nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2023‒09‒18
fourteen papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar, Asian Development Bank

  1. Lika Liku Publikasi Ilmiah di Indonesia By Zulfikar, Achmad; Sari, Ifit Novita
  2. Influencing ICTs: Born in the West and “returning” to Vietnam By Le, Dan
  3. Questioning the traditional narrative over contemporary urban development in the Javanese royal city By Purwani, Ofita
  4. Social Integration of Returning Vietnamese Migrants in Their Home Country By Duong, Thi Minh Phuong
  5. Improving the market for livestock production households to alleviate food insecurity in the Philippines By Duong, Thi Minh Phuong; SARI, NI PUTU WULAN PURNAMA; Mazenda, Adrino; Le, Tam-Tri; Nguyen, Minh-Hoang; Vuong, Quan-Hoang
  6. Financial concerns and sleeplessness By Maulik Jagnani; Claire Duquennois
  7. Class formation and relations among Filipino cloudworkers By Soriano, Cheryll Ruth
  8. Violent Conflict and Parochial Trust: Lab-in-the-Field and Survey Evidence By Werner, Katharina; Skali, Ahmed
  9. Papier de recherche n° 295 | Convergence de l’adaptation au changement climatique (ACC) et de la gestion des risques de catastrophe (GRC) au niveau territorial : quels messages pour les collectivités locales ? et quels besoins en matière de recherche ? By Mélinda NOBLET
  10. A Storm Between Two Waves: Recovery Processes, Social Dynamics, and Heterogeneous Effects of Typhoon Haiyan on Social Preferences By Ivo Steimanis; Max Burger; Bernd Hayo; Andreas Landmann; Bjoern Vollan
  11. Pilgrimage tourism: A case study of Fort Pilar Shrine in Zamboanga City, Philippines By Tendero, Emerissa Jane
  12. The impact of the Johnson–Reed Act on Filipino labor market outcomes By Andreas Vortisch
  13. Youth Labor Force Participation, Education, and Human Capital in Asia, by Gender, 1990-2019 By Barbara M. Fraumeni
  14. Children orphaned by armed conflict in Western Philippine provinces: An exploratory study By Atilano-Tang, Lesley Ann

  1. By: Zulfikar, Achmad; Sari, Ifit Novita
    Abstract: Kondisi publikasi ilmiah di Indonesia sangat dinamis. Mulai dari target yang ditetapkan pengambil kebijakan untuk mendorong publikasi internasional agar unggul dalam kuantitas di kawasan Asia Tenggara hingga beberapa kasus yang menimpa dosen karena dianggap berlebihan dalam melakukan publikasi. Padahal pengambil kebijakan sendirilah yang mendorong para dosen untuk melakukan publikasi dengan insentif yang menjanjikan. Cerita pembuka ini hanyalah satu perspektif dari puluhan bahkan ribuan dosen yang memiliki ide dan harapan untukdiungkapkan. "Lika Liku Publikasi Ilmiah di Indonesia" ini hadir sebagai wadah mengungkapkan pemikiran para dosen di Indonesia dan akademisi Indonesia di luar negeri terhadap kondisi publikasi ilmiah di Indonesia. Kehadiran buku ini diharapkan dapat mewakili aspirasi dan suara hati para dosen yang bergiat untuk melakukan publikasi ilmiah, tetapi dibayangi kekhawatiran terjerat kasus yang justru merugikan karir sebagai dosen dan akademisi. Tujuan penulisan buku ini adalah agar seluruh pihak, baik pengambil kebijakan, perguruan tinggi, serta pihak-pihak terkait dapat bersama-sama memikirkan kembali aspirasi para dosen dan akademisi ikhwal publikasi ilmiah. Semoga niat baik penulisan buku ini tersampaikan dan berterima oleh pihak-pihak tersebut. Selamat membaca curahan hati, lika liku publikasi ilmiah di Indonesia.
    Date: 2021–10–29
  2. By: Le, Dan
    Abstract: Since the 1986 Doi Moi reform, an increasing number of labor migrants and students leave Vietnam every year for better opportunities abroad. During the same period, members of the diaspora have been returning to the country. According to government estimates, over 500, 000 Vietnamese return to Vietnam each year to work, live, and retire. Among these returnees are a group who have made Vietnam their home: the Western-born, second generation. This paper explores the significance of online community memberships in the construction of identity and belonging among Western-born Vietnamese who “return” to their ancestral homeland. Drawing on 32 online in-depth interviews with second generation Vietnamese living in Vietnam, from 11 disparate Western countries, it underscores how identity and belonging, state policies, and information communication technologies (ICTs) intersect to prompt and obscure the ethnic returns of western-born Vietnamese migrants.
    Date: 2023–08–18
  3. By: Purwani, Ofita
    Abstract: The recent spectacularized development in the Gulf cities of the Middle East and North Africa has brought into view its contradictory logic of urban change. The cities in that region are highly entrepreneurial, ambitious, and futuristic (Kanna, 2011), yet this happens in and through the long-standing tradition of monarchical power (Molotch and Ponzini, 2019). Royal authority is expressed in modern and globalized forms. Is this the case in other contexts where urban change proceeds in the context of royal influence? This paper addresses this question by looking at the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Although Indonesia is a democracy, in Yogyakarta, the royal family retains a strong presence in and influence over the city. That influence, however, manifests itself not in a futuristic way, as in the cities of the Gulf, but through traditionalized discourses and forms. Moreover, while urban development in Gulf cities is often legitimized by using a globalized and future-oriented vision, in Yogyakarta, change is legitimized by recourse to traditional narratives set within the symbolic authority of royalty. This paper explores why Yogyakarta’s urban change proceeds in and through this royalistic logic. It does so by examining the historical background and current cultural and socioeconomic context of urban change, including relevant legal and planning issues. I conclude that the persistence of traditionalized reasoning and expression in Yogyakarta is intensified in inverse proportion to the purchase of monarchical power. Although urban change is framed through royal reasoning, that reasoning is itself shaped by funding opportunities, legal constraints, and global and local forces. Unlike Gulf cities, which benefit from oil wealth and deregulated economic zoning, Yogyakarta has limited funding from the central government and limited opportunity for foreign investment. These economic constraints intensify traditionalism and a specific form of urban royal expression, all through the opportunities offered through the cultural economy of heritage.
    Keywords: monarchy; royal agency; tradition; urban development; Indonesia
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2023–08–01
  4. By: Duong, Thi Minh Phuong
    Abstract: Bayesian Mindsponge Framework (BMF) analytics can offer valuable insights into the social integration challenges that returning migrants from Cambodia face as they reintegrate into Vietnamese society. By applying the BMF, we can gain deeper insights into the complicated process of the migrants' integration, examining factors that influence their adaptation and interactions within the host community
    Date: 2023–08–06
  5. By: Duong, Thi Minh Phuong; SARI, NI PUTU WULAN PURNAMA; Mazenda, Adrino; Le, Tam-Tri; Nguyen, Minh-Hoang; Vuong, Quan-Hoang
    Abstract: Food security is one of the major concerns in the Philippines. Although livestock and poultry production accounts for a significant proportion of the country’s agricultural output, smallholder households are still vulnerable to food insecurity. The current study aims to examine how livestock production and selling difficulties affect smallholder households’ food-insecure conditions. For this objective, Bayesian Mindsponge Framework (BMF) analytics was employed on a dataset of the Food and Agriculture Organization’s Data in Emergencies Monitoring (DIEM) system. We found that production and selling difficulties significantly adversely affect food insecurity in the Philippines. However, their effects vary according to the severity of food insecurity. In particular, production and selling difficulties affect the households’ likelihood of eating less healthy and nutritious food equally. However, the production difficulties have more negligible impacts on the possibility of skipping meals and even ambiguous impacts on the likelihood of not eating for a whole day compared to the effects of selling difficulties. Moreover, we also found that the market plays a crucial role in facilitating not only livestock trading but also livestock production (e.g., purchase of feed and medicines). Based on these findings, we suggest that the livestock market needs to be expanded and regulated to maintain the balancing prices between livestock products and products and services used for livestock production, and facilitate the product-exchanging mechanism.
    Date: 2023–08–04
  6. By: Maulik Jagnani (University of Colorado, Denver); Claire Duquennois (University of Pittsburgh)
    Abstract: Do people worried about their personal finances experience lower-quality sleep? Using a regression discontinuity research design, we find that eligible household heads surveyed just after the disbursement of an unconditional cash transfer in Indonesia report a 0.3 standard-deviation improvement in sleep quality as compared with those surveyed just before the cash disbursement. The cash transfer appears to have alleviated financial concerns amongst household heads, who are responsible for satisfying the daily necessities of the household. Immediately after disbursement, eligible households report an increase in savings, and eligible household heads report feeling less worried, frustrated, and tired. Consistent with evidence from sleep medicine, eligible household heads displayed improved performance on memory and attention tests but not on reasoning or problem-solving tests. These patterns of results are not observed for household heads ineligible for the cash transfer, which suggests that our results are not driven by seasonal confounders or aggregate shocks. These results are also not observed for other members of eligible households, who are not responsible for satisfying the households' financial needs. We also argue that nutrition, time in bed, and labor supply cannot explain our results.
    Date: 2023–08–11
  7. By: Soriano, Cheryll Ruth
    Abstract: This chapter examines emerging class formation and relations among cloudworkers as well as its underlying institutional structures. As empirical anchor, the chapter focuses on the Philippines, which has actively embraced platform labor with millions of Filipino workers obtaining gigs from cloudwork platforms. I explore emerging class relations among Filipino cloudworkers given the mutually-intersecting layers of technological, state discourses, social, and inter-racial relations that shape worker subjectivity. The tighter interconnectedness of the global economy and of class practices notwithstanding, cloudwork, like labor migration where the State plays an instrumental role in promoting, reinforces the view of class structures still as national formations, although enacted in dialectical tension with workers’ “techno-entrepreneurial spirit”. In this techno-global workplace, friendships arise, but in the same breath national and local attachments are deepened as Filipino workers find relational spaces of solidarity amid competitors and clients from other countries. Yet, class hierarchies also emerge among cloudworkers and these hierarchies are shaped by the workers’ capacity to negotiate the technological, national, social, and inter-racial dimensions of cloudwork and which influences their sense of control and agency over their work. I discuss the inter-relationships between and across class hierarchies, highlighting how the experiences and narratives of influencers, worker-agencies, and highly-specialized workers are cascaded to shape the imaginaries of the majority of new entrants and precarious Filipino platform workers.
    Date: 2022–10–30
  8. By: Werner, Katharina; Skali, Ahmed
    Abstract: How does conflict exposure affect trust? We hypothesize that direct (first-hand) experience with conflict induces parochialism: trust towards out-groups worsens, but trust towards in-groups, owing to positive experiences of kin solidarity, may improve. Indirect exposure to conflict through third-party accounts, on the other hand, reduces trust toward everyone. We find consistent support for our hypotheses in a lab-in-the-field experiment in Maluku, Indonesia, which witnessed a salient Christian-Muslim conflict during 1999-2002, as well as in three cross-country datasets exploiting temporal and spatial variation in exposure to violence. Our results help resolve a seeming contradiction in the literature and inform policies on resolving conflicts.
    Keywords: trust, conflict, direct exposure, indirect exposure, religion, discrimination
    JEL: C93 D74 Z12 Z13
    Date: 2023
  9. By: Mélinda NOBLET
    Abstract: Les impacts du changement climatique se concrétisent de façon différenciée selon les territoires. Les villes qui concentrent les populations, les activités économiques et actifs clés, sont particulièrement concernées. Les villes côtières le sont d’autant plus qu’elles sont exposées à des risques spécifiques tels que l'élévation du niveau de la mer, les ondes de tempête, l'érosion du littoral et l'intrusion saline. Dans un premier temps, ce rapport s’attache à retracer l’émergence au niveau international de l’adaptation au changement climatique (ACC) d’une part et de la gestion des risques de catastrophe (GRC) d’autre part. Partant, le processus de convergence de ces deux concepts qui sont devenus des agendas de politique internationale est explicité. Face aux enjeux majeurs et spécifiques auxquels font face les villes côtières, le rapport s’intéresse à la place accordée à l’échelle locale, à l’urbain côtier, dans la littérature scientifique, dans les documents de politique dédiés et en termes de projets. Il s’agit d’identifier si la convergence amorcée au niveau international s’opère au niveau territorial.L’analyse se concentre sur quatre pays, deux en Afrique de l’Ouest (Sénégal, Benin) et deux en Asie du Sud-Est (Vietnam, Philippines), et à leurs territoires urbains côtiers. Malgré les enjeux, l’urbain est faiblement pris en compte dans les politiques et pratiques de l’ACC et la GRC. La transversalité de ces domaines d’action se heurte à des fonctionnements institutionnels en silo. Depuis les années 90, le cadre international de la GRC accorde une place majeure à la prévention des catastrophes. Pour autant, dans les pays, la GRC reste surtout cantonnée à la gestion de crise et considérée comme un exercice de réponse à l’urgence. L’évaluation du risque climatique, considérée comme le point de départ du processus de convergence entre l’ACC et la GRC est faiblement mobilisée lors de l’élaboration des documents de planification territoriale. Aussi, les contraintes auxquelles font face les collectivités (institutionnelles, politiques, financières et techniques) freinent les processus de mise en oeuvre. L’engagement des communautés, reconnu aux Philippines en matière de GRC, constitue une piste intéressante mais est encore peu mobilisé dans les autres pays. A l’issue de cette étude portant sur les territoires urbains, il apparaitrait ainsi fondamental pour une convergence effective entre ACC et GRC au niveau territorial de : renforcer la mobilisation des évaluation des risques climatiques, d’explorer davantage le nexus entre développement, adaptation et gestion des risques de catastrophe ainsi que l'implication des communautés. Une approche par la résilience, en milieu urbain, et le développement d'outils d’aide à la mobilisation des acteurs et à la prise de décision à l’échelle locale constituent aussi des axes à approfondir pour faciliter la mise en oeuvre d'une convergence souhaitée entre ACC et GRC.
    Keywords: Bénin, Sénégal, Philippines, Vietnam
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2023–09–01
  10. By: Ivo Steimanis (University of Marburg); Max Burger (University of Marburg); Bernd Hayo (University of Marburg); Andreas Landmann (Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg); Bjoern Vollan (University of Marburg)
    Abstract: The literature regarding the effects of environmental hazards on social preferences is mixed and partially contradictory. The lack of a baseline in these studies is a severe methodological constraint, as it is hard to identify heterogeneous treatment effects through experience in the recovery process. We exploit a panel of incentivized behavioral measures of solidarity conducted before and after the devastating damages caused by Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines. We find that Haiyan’s impact on individuals’ degree of solidarity was non-linear: solidarity was negatively affected in villages with medium damages, whereas no significant impact was observed in those villages that were most and least affected. A potential explanation for this non-linear effect is differences in people's experiences concerning the aid process and help from other villagers. In villages with medium damages, the quality of the aid process and help from other villagers was perceived to be significantly worse than that received by more and less affected villages. Lastly, survey evidence shows that the non-linear effects persist almost 10 years after the disaster.
    Keywords: Social preferences, environmental hazard, natural experiment, social dynamics, Typhoon Haiyan, Philippines
    JEL: Q54 C93 D91 O12
    Date: 2023
  11. By: Tendero, Emerissa Jane
    Abstract: This research examines the phenomenon of pilgrimage tourism through a case study of the Fort Pilar Shrine in Zamboanga City, Philippines. By employing a mixed-methods approach, the study aims to investigate the factors contributing to the popularity of the shrine as a pilgrimage destination and analyze the socio-economic impacts it generates. The findings indicate that religious motivations, historical significance, and cultural experiences emerge as the key drivers attracting pilgrims to Fort Pilar Shrine. Furthermore, the shrine's economic significance is evident, as it contributes to job creation, income generation, and local business development. The study underscores the importance of strategic planning and sustainable management in pilgrimage tourism destinations. It highlights the need for improved infrastructure, visitor services, and marketing efforts to enhance the overall visitor experience. Moreover, community involvement and stakeholder collaboration emerge as critical factors for the long-term success and sustainability of pilgrimage sites. The research findings have practical implications for policymakers, local communities, and tourism authorities. By understanding the factors that attract pilgrims and the potential socio-economic benefits, decision-makers can develop effective strategies to harness the full potential of pilgrimage tourism. This study contributes to the broader understanding of pilgrimage tourism dynamics and offers insights for the sustainable development of similar sites worldwide
    Date: 2023–08–01
  12. By: Andreas Vortisch (Université du Luxembourg)
    Abstract: Immigration restrictions to the U.S. are rather modern policies. One of the most significant policy changes, the Johnson-Reed Act of 1924, drastically limited the number of new immigrants per year, especially from Asia. In combination with the Emergency Quota Act of 1921, immigration per country was capped at 2 percent of the respective population in the 1890 census. In this presentation, I examine to what extent exemptions from immigration restrictions affected relative labor market outcomes of prior migration cohorts. Using decennial census data, I apply a difference-in-differences estimation, considering that restrictions initially did not apply to the Philippines, then a U.S. territory. My findings indicate that initial immigration restrictions impacted Filipinos, who were exempt from the policy, more severely, highlighting the impact of competition on their economic assimilation. In comparison with other migrants, relative log occupational income scores of Filipinos declined, while their labor force participation and employment status increased. These findings corroborate previous studies that emphasize the relevance of substitutability within and the vulnerability across immigrant cohorts. The effects are particularly strong for the year of 1930 and in California, which coincides with the timing of immigration policies and Filipinos' main destination. Individual panel-data analysis partially supports the findings in the cross-sectional evaluation.
    Date: 2023–08–11
  13. By: Barbara M. Fraumeni
    Abstract: Of great importance to the future World economy is the future labor force of Asia, as Asia is by far the most populous region in the World. Expected future levels of education, very young and youth population, youth employment and unemployment, dependency rates, human capital per capita, and the sources of growth in the potential future labor force are described in this paper with an emphasis on differences by gender and differences across regions. Some comparisons between China and India and between Asia and selected other regions and aggregates are also included. Gini human capital coefficients are constructed for regions in Asia and the selected other regions and aggregates are constructed to reinforce the importance of recognizing gender in any analysis.
    JEL: I21 J16 J21 J24 O53
    Date: 2023–08
  14. By: Atilano-Tang, Lesley Ann
    Abstract: This academic research presents an exploratory study examining the impact of armed conflict on children orphaned in selected Western Philippine provinces. This study aims to shed light on the unique challenges faced by these children and provide insights into potential interventions and policy recommendations. Through active engagement with the affected communities, the research team obtained firsthand accounts and factual data regarding the extent of orphanhood, psychological well-being, educational access, and social integration of children impacted by armed conflict. The findings indicate a significant number of children in the provinces of Basilan, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi have been orphaned due to armed conflict, resulting in a range of adverse consequences. The study reveals heightened levels of psychological distress among these children, inadequate educational opportunities, and limited social support systems. Moreover, it highlights the urgent need for comprehensive support programs, including psychosocial interventions, educational initiatives, and community-based networks, to address the multifaceted challenges faced by these vulnerable children.
    Date: 2023–08–02

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