Utami Setiastuti
  5. Does irrigation development mitigate weather extremes’ impacts and reduce poverty? Evidence from rural Southeast Asia By Manh Hung Do; Trung Thanh Nguyen
  6. Living Wage Update Report: Rural Ilocos Sur Province, the Philippines, 2023 By Agnes Medinaceli; Lykke E. Andersen; Marcelo Delajara; Richard Anker; Martha Anker
  7. The Retirement Consumption Puzzle Effect in Indonesia: Evidence from IFLS 4 and 5 By Margareta Vania Putri; Catur Sugiyanto
  8. A Hazy Future: Exploring the Effect of Air Pollution on Child Development in Indonesia By Muhammad Aulia Anis; Wisnu Setiadi Nugroho; Eny Sulistyaningrum
  9. Impact of Germany's Cultural Diplomacy in Vietnam: A Comparative Analysis with Other European Countries By blessing, elisha; eric, charles; alexis, serena
  10. International Relations And Global Politics: Germany’s Cultural Diplomacy: A Political-Logical Case Study Of Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung In Vietnam By blessing, elisha; eric, charles; alexis, serena
  11. Saving up and diversifying income for a rainy day: Implications for households' resilience strategies and poverty By Manh Hung Do
  12. Technologies follow technologies and occasionally social groups By Michael Huebler; Dorothee Buehler
  13. Health Spending Efficiency in Developing Asia By Bajaro, Donna Faye; Jinjarak, Yothin; Myoda, Yuho; Park, Donghyun; Quising, Pilipinas
  14. Feminization U Curve: Structural Transformation Impact on Female Labour Force Participation in Asia By Hasibuana Laras Kinanti; Evi Noor Afifah
  15. The effects of disability on households' economic livelihoods and poverty in Vietnam By Sean Kiely; Dorothee Buehler; Ute Rink; Kristin Kiesel
  16. Spatial Analysis of Youth Unemployment in Indonesia: Minimum Wages and Industrial Mix By Mayrano Andrianus Sitinjak; Diny Ghuzini
  17. Kinh tế báo chí: Yếu tố con người trong hệ sinh thái truyền thông của thời đại công nghệ 4.0 By Ho, Tung Manh; Nguyen, Viet-Ha T.
  18. Một số vấn đề môi trường cần lưu ý khi khai thác và tinh chế Nickel By Vuong, Quan-Hoang; Nguyen, Minh-Hoang; La, Viet-Phuong
  19. 동지중해 천연가스 개발 현황과 한국의 협력 방안(Natural Gas Development in the Eastern Mediterranean Region and Its Implications for Korea) By Ryou, Kwang Ho; Lee, Jieun
  20. Multiple Dimensions of Green Spaces and Their Interaction with Mental Wellbeing: A Comparative Analysis between Singapore and Hong Kong By Kwan Ok Lee; Hey Yeung
  21. Predictors of entrepreneurial attitude among administrators of selected community colleges and universities in Leyte By Jereco Jims J. Agapito; Liza Lorena C Jala; Rosemarie Cruz-Español; Anthony G Esguerra
  22. FDI spillovers and productivity in Vietnamese manufacturing industries - New insights from the unconditional quantile regression By Thanh Tam Nguyen-Huu
  23. Factors Affecting Carbon Dioxide Emissions Embodied in Trade By Kang , Jong Woo; Gapay, Joshua Anthony
  24. Geopolitics and the electric vehicle revolution By Robert J.R. Elliott; Gavin Harper; Benjamin Jones; Viet Nguyen-Tien
  25. Nỗ lực chống biến đổi khí hậu của ta đã thật sự hiệu quả chưa? By La, Viet-Phuong; Nguyen, Minh-Hoang
  26. Re-Assessing the Impacts of Exports on Local Labour Market Outcomes: A Supply Chain Perspective. Evidence from Egypt By Tillian, Pablo; Kokas, Deeksha; Góes, Carlos; Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys

  1. By: Wicaksono, Achmad
    Abstract: Riset atau penelitian ini dilakukan untuk membuktikan Perkembangan Cryptocurrency dan Potensi Pajaknya Di Indonesia. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menjadi salah satu aspek perpajakan yang dikenakan pada aset crypto adalah Pajak Pertambahan Nilai (PPN) dan PPh. Metode yang digunakan adalah literature review. Sumber-sumber jurnal tersebut peneliti didapatkan dari berbagai platform penyedia jurnal yang beredar di internet seperti Web dan Artikel. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa Cryptocurrency sebagai pengganti sistem perbankan yang tersentralisasi dimana setiap transaksi yang terjadi berada dibawa pengawasan bank dan juga bisa dijadikan sebagai alat pembayaran transaksi pembelian online dengan di tukarkan menjadi mata uang lain seperti dollar, yen, rupiah dan mata uang lainnya. Salah satu faktor terpenting yang menentukan pergerakan harga Cryptocurrency adalah besar persediaan aset crypto tersebut.
    Date: 2023–10–15
  2. By: Kinasih, Diajeng Arum Sekar
    Abstract: Indonesia is still struggling to become one of the developed countries. Even so, in the process there are still often found officials who try to cheat in every development project of this country. Their corruption will have an impact on various fields such as economics, social, even law and politics. Each affected sector will also impact on other sectors which will later make a decline in the development of the country if corruption cannot be treated immediately. Infrastructure development that is hampered by the corruption of the organizer will again tackle Indonesia's efforts to move forward. Even so, Indonesia also has an authorized institution to eradicate the corruption case, the Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK). The KPK will actively continue to carry out its duties and authority to capture corruptors to its roots. As an Indonesian society, it will certainly be furious and even won't believe in the government. This will trigger divisions and conflicts between the community and the government can even be fatal like the revolutionary movement that will stop government with no respect. The community certainly does not want the same thing to happen again. As society we can also play an active role with prevention or as reporters when we know that corruption occurs in our environment.
    Date: 2023–10–14
  3. By: Naufal Mohamad Firdausyan (Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada); Arif Anindita (Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics, University of Insubria); Novat Pugo Sambodo (Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada); Gumilang Aryo Sahadewo (Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada)
    Abstract: Assessment of determinants of risky behaviors, such as smoking, vaping, alcohol consumption, and drug abuse, is critically important to be conducted. Nonetheless, previous studies only looked at the role of socioeconomic factors and their relationship to risky behaviors in young people, but did not consider the lifestyle. To address this issue, we utilized microdata from the Narcotics Board of Indonesia (BNN), namely the Indonesia Urban Lifestyle Community Survey 2018, to determine which characteristics, in terms of lifestyle and socioeconomic factors, are related to the conduct of smoking, vaping, alcohol consumption, and drug abuse among young adolescents in Indonesia. Using the logistic regression method, we discovered that risky behaviors are a vicious circle. Peer effect has been linked to a higher likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors as well as nightclub visits. Gender, education, and parental education were all significant socioeconomic factors for some behaviors. This result implies that the effort to alleviate the prevalence of risky behaviors must be integrated and comprehensive.
    Keywords: Adolescent, Risky Behavior, Lifestyle, Sociodemography, Logistic Regression
    JEL: C35 I12 J13
    Date: 2023–08
  4. By: Hero Wonida (Bank Indonesia); Sekar Utami Setiastuti (Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada)
    Abstract: We use the Indonesian quarterly bank-level data from 2009Q1 to 2021Q1 to investigate the effect of monetary policy, macroprudential policy, and the interaction between both policies on bank risk-taking in Indonesia. Several important results emerge. Firstly, we find evidences of the existence of risk-taking channels of the monetary policy in Indonesia, and that both bank size and level of capital have a relatively significant negative impact on bank risk-taking. Secondly, macroprudential policy tightening lowers bank risk-taking. We also find that the interaction between macroprudential policy and monetary policy tightening lowers risk-taking.
    Keywords: Monetary policy, Macroprudential policy, Bank risk-taking
    JEL: G21 G28 G32
    Date: 2023–08
  5. By: Manh Hung Do; Trung Thanh Nguyen
    Abstract: Water is critical for agriculture in developing countries and climate change has created extreme weather events that push farmers into poverty. In this study, we first examine the role of year-round irrigation at village level in ensuring irrigation at household level and helping farmers to cope with weather shocks. We then investigate the effects of irrigation on crop farming efficiency, income, and poverty of rural households. We use a panel dataset of 1, 681 households in Thailand and 1, 699 households in Vietnam collected in 2010, 2013, and 2016 with a total number of 10, 140 observations. Our results show that the availability of year-round irrigation at village level positively and significantly increases the share of irrigated land areas at household level. Besides, weather shocks significantly decrease crop farming efficiency and an improvement in irrigation has a positive effect on farming efficiency. Further, an increase in irrigated land share at household level increases crop income and total household income, and decreases poverty. Our results suggest that making irrigation water available throughout the year is needed for farmers to cope with extreme weather events and to escape from poverty. This should be done by developing infrastructure for ensuring year-round irrigation.
    Keywords: Thailand, Vietnam, Irrigation, Multidimensional poverty, Instrumental variable
    JEL: Q57 Q12 R20
    Date: 2023–07
  6. By: Agnes Medinaceli (SDSN Bolivia); Lykke E. Andersen (SDSN Bolivia); Marcelo Delajara (Anker Research Institute); Richard Anker (Anker Research Institute); Martha Anker (Anker Research Institute)
    Abstract: This report provides updated estimates of the living income and living wage for rural Ilocos Sur Province, in the Philippines. The update for June 2023 takes into account inflation since the last living income update report in November 2022 (Dacuycuy, Nario, Khan, Anker & Anker, 2022).
    Keywords: Living costs, living wages, Anker Methodology, Philippines
    JEL: J30 J50 J80
    Date: 2023–07
  7. By: Margareta Vania Putri (Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada); Catur Sugiyanto (Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada)
    Abstract: This study aims to see whether there is a decline in consumption in retirement which is not in line with the life cycle hypothesis (consumption puzzle effect). Previous studies revealed that consumption has shifted when entering retirement due to efficient spending. This research analyzes the consumption pattern of the Indonesian elderly peculiarly in the frame of the retirement consumption puzzle. Utilizing data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) wave 4 and 5 from 2007 and 2014, and this study constructed panel data with a total sample of 2, 556 individuals. The Difference in Differences (DiD) method is used to see whether the change in labor status toward retirement causes a decrease in household consumption. As robustness, this study also uses the division of age categories. The results of this study indicate that there is a retirement consumption puzzle in Indonesia, with a decrease of 19.9% in total expenditure per capita. The consumption decrease in retirement indicates government should consider pension funds and create social security programs to maintain the welfare of the elderly.
    Keywords: Retirement, Household Consumption, Life Cycle Hypothesis, DiD
    JEL: D13 I31 J22 K31
    Date: 2023–03
  8. By: Muhammad Aulia Anis (Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada); Wisnu Setiadi Nugroho (Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada); Eny Sulistyaningrum (Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada)
    Abstract: Air pollution is a significant issue in emerging economies like Indonesia, with detrimental effects on human health. This study aimed to analyse the impact of air pollution on child development, using various datasets and employing an instrumental variable approach. The findings revealed that an increase of 1 𠜇𠑔/𠑚3 in regional PM 2.5 concentration had a significant negative effect on child growth, reducing height-for-age and weight-for-age scores by 0.08 standard deviations. No significant impact was observed on the stunting variable. The study also found that girls were particularly susceptible to impaired child development due to air pollution. These results emphasize the need for policies targeting air pollution reduction to support healthy child development, especially in low-income households.
    Keywords: Air Pollution, Child Development, PM 2.5, Instrumental Variable
    JEL: I15 Q51 Q53
    Date: 2023–08
  9. By: blessing, elisha; eric, charles; alexis, serena
    Abstract: Introduction: Cultural diplomacy, the art of fostering mutual understanding through cultural exchanges, stands as a cornerstone in shaping international relations. In an interconnected world, nations utilize cultural diplomacy to build bridges, share values, and enhance cooperation. Germany, renowned for its rich cultural heritage and diplomatic acumen, has been actively engaging in cultural diplomacy initiatives worldwide, including in Vietnam, a nation with a vibrant history and a diverse cultural tapestry. This study delves into the intricate realm of Germany's cultural diplomacy in Vietnam, seeking to understand its impact and effectiveness. However, to comprehensively grasp the significance of Germany's efforts, it is essential to contextualize them within the broader landscape of European cultural diplomacy in Vietnam. This research embarks on a comparative analysis, examining not only Germany’s initiatives but also those of other European countries operating within the Vietnamese cultural milieu. The rationale behind this comparative study lies in its potential to unearth nuanced insights. By juxtaposing Germany's strategies with those of other European nations, this research aims to unravel patterns, successes, and challenges in cultural diplomacy. How do Germany’s cultural initiatives in Vietnam compare to those of its European counterparts? What distinctive approaches have different European countries employed? What impact have these initiatives had on Vietnamese society, politics, and perceptions? As we navigate through this comparative analysis, a deeper understanding will emerge, shedding light on the various dimensions of cultural diplomacy. By drawing parallels and distinctions, this study not only illuminates the effectiveness of Germany's cultural diplomacy in Vietnam but also contributes to the broader discourse on the role of cultural exchanges in shaping international relations. In doing so, it paves the way for a more nuanced and informed approach to cultural diplomacy in an increasingly interconnected global landscape.
    Date: 2023–10–15
  10. By: blessing, elisha; eric, charles; alexis, serena
    Abstract: I. Introduction In the intricate tapestry of international relations and global politics, cultural diplomacy stands out as a powerful tool, weaving connections, bridging gaps, and fostering understanding between nations. Within this framework, Germany has long been a stalwart proponent of cultural diplomacy, recognizing its potential to shape perceptions, influence policy, and facilitate meaningful dialogue on the world stage. At the heart of Germany’s cultural diplomacy efforts lies the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES), an institution whose initiatives in Vietnam serve as a compelling case study. This exploration delves into the intricacies of FES’s endeavors, dissecting the political and logical dimensions that underpin its initiatives in Vietnam. The study of FES’s cultural diplomacy in Vietnam provides a unique lens through which to examine the intersections of politics and logic within the realm of international relations. By narrowing our focus to this specific case, we embark on a nuanced analysis of the deliberate strategies, collaborative partnerships, and socio-political impacts that characterize Germany’s engagement with Vietnam. In understanding the political motivations that drive cultural diplomacy and the logical discourse that accompanies it, we gain valuable insights into the broader landscape of global politics. This study endeavors to unravel the layers of Germany’s cultural diplomacy by probing into the multifaceted approach adopted by FES in Vietnam. As we navigate through the historical context of Germany-Vietnam relations and the conceptual underpinnings of cultural diplomacy, we lay the groundwork for a comprehensive analysis. Through an exploration of FES’s objectives, methods, and the outcomes of its initiatives, we aim to decipher the intricate dynamics at play. From educational programs fostering political awareness to cultural exchanges nurturing logical thinking, each facet of FES’s involvement underscores the symbiotic relationship between politics and logical discourse in diplomacy.
    Date: 2023–10–14
  11. By: Manh Hung Do
    Abstract: Understanding households’ resilience-building strategies is vital for the domains of humanitarian assistance, economic development, and poverty reduction, especially in the places where are vulnerable to shocks. In this study, we assess the correlation between households’ risk attitude and their resilience-building strategies, namely savings as an absorptive capacity and income diversification as an adaptive capacity. We examine the effects of these resilience strategies on reducing the impacts of shocks and poverty. We use a panel data of 1227 identical households for Vietnam in two waves of the Thailand Vietnam Socio Economic Panel (TVSEP) project to investigate the above issues. Our results from instrumental variable (IV) estimations show that more risk-adverse households tend to save more and diversify their income portfolios. These precautionary strategies to build up their resilience capacity help prevent them from reducing consumption to cope with shocks and from falling into poverty in absolute, relative, and multidimensional measures. We suggest that rural development policies in developing countries should focus on facilitating more income generation and employment opportunities. Furthermore, the development of rural education and infrastructure for information and communication technology (ICT) should be taken into account of designing poverty reduction programs.
    Keywords: Panel data, Absorptive capacity, Adaptive capacity, Instrumental variables
    JEL: C33 Q00 Q12
    Date: 2023–06
  12. By: Michael Huebler; Dorothee Buehler
    Abstract: An innovative model describing the convergence of technology use at the micro level is introduced. ICT (information and communication technology) ownership, measured as the number of smartphones within a household, depends upon socioeconomic character- istics, such as income, education, technologies and occupation. ICT ownership and the socioeconomic characteristics are specified in relative terms between household pairs. Indicators for jointly belonging to a social group define a new explanatory variable type. Applying this model to survey and geographic data on rural households in Thailand and Vietnam, Heckman-type regressions show that better education and existing technologies unequivocally enhance convergence of ICT ownership among households, whereas the effect of social groups depends on the specific group. Self-employment or employment outside agriculture enhance convergence, whereas farming or employment in agriculture lead to divergence. The results advice policymakers to support the spread of ICT that provides access to valuable information and creates income-generating opportunities.
    Keywords: ICT, Smartphones, Technology diffusion, Rural development, Social networks
    JEL: F63 O33 Q12 Q17 Q54
    Date: 2023–10
  13. By: Bajaro, Donna Faye (Asian Development Bank); Jinjarak, Yothin (Asian Development Bank); Myoda, Yuho (Asian Development Bank); Park, Donghyun (Asian Development Bank); Quising, Pilipinas (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic placed health-care systems around the world under great stress. The sharp increase in demand for health care highlighted the importance of efficient health spending. The negative impact of the pandemic on global economic growth further strengthened the case for efficient health spending. In this paper, we examine health spending efficiency in developing Asia. Using data envelopment analysis, we find that East Asia has the highest average output- and input-oriented technical efficiency scores among the subregions. Universal health coverage service coverage index and population density have the strongest effect on health spending efficiency. In addition, using the novel framework of macro-level efficiency analysis, we find that developing Asia falls short of optimal total health expenditures. Caucasus and Central Asia has the highest average allocative efficiency score among the subregions. Overall, developing Asia has substantial room for improvement in both technical and allocative efficiency.
    Keywords: health spending; data envelopment analysis; technical efficiency; allocative efficiency
    JEL: C10 C60 H51 I10
    Date: 2023–10–27
  14. By: Hasibuana Laras Kinanti (Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada); Evi Noor Afifah (Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada)
    Abstract: This research aims to observe the relationship between female labour force participation with economic development and to test Feminization U Curve (FEMU) hypothesis in Asian countries for the period 1990-2018. FEMU model is estimated with static model Fixed Effect as conducted in the initial research and elaborated with dynamic panel model Generalized Method of Moments (GMM). Overall, the static and dynamic model confirmed the U curve relationship between female labour force participation and economic development in accordance with FEMU hypothesis, thus female labour force participation decreases when the economy undergoes structural transformation from agricultural to industrial, and it will rise as the economy goes service sector. The hypothesis is also confirmed in the country-income categorized model. The U curve is more consistent in static model compared to the dynamic one. In addition to the structural changes that has been occurring, the dynamics of female labour force participation in Asia also can be explained with the decline in fertility rate and improvement of female tertiary education.
    Keywords: Feminization U Curve, female labour force participation, economic development, GMM dynamic model
    JEL: J01 J16 J21 L16 O11
    Date: 2023–08
  15. By: Sean Kiely; Dorothee Buehler; Ute Rink; Kristin Kiesel
    Abstract: Could households be both more vulnerable and more resilient to shocks depending on the type of shock experienced and the overall circumstances in which they live? If so, what policy implications can be drawn from such findings? We investigate both the immediate effects of shocks on household’s income and assets, and the longer-term poverty dynamics of households with a disabled member (DH) and without a disabled member (NDH) in Vietnam. Additionally, we assess differences in behaviors and beliefs between these two household groups and the extent to which these differences can explain variations in the impact of shocks on their economic livelihoods. Our results indicate that DHs are more risk averse and believe they will face more health shocks than NDHs, but also experience a greater number of health shocks and total shocks. Examining the immediate impact of shocks, we find that DHs are more resilient in the face of health-related shocks, however, they face large income losses when confronted with weather and agricultural shocks. While these immediate effects may lead one to conclude that policies for DHs should address these natural shocks, our poverty dynamics analysis paints a different picture. Households with a disabled member that face one or more health shocks are significantly more likely to have experienced chronic or transitory poverty than households where a disability is not present. Yet, these households are no more likely to end up in poverty when faced with shocks outside of the health domain. This suggests that the greater number of cumulative shocks, primarily driven by more frequently experienced health shocks, makes them more vulnerable to natural shocks than NDHs and weakens their overall resiliency. Thus, the cumulative number of health shocks may be the strongest determinant of poverty in the long run for DHs, and policies aimed at reducing poverty need to account for the unique experiences of these households.
    Keywords: Poverty dynamics, Disability, Cumulative shocks, Risk preferences, Panel data, Vietnam
    JEL: D13 I32 I12
    Date: 2023–07
  16. By: Mayrano Andrianus Sitinjak (Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Empat Lawang); Diny Ghuzini (Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Gadjah Mada)
    Abstract: This study examines the spatial distribution of youth unemployment rates (15–24 years old) and the impact of wages and industrial composition on these rates in Indonesian provinces. The persistently high youth unemployment rate and uneven distribution of youth labor across provinces have motivated this research. Data from 2010 to 2018, sourced from Sakernas and other BPS publications, were analyzed for 33 Indonesian provinces. This study employed Moran's index and spatial panel data regression methods. The findings reveal a clustered spatial pattern of youth unemployment rates among provinces. The best-fitting model, identified as the Spatial Durbin Model (SDM) with random effects, indicates that increasing the minimum wage ratio significantly contributes to higher youth unemployment rates. Conversely, higher real wages lead to a slight decrease, whereas greater industrial sector absorption reduces youth unemployment. However, increased absorption in the service sector amplifies youth unemployment.
    Keywords: Youth Unemployment, Minimum Wages, Industrial Mix, Spatial Panel
    JEL: C23 J30 J46
    Date: 2023–08
  17. By: Ho, Tung Manh; Nguyen, Viet-Ha T.
    Abstract: Trong bối cảnh của thời đại mới với sự phát triển vượt bậc của công nghệ thông tin, các cơ quan báo chí đang phải đối mặt với sự sụt giảm về doanh thu. Những vấn đề liên quan đến tài chính và nguồn thu của báo chí được đề cập trong bài viết này dưới khái niệm của kinh tế báo chí. Việc làm rõ các thành phần cấu thành của kinh tế báo chí cũng như vị trí của kinh tế báo chí trong hệ sinh thái truyền thông sẽ giúp các nhà hoạch định chính sách có cái nhìn toàn diện về sự phát triển trong thời đại mới. (Bài báo đã được đăng trên Tạp chí Thông Tin và Truyền thông của Bộ TT & TT: u-to-con-nguoi-trong-he-sinh-thai-truyen -thong-cua-thoi-dai-cong-nghe-4-0-59564. html)
    Date: 2023–11–03
  18. By: Vuong, Quan-Hoang; Nguyen, Minh-Hoang; La, Viet-Phuong
    Abstract: Trong bài viết này chúng tôi trình bày thông tin đại cương về vai trò của nickel trong công nghiệp chế tạo giữa bối cảnh yêu cầu bảo vệ môi sinh trong đại nghị sự mục tiêu phát triển bền vững (SDG) của Liên Hợp Quốc ngày một cấp bách, đối diện với nguy cơ không thể hoàn thành. Các thông tin tóm lược ở đây được dẫn chiếu tới một số nhỏ các tài liệu tham khảo chính và không thể đảm bảo tính trọn vẹn trong khuôn khổ một bài báo nhỏ. Những vấn đề đặt ra có tính tổng quát cho quan hệ môi sinh với việc khai khoáng, tách và tinh chế nickel nói chung trên thế giới. Vì thế, có thể thông tin trong bài không hoàn toàn trùng khớp với tình hình cụ thể của một địa phương trên trái đất, do đặc điểm địa lý, địa chất và kinh tế-công nghệ khác biệt. Bài viết tập trung xoay quanh nguyên lý quan hệ kinh tế-môi trường và ý nghĩa thực tiễn của cụm từ “bền vững” trong bối cảnh cụ thể của công nghiệp nickel.
    Date: 2023–10–14
    Abstract: 주요 에너지 생산국의 자원 무기화와 이에 따른 천연가스 가격 변동폭 확대로 글로벌 에너지 안보 위협이 크게 확대된 가운데, 최근 천연가스전 탐사 및 개발 사업이 활발히 이루어지고 있는 동지중해 지역이 새로운 에너지 허브로 주목받고 있다. 본 연구에서는 동지중해 지역 내 천연가스 개발과 이를 둘러싼 인프라 구축 및 파생 산업 육성 현황을 살펴보고 우리나라와의 협력 시사점을 도출하였다. This study explores the current status of natural gas development in the Eastern Mediterranean region and derives its implications for Korea. Our approach encompassed a thorough review of pertinent literature and statistical data, and insightful interviews with local government officials and industry experts, conducted through field surveys and seminars. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: First, natural gas development in the Eastern Mediterranean region has significantly increased its prominence within the global natural gas market. Egypt, holding largest natural gas reserve in the region, now surpasses major natural gas importers of Korea, including Malaysia, Oman, and Indonesia. The total natural gas reserves in the Eastern Mediterranean region are estimated at 119.1Tcf, 41.1% more than that of Australia, Korea’s largest natural gas importer. It is estimated that there are 286.2Tcf of undiscovered natural gas resources buried along the Eastern Mediterranean coast. This means that only 29.4% of the region’s total natural gas reserves have been found to date. Second, countries in the Eastern Mediterranean have made significant efforts to develop their domestic natural gas resources and to strengthen both domestic and international cooperation. In particular, Egypt, Israel, and Cyprus, major natural gas holders in the region, have been actively pursuing exploration and development and related infrastructure projects to expand their natural gas production and export capacity. Efforts are being made to promote natural gas-related industries such as petrochemicals and hydrogen. In 2019, a regional consultative body for natural gas development, the East Mediterranean Gas Forum, was launched. Since then, through a number of meetings, countries in the region have gathered to discuss specific plans and implement methods for natural gas development. There is also cooperation between Egypt and Israel in the natural gas supply chain, using Egypt’s natural gas liquefaction facilities.(the rest omitted)
    Keywords: 천연가스(Natural Gas); 에너지 안보(Energy Security); 동지중해(Eastern Mediterranean Region); 이집트(Egypt); 이스라엘(Israel); 사이프러스(Cyprus);
    Date: 2023–10–20
  20. By: Kwan Ok Lee; Hey Yeung
    Abstract: With the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic, many have raised the vitality of proper green space planning as the association between green spaces and public wellbeing became more obvious due to various mobility restrictions. In this paper, we examine how multidimensional factors of green spaces (i.e. quantity, quality and accessibility) are associated with public visits to green spaces and whether these factors influence the extent of benefits of green spaces to mental wellbeing. We perform comparative analyses between Singapore and Hong Kong, which present a significant difference in green space planning. A total of 298 surveys were conducted in Singapore and Hong Kong, with responses comprising green space usage, mental wellbeing, and socioeconomic information of respondents. Our analysis findings demonstrate that for their decision to visit green spaces, people are more sensitive to the green space dimension lacking in their local environment. For example, respondents in Singapore that features lower green space accessibly than Hong Kong are much more to this while Hongkong respondents were more sensitive to green space quality. We also find that respondents in Hong Kong have increased their visits to green spaces more significantly than Singaporean counterparts after the COVID-19 outbreak, and the association between this increase and enhanced mental wellbeing is more significant in Hong Kong. This provides an important implication that green space accessibility can play a more important role to mental wellbeing compared to the role of green space quality, especially when people restrict their mobility due to health concerns.
    Keywords: Comparative Analysis; COVID-19; green space; mental wellbeing
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2023–01–01
  21. By: Jereco Jims J. Agapito (University of the Visayas); Liza Lorena C Jala (University of the Visayas); Rosemarie Cruz-Español (University of the Visayas); Anthony G Esguerra (University of the Visayas)
    Abstract: The school administrators adopted an "Entrepreneurial Attitude" approach to run the school profitably. Furthermore, administrators who embrace successful entrepreneur techniques were able to attain and establish an effective school, as the literature says. Using a descriptive survey method, this study determined the factors that affect the entrepreneurial attitudes of school administrators and faculty in selected universities and colleges in the 4th congressional district of Leyte through model generation. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that cognition is the most dominant and significant predictor of entrepreneurial attitude, which generated two models. An emergent model can enhance the lens to see a better picture of what school administrators should prioritize in improving their school management strategy. A simple model equation can be a foundation for enhancing someone's entrepreneurial attitude. A critical takeaway from the simple equation model was that enhancing someone's cognition can help school administrators transform their entrepreneurial mindset and attitude.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial attitude, school administrators, hierarchical regression, aptitude, boundaries, cognition, Leyte, Philippines
    Date: 2022–12–30
  22. By: Thanh Tam Nguyen-Huu (Métis Lab EM Normandie - EM Normandie - École de Management de Normandie)
    Abstract: This research investigates the effects of FDI spillovers on the productivity of domestic firms by relying on unconditional quantile regression. Using panel data of Vietnamese enterprises over the period 2000–2012, we find evidence of positive spillovers for firms at the lower tails and negative spillovers for those at the upper tails of the productivity distribution. Time and the firm's legal status are other factors determining the effect of FDI spillovers. Notably, only low productivity state-own enterprises benefit from positive horizontal spillovers, but in the long run rather than in the short run.
    Keywords: FDI spillovers, Total factor productivity, Unconditional quantile regression
    Date: 2023–07–11
  23. By: Kang , Jong Woo (Asian Development Bank); Gapay, Joshua Anthony (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: Trade encourages economic expansion and improves welfare based on international division of labor. However, trade also has an environmental footprint, particularly in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other emissions. This paper examines the impact of environmental regulation in exporter and importer economies on cross-border carbon flows. It uses pooled estimation, random effects, fixed effects, fixed effects with instrumental variables, and Poisson pseudo maximum likelihood models to estimate the effect of more stringent environmental regulation, while controlling for scale, technique, and composition effects associated with CO2 emissions. While stricter environmental regulations help reduce CO2 emissions from domestic production, leading to lower CO2 emissions embodied in exports, stricter regulations on the importing side lead to higher CO2 emissions embodied in imports. More importantly, stricter environmental regulations could encourage further outsourcing of intermediate inputs by exporters, prompting carbon leakages in the upstream segment of global value chains
    Keywords: CO2 emissions; carbon leakage; trade; global value chain
    JEL: F10 F14 F18
    Date: 2023–10–30
  24. By: Robert J.R. Elliott; Gavin Harper; Benjamin Jones; Viet Nguyen-Tien
    Abstract: Rising demand for electric vehicles (EVs) is changing the geopolitical landscape, as the world pivots away from fossil fuels towards the green minerals critical to the EV supply chain. Benjamin Jones, Viet Nguyen-Tien, Robert Elliott and Gavin Harper explain how the race to secure the supply of raw materials needed for EV batteries is creating new opportunities and geopolitical risks.
    Keywords: technological change, green growth, electric vehicles, global value chains, resource mobilisation, critical materials
    Date: 2023–10–20
  25. By: La, Viet-Phuong; Nguyen, Minh-Hoang
    Abstract: Mặc dù vẫn còn những nghi ngờ về sự thay đổi khí hậu trong một số tài liệu nghiên cứu, sự đồng thuận mạnh mẽ trong cộng đồng khoa học vẫn xác định rằng nhiệt độ bề mặt toàn cầu đã tăng trong vài thập kỷ gần đây. Biến đổi khí hậu, chủ yếu là kết quả của hoạt động con người, đang trở thành một trong những thách thức toàn cầu cấp bách nhất của thời đại chúng ta. Trong thập kỷ vừa qua, con người đã thực hiện những nỗ lực đáng kể để đối phó với cuộc khủng hoảng biến đổi khí hậu và đã đạt được những ảnh hưởng nhất định trong việc chống lại biến đổi khí hậu và tạo ra nhận thức sâu rộng về hậu quả của nó. Tuy nhiên, câu hỏi tiếp tục đặt ra là liệu chúng ta đang đi đúng hướng để giải quyết cuộc khủng hoảng này một cách hiệu quả hay không? Bài tiểu luận này sẽ xem xét những thành tựu trong cuộc chiến chống biến đổi khí hậu, nhận thức ngày càng tăng về tác động của nó, mức độ nghiêm trọng ngày càng tăng của khủng hoảng khí hậu và liệu hành động của chúng ta đã đi đúng hướng chưa hay liệu chúng ta có cần xem xét lại cách tiếp cận của mình hay không.
    Date: 2023–10–25
  26. By: Tillian, Pablo (World Bank); Kokas, Deeksha (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore); Góes, Carlos (University of San Diego); Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys (World Bank)
    Abstract: This paper examines the overall impact of exports while accounting for supply chain linkages on local labor market outcomes in Egypt between 2007 and 2018. We assess the effects not only on directly exporting industries but also on industries indirectly affected by rising export demand. Furthermore, we examine potential impacts on specific worker groups, such as high-skilled individuals and female workers. The results show that trade does not lead to the same connection with domestic labor markets in Egypt as observed in other countries, as highlighted in the existing literature explaining the adverse effects of imports on developing countries. Despite being more open to trade, trade-intensive industries in Egypt have not experienced a significant increase in their share of employment within the overall workforce.
    Keywords: trade policy, trade flows, labor market outcomes, firm dynamics
    JEL: F13 F14 F15 F16 J23 J31 O15 O19
    Date: 2023–10

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