nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2023‒06‒19
25 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Scrutinising Nusantara: the making of an authoritarian city By Amir, Sulfikar
  2. Pengaruh Audit terhadap Perusahaan Manufaktur Indonesia By santoso, natalie aylwen
  4. Vietnam's energy security in 2023 global coal and LNG markets By Minh Ha-Duong
  5. Price Support and Farm Incomes : Comparative Study of Rice Growing Regions in Southern India and Mekong-Delta Vietnam By JOHNSON, Deepak; KUROSAKI, Takashi
  6. Why Has Inequality in the Philippines Declined? A Two-stage Hierarchical Inequality Decomposition Analysis by Location and Education By Takahiro Akita; Raquel Celeste; Sachiko Miyata
  7. Technology costs for the first wave of wind farms in Vietnam: Paying extra for better wind nearshore By Minh Ha-Duong
  8. Vietnam’s Just Energy Transition Partnership: CIRED/VIETSE background report By Minh Ha-Duong
  9. Is Nonaligned Foreign Policy for a Small Country Possible? The case of Bangladesh from 1972 to 1975 : Achievements and Contradictions By Khan, Haider
  10. Baseline Study on the State of Devolution in the (Pre-Mandanas) Philippines By Maddawin, Ricxie B.; Diokno-Sicat, Charlotte Justine; Palomar, Robert Hector G.; Ruiz, Mark Gerald C.; Juco, Marianne N.
  11. Women and youth in Myanmar agriculture [in Burmese] By Lambrecht, Isabel; Mahrt, Kristi; Cho, Ame
  12. Ostrom Meets the Pandemic: Lessons from Asian Rice Farming Traditions By Choi, Jaerim; Lim, Sunghun
  13. Review Artikel bertema Praktek Penghindaran Pajak By Purnomo, Michael
  14. Spatial analysis of influence of urban agriculture on food insecurity and stunting in Yogyakarta, Indonesia By Monteiro, Diogo M. Souza; Neill, Alexandra; Lopez-Capel, Elisa; Sugiyanto, Catur; Sutiarso, Lilik; Thangavelu, Dhiwagaran; Jansen, Jens
  15. The impact of internet use on the performance of agricultural cooperatives in Vietnam By Nguyen, Trung Thanh; Do, Manh Hung; Rahut, Dil; Nguyen, Viet Hung; Chhay, Panharoth
  16. Women's Transitions in the Labour Market as a Result of Childbearing: The Challenges of Formal Sector Employment in Indonesia By Cameron, Lisa A.; Contreras Suarez, Diana; Tseng, Yi-Ping
  17. The Labor Market Impact of Covid-19 on Asian Americans By Chris de Mena; Suvy Qin; Jing Zhang
  18. Better together? The effect of VietGAP and PGS certification on farmers' welfare in Vietnam By Enthoven, Laura
  19. Do Gamblers Understand Complex Bets? Evidence From Asian Handicap Betting on Soccer By Hegarty, Tadgh; Whelan, Karl
  20. Do Women Receive Worse Financial Advice? An Audit Study in Hong Kong, China By Bhattacharya, Utpal; Kumar, Amit; Visaria, Sujata; Zhao, Jing
  21. Rural Physicians’ Experiences with Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management of Pediatric Tuberculosis Before and After Disasters in Bohol By Castillo-Carandang, Nina T.; Leining, Lauren M.; Mandalakas, Anna Maria; Murray, Kristy O.; Liao, Jo Anne Claire M.; Cabatos-Riña, Maureen Mae; Gatchalian, Salvacion R.
  22. How Does Flood Affect Children Differently? The Impact of Flood on Children’s Education, Labor, Food Consumption, and Cognitive Development By Chinh Thi Tuyet Mai; Akira Hibiki
  23. Unequal Gains from Remote Work during COVID-19 between Spouses: Evidence from Longitudinal Data in Singapore By Lee, Zeewan; Tan, Poh Lin; Tan-Soo, Jie-Sheng
  24. Boosting the Productivity of Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries through Parcelization of Collective Certificate of Land Ownership Awards By Galang, Ivory Myka R.
  25. Analyzing the Diversity and Inclusivity of Philippine Exports to the European Union Under the GSP+ By Julia, Brynn Jonsson R.

  1. By: Amir, Sulfikar
    Abstract: In August 2019, Indonesian President Joko Widodo unexpectedly announced the plan to build a new capital called Nusantara. It will relocate the capital from Jakarta to East Kalimantan by 2024. This paper critically examines Indonesia’s ambition to build Nusantara within a short time. In this paper, a narrative policy framework is applied to unpack the core reasons and assumptions that underpin Widodo’s adamant decision to carry out a large-scale urban project of the new capital despite social and financial constraints. By interrogating two fundamental fallacies underlying the Nusantara project, in the rationales and the construction process, I show how the new capital project is deeply problematic. The notion of techno-nationalist urbanism is proposed to underline the contradiction in the logic and rationality of Nusantara’s urban system as a result of authoritarian symptoms. Further, the paper links Nusantara to the nature of power embodied in Widodo’s strong desire for a legacy and its impact on Indonesian democracy in the future.
    Keywords: capital relocation; Nusantara; techno-nationalist urbanism; authoritarianism; Indonesia
    JEL: Q15
    Date: 2023–05–01
  2. By: santoso, natalie aylwen
    Abstract: Catatan terkait dengan review artikel tentang pengaruh audit
    Date: 2023–05–09
  3. By: Heryangi, Ivan
    Abstract: Ulasan ini mengkaji mengenai beberapa penelitian pajak yang terjadi di berbagai perusahaan Indonesia. Beberapa karya dari Hananto dan beberapa artikel dari emerald yaitu membahas topik mengenai tax amnesty, earnings management, CSR, Founder Ceo, tata kelola perusahaan yang terjadi terhadap stickiness expense. Ulasan ini menggunakan metode kuantitatif untuk berhasil melakukan penelitian yang praktis serta objektif bagi dunia pajak. Selain itu, penghindaran pajak jangka panjang dan risiko masa depan tidak terpengaruh atas Founder CEO. Ulasan yang diberikan ini memiliki penjelasan yang cukup untuk para pekerja yang baru memulai membangun perusahaan dalam dunia bisnis, investor, dan otoritas pajak dalam mengoptimalkan tata kelola perusahaan yang memadai.
    Date: 2023–05–10
  4. By: Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Keywords: energy crisis, international markets, vietnam
    Date: 2023–04–24
  5. By: JOHNSON, Deepak; KUROSAKI, Takashi
    Abstract: Drawing on the broad literature on agricultural development and particularly on the contribution of price and non-price factors, this study examines how government support contributes to farm incomes from rice cultivation in two frontier rice-growing regions in Asia: Kerala, southern India and Mekong Delta, Vietnam. We use a detailed case study approach to offer a unique comparison between two best-performing areas that are similar in agroclimatic conditions and institutional trajectories, which is generally wanting in literature. Our farm budget analysis and counterfactual simulations using household-level data show that the local (state-level) price support contributes to more than half of the average crop income per hectare in Kerala. While the per hectare crop income for a single season in Vietnam was significantly lower than in Kerala, the annual incomes were higher due to multiple cropping. We combine these survey-based results with qualitative insights to examine how various factors have led to the observed scenario. This comparative analysis demonstrates the need for specific non-price interventions, particularly in terms of research and extension services, in enhancing incomes for agriculturally advanced regions within developing countries.
    Keywords: Farm households, Rice cultivation, Agricultural policy, India, Vietnam, Price support, Infrastructure
    JEL: O13 Q12 Q18 Q16
    Date: 2023–05
  6. By: Takahiro Akita (IUJ Research Institute, International University of Japan); Raquel Celeste (Department of Social Welfare and Development); Sachiko Miyata (Ritsumeikan University)
    Abstract: The Philippines has been successful in reducing inequality over the last two decades. This study conducts a two-stage hierarchical inequality decomposition analysis by location and education to explore the determinants of declining expenditure inequality using the Family Income and Expenditure Survey. In the period 1997-2006, falling inequality among urban households with tertiary education is the dominant determinant by explaining 74% of declining overall inequality. In the period 2006-2018, falling disparity between urban and rural areas is the main determinant by explaining 42% of declining overall inequality. Falling inequality among urban households with tertiary education contributed also, but its contribution is 25%. Though expenditure inequality has declined, its level is still very high. To further reduce expenditure inequality, it is imperative to reduce inequality among households with tertiary education. It is also important to reduce inequality between education groups, particularly between households with tertiary education and those with lower education.
    Keywords: expenditure inequality, Philippines, hierarchical inequality decomposition, roles of education, urban and rural dimensions
    JEL: I24 I25 O15 O18
    Date: 2023–07
  7. By: Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Technology analysts often dichotomize wind power projects as onshore vs offshore. They neglect nearshore projects installed in the intertidal flats. We explore the characteristics of this intermediate category using an original sample of Vietnam's wind power projects for the 2018–2021 period. The median investment for onshore wind power projects in Vietnam is 1695 USD/kW. It is 2011 USD/kW for nearshore projects. Nearshore wind-power generation capacity requires about 20 % more investment per MW than onshore, inter-quartile range of 0 % – 45 %. Nevertheless, nearshore projects remain much less capital-intensive than far-offshore projects – projected at 3150 USD/kWh in Vietnam based on experience in OECD countries with fixed-bottom projects. Escaping the onshore vs offshore dichotomy allows us to consider a different policy direction for the industry. Rather than pursuing bluefield mega-projects far offshore, a "small steps" policy to extend nearshore wind farms may be cheaper, faster, and more institutionally feasible.
    Keywords: Wind power, Vietnam, Investment cost, nearshore, energy policy
    Date: 2023–06–01
  8. By: Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: December 14th, 2022, Viêt Nam with G7 countries plus Denmark and Norway issued a political declaration to establish a Just Energy Transition Partnership. This nonbinding agreement aims to mobilize at least 15.5-billion-USD over the next 3 to 5 years, half as private finance and half as public sector finance. To be prepared by November 2023, the Resource Mobilization Plan (RMP) should support Vietnam's green transition, including these quantified objectives: peaking electricity sector emissions at 170-MtCO2e in 2030; peaking the coal-fired power generation capacity at 30.2-GW; producing 47% of electricity from renewable sources in 2030. This report aims to establish a common understanding to ease the next step: the RMP negotiation. The story is about a group of rich countries seeking to help a middle-income country switch to renewable energy. It starts with a reminder of Vietnam's energy transition context, which has shown impressive gains in the last four years. It then describes the JETP mechanism as a country platform, reviewing the South Africa pathfinder to introduce the Vietnam case, before examining how JETP fit in the international 3nance and climate diplomacy context. Next, it analyzes the two sides of the deal: the pledge to increase the public and private financial Bows into Vietnam's energy sector and the promise to boost Vietnam's GHG emissions reductions. Afer discussing Justice, Technology Transfer, and Finance, the report concludes with a summary of the vision implicit in the JETP political declaration. A comprehensive bibliography on Vietnam's JETP, the verbatim JETP Political Declaration, excerpts from Vietnam's COP26 implementation plan, and our interview protocol including a detailed vision for the JETP implementation are annexed.
    Keywords: JETP, Vietnam, Energy transition, Development, Cooperation, Climate Finance
    Date: 2023–05
  9. By: Khan, Haider
    Abstract: How might it be possible for the foreign policy of a small country today to be part of a Nonaligned Movement(NAM) as the unipolar world ends? I do a historical geopolitical and geoeconomic case study to answer this question. How was it possible for the foreign policy of Bangladesh to be oriented toward the world as a part of an independent nonaligned movement even as the newly independent, poor, tropical country ravaged by a brutal war struggled to balance many competing internal and external demands? This becomes a complex question to answer particularly when we recall that the cold war between the US led Capitalist bloc and the USSR led Socialist bloc had already been raging for more than two decades. Only some larger mixed economies like India, Indonesia, and some revolutionary countries like Cuba and Algeria had managed to show such independence during the 1950s and 1960s. In case of Indonesia this was drowned in blood in a coup aided and abetted by the US.My recently developed theory of Critical TransNeoclassical Realism for geopolitics and geoeconomics helps answer these questions and raise the possibility of a new NAM.
    Keywords: Foreign policy, Geopolitics and Geoeconomics New NAM, foreign policy of a small country and NAM, Bangladesh after liberation, Critical TransNeoclassical Realism for geopolitics and geoeconomics
    JEL: A1 A13 F5
    Date: 2023–04–10
  10. By: Maddawin, Ricxie B.; Diokno-Sicat, Charlotte Justine; Palomar, Robert Hector G.; Ruiz, Mark Gerald C.; Juco, Marianne N.
    Abstract: Two key recent events pushed forward the country’s decentralization agenda. In 2019, the Mandanas-Garcia Supreme Court (“Mandanas”) ruling increased the tax base for intergovernmental fiscal transfers in support of local governments’ autonomy and revenue-raising capacity. In 2021, Executive Order No. 138 (EO 138) laid the guidelines for effectively transitioning functions and responsibilities from the national to the local governments. Part of the directives in EO 138 is the design and review of devolution transition plans (DTPs). Given the country’s current state of devolution, uncertainty arises on how local government units (LGUs) will manage to fully assume all devolved functions and whether the prescribed devolution transition period is sufficient. By evaluating LGU-crafted DTPs, this study aims to establish the baseline of current (pre-Mandanas) devolved functions and capacities. The results can serve as a pivotal starting point to evaluate performance and progress in the phased adoption of devolved functions. Key takeaways from the exercise include (i) the high variation in LGU prioritization of devolved functions and LGU capacity, (ii) complete full devolution by 2024 is not achievable based on the self-assessment of LGUs, (iii) capacity development interventions to aid in the devolution agenda is mostly centered on manpower and training requirements. Further, the study recognizes (i) the need for a mechanism for further data collection of accurate and comprehensive baseline data for devolved functions of LGUs, (ii) the need for an asymmetric decentralization strategy from the national government, and (iii) the need for greater coordination and guidance from national agencies, especially on disaster risk reduction and management. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: decentralization;devolution;local governance;Mandanas ruling
    Date: 2023
  11. By: Lambrecht, Isabel; Mahrt, Kristi; Cho, Ame
    Abstract: Women’s and youth’s roles in agriculture vary across contexts and over time. Limited quantitative information is available on this topic from Southeast Asia in general, and particularly from Myanmar. We use nationally representative data to document women’s and youth’s involvement in agriculture in rural Myanmar. First, we show that women and youth contribute substantially to agriculture. Women in farm households perform 39 percent of household farm labour days, and 43 percent of agricultural wage workers are women. Twenty-seven percent of adults performing household agricultural work are youth and 22 percent of agricultural wage workers are youth. Yet, women’s farm wages are 29 percent lower than men’s farm wages. Youth’s farm wages are 17 percent lower than farm wages of non-youth for men, but we don’t find similar wage differences for women. Second, we find a significant gender gap in land rights, but the share of women who have land rights is still sizable. Nineteen percent of adult men are documented landowners compared to seven percent of adult women. Few youth have land rights, but the likelihood increases with age. Third, we explore cropping patterns. No crops are grown exclusively by men or women, but rice is more often and vegetables are less often cultivated by households where men are the sole agricultural decision makers. Finally, we focus on access to credit. Women receive loans less often than men (21 percent vs. 26 percent) and youth rarely receive loans (4 percent). Women’s loans are more often aimed at alleviating basic needs, such as food and health expenditures. Men’s loans are more often aimed at investment in productive activities, especially farming. The evidence suggests that including men, women and youth equally in agricultural projects and policy making is critical to advance equity and achieve development goals.
    Keywords: MYANMAR; BURMA; SOUTHEAST ASIA; ASIA; gender; youth; agriculture; women; role of women; equity
    Date: 2023
  12. By: Choi, Jaerim; Lim, Sunghun
    Abstract: A robust public health system during a pandemic is a common good. We argue that the ongoing coronavirus pandemic is a tragedy of the commons. During the early phases of the pandemic, Asia outperformed the US and Europe in managing it. The traditions and practices of rice farming in Asian countries are key to understanding the regional differences. Farming rice, unlike wheat, requires finding cooperative solutions to common goods problems such as irrigation. The history of rice cultivation in Asia implies that those societies have long had institutions that deal well with the commons through credible commitment, mutual monitoring, and sanctions. The descendants of Asian rice farmers commit themselves to a set of rules and are vigilant in monitoring their neighbors in common goods situations because they fear social rejection if they do not. Exploiting Asian immigration history in the US and the pandemic as a natural experiment, and using a patient-level CDC dataset, we show that Asian rice farming descendants are less likely to contract and/or die from the coronavirus even in the US. Then, using a Facebook survey, Google mobility data, and the US Census household pulse survey, we find that they were better able to resolve commons problems associated with the pandemic by getting vaccinated, wearing masks, and practicing social distancing.
    Keywords: Health Economics and Policy, Farm Management
    Date: 2023–03
  13. By: Purnomo, Michael
    Abstract: Artikel ini membicarakan topik "Evasion of Taxes" yang merupakan fokus perhatian dari Hananto sebagai penulis utama. Teks ini akan membahas beberapa artikel yang relevan dengan topik tersebut yang ditulis oleh Hananto dan beberapa penulis lainnya. Salah satu artikel yang dibahas adalah mengenai potensi desa-desa di Indonesia untuk menjadi destinasi wisata yang ditulis oleh Hananto, bersamaan dengan artikel tentang penghindaran pajak atau "tax avoidance". Selain itu, hasil penelitian Hananto tentang Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) dan dampaknya terhadap harga saham perusahaan juga akan dibahas. Teks ini juga akan mengevaluasi dampak dari amnesti pajak atau "Tax Amnesty" dan Good Corporate Governance (GCG) terhadap penghindaran pajak, yang ditulis oleh Hananto bersama Muljadi dan Hastuti.
    Date: 2023–05–09
  14. By: Monteiro, Diogo M. Souza; Neill, Alexandra; Lopez-Capel, Elisa; Sugiyanto, Catur; Sutiarso, Lilik; Thangavelu, Dhiwagaran; Jansen, Jens
    Abstract: Since 2000s there has been a renewed interest in the role urban farming plays on food security. Here we contribute to two branches of this literature: one promoting the use of geographic information systems to map urban systems and the other examining how urban farming contributes to malnutrition and stunting mitigation. We aim to produce a spatial visualization of the Yogyakarta, Indonesia urban farming system and examine the extent with which it mitigates childhood stunting the city. We conducted a survey to a sample of urban farmers where along with production and socio-economic information we collected information on the exact location of the farms. Our findings reveal a very diverse urban farming system both in terms of crops and areas of the city. Most farmers in our sample produce for auto-consumption and the majority is managed by women. The size of the farm, the use of polybags and hydroponic production technologies increase the odds of selling, while female managers decrease them. Then we investigate how urban farming mitigates childhood stunting, finding that it decreases when women manage the farm, age of farmer, number of children in the household and levels of education.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2023–03
  15. By: Nguyen, Trung Thanh; Do, Manh Hung; Rahut, Dil; Nguyen, Viet Hung; Chhay, Panharoth
    Abstract: Supporting agricultural cooperatives might contribute to the livelihood improvement of many small-scale farmers in developing countries. This research examined the factors affecting the internet use of agricultural cooperatives with a focus on female leadership, its effects on cooperatives’ economic, social, and innovative performance, and the distributional effects of internet use on economic performance. Our analysis relied on the data of 3, 512 agricultural cooperatives collected in 2021 from Vietnam. We addressed the endogeneity issue of internet use in impact assessment by employing an instrumental variable approach. Our results showed that female leadership was positively and significantly associated with internet use and that internet use had a positive and significant effect on returns on assets, returns on equity, labour productivity, payment per labourer, contribution to labour union and insurance per labourer, and innovation in products of agricultural cooperatives. In addition, unconditional quantile regressions showed that internet use in agricultural cooperatives exacerbated income inequality. Enhancing female leadership and promoting rural education were recommended to improve agricultural cooperatives’ performance.
    Keywords: internet use; performance; endogeneity; heterogeneity; instrumental variable
    JEL: D60 Q1 R2
    Date: 2023
  16. By: Cameron, Lisa A. (University of Melbourne); Contreras Suarez, Diana (University of Melbourne); Tseng, Yi-Ping (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research)
    Abstract: Although it is well established that women's labour force participation drops markedly with marriage and childbearing, surprisingly little is known about women's labour market transitions, especially in developing countries. This paper uses the Indonesian Family Life Survey to track the employment histories of over 9, 000 women across a period of more than 20 years, observing them as they get married and have children. The data show that large numbers of Indonesian women drop out of the labour market as a result of marriage and childbearing. The difficulty of maintaining formal sector employment emerges as a key problem. Having worked in the formal sector prior to the birth of a first child reduces the probability of working in the year following the birth by 20 percentage points and reduces the probability of returning to the labour market thereafter by 3.6 percentage points. Further, to the extent that women do return to work, formal sector employment is associated with greater delays in returning - women are more likely to return to work in the formal sector only once their child starts primary school, while in the informal sector they return earlier. We find little evidence of women switching from the formal to the informal sector. Formal sector labour market policies such as flexible work hours; compressed work weeks; part-time work (with the same career opportunities and benefits as full-time work); the ability to work from home; and work-based childcare are likely to boost women's labour force participation, with consequent boosts to economic productivity and prosperity.
    Keywords: female labour force participation, labour market transitions, economic development, childbearing
    JEL: J20 J16 O15
    Date: 2023–05
  17. By: Chris de Mena; Suvy Qin; Jing Zhang
    Abstract: Asian Americans faced a disproportionately larger surge in unemployment rates than other racial and ethnic groups during the Covid-19 pandemic. While existing literature typically examines labor demand channels to explain this, we instead explore a labor supply channel. Our hypothesis is that Asian Americans are more cautious about Covid-19 infections and thus more selective about job opportunities, contributing to their higher unemployment rate than other groups. Analysis of cellphone data during the pandemic indicates that non-work mobility significantly decreased in areas with larger Asian populations, supporting our hypothesis.
    JEL: J7 I0 J2
    Date: 2023–03–08
  18. By: Enthoven, Laura
    Abstract: To promote sustainable agriculture in low- and middle-income countries, local certification schemes, including participatory guarantee systems (PGS) have been promoted as inclusive mechanisms. In this study, we investigate the implications of two local certification schemes for farmers in Vietnam: VietGAP, a simplified version of GlobalGAP certified by a third-party body, and PGS, based on sustainable agricultural practices controlled internally by farmers and other local stakeholders. We use farm-household data from a two-round panel survey conducted in 2018 and 2022 among 301 vegetable farmers. First, we investigate factors that may affect farmers’ adoption of the two schemes. Second, we estimate correlated random effects models to evaluate the schemes’ effect on farmers’ welfare while accounting for unobserved timeconstant factors. We do not find significant evidence that either certification scheme has an effect on household revenues and income from vegetables. However, we report negative costs and price effects, but positive market access effects linked to certification.
    Keywords: Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, International Development
    Date: 2023–03
  19. By: Hegarty, Tadgh; Whelan, Karl
    Abstract: The Asian Handicap is a way to bet on soccer matches where payouts depend on an adjustment to the score that favors the weaker team. These bets are more complex than traditional betting on soccer because they require assessing the likely goal difference in the match rather than just the probabilities of a home win, away win or draw and because they can feature the possibility of all or half the bet being refunded. We show that bettors systematically lose more money on the type of Asian Handicap bets where refunds are not possible than they do when it is possible to obtain a half refund and that bets with the possibility of a full refund have the lowest loss rates. Bookmakers do not appear to adjust odds to equate the expected return on these bets. We show that the pattern of differences in loss rates across bets is predictable based on the odds quoted.
    Keywords: Pricing Complexity, Betting Markets, Asian Handicap
    JEL: G0 G02 L83
    Date: 2023–05–08
  20. By: Bhattacharya, Utpal (Department of Finance, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology); Kumar, Amit (Department of Finance, Singapore Management University); Visaria, Sujata (Department of Economics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology); Zhao, Jing (Hong Kong Polytechnic University)
    Abstract: We arranged for trained undercover men and women to pose as potential clients and visit all 65 local financial advisory firms in Hong Kong, China. At financial planning firms, but not at securities firms, women were more likely than men to receive advice to buy only individual or only local securities. Female clients who signaled that they were highly confident, highly risk tolerant, or had a domestic outlook, were especially likely to receive suboptimal advice. Our theoretical model explains these patterns as the result of statistical discrimination interacting with advisors’ incentives. Taste-based discrimination is unlikely to explain the results.
    Keywords: audit study; gender; financial advice; securities firm; financial planner; risk tolerance; confidence; geographic outlook
    JEL: D14 D91 G11 G24 G41
    Date: 2023–06–01
  21. By: Castillo-Carandang, Nina T.; Leining, Lauren M.; Mandalakas, Anna Maria; Murray, Kristy O.; Liao, Jo Anne Claire M.; Cabatos-Riña, Maureen Mae; Gatchalian, Salvacion R.
    Abstract: This paper documents the experiences of rural physicians in managing pediatric tuberculosis (TB) cases before and after disasters in Bohol, Philippines. The participants are from the public and private healthcare systems in municipalities heavily affected and less affected by a 7.2-magnitude earthquake and the super typhoon that struck the province in 2013. The discussions centered on the burden, diagnosis, treatment, management, and referral of pediatric TB and how their circumstances changed before, during, and after the disasters. It found that the situation of pediatric TB in the area was almost unchanged. Both healthcare sectors still struggle with stockouts of diagnostic supplies and medications, which result in the disruption of TB diagnosis and treatment and loss to follow-up among patients. The disasters further exacerbated these longstanding challenges.
    Keywords: Pediatric tuberculosis;healthcare systems;healthcare management;Bohol, Philippines;TB burden
    Date: 2022
  22. By: Chinh Thi Tuyet Mai; Akira Hibiki
    Abstract: This paper contributes an in-depth study of the short- and long-term effects of floods on the cognitive development of school-aged children. Specifically, we exploit individual-level microdata from a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Vietnam. Our analyses indicate that floods immediately imposed negative impacts on children’s cognitive skills, but these impacts would be mitigated in the long run. Changes in child schooling, time allocation between school and work, and household food consumption (child nutrition) appear to be potential channels behind these impacts. Girls, older children, firstborn children, and children belonging to ethnic minorities are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of flooding. Our results suggest that policies to alleviate the credit constraints of households in the above groups could mitigate the damage imposed by natural disasters on human capital accumulation.
    Date: 2023–05
  23. By: Lee, Zeewan; Tan, Poh Lin; Tan-Soo, Jie-Sheng
    Abstract: The rise of remote work arrangements under the COVID-19 pandemic has generated important benefits, enhancing worker productivity by providing flexibility and reducing commuting costs. Would such positive labor market outcomes enjoyed equally between spouses? Using a longitudinal dataset of married women and their spouses before, during and after the lockdown in Singapore, we examine the effect of the pandemic and the availability of remote work on the respondents’ salary income, while accounting for the moderating roles of gendered differences in time use (e.g., in childcare) and presence of helpers. We find a significant salary income growth among male remote workers, but not among females. While both male and female remote workers experienced an increase in income if they spent less time on household work, women were less likely to face such smaller household responsibilities than men. This study provides empirical evidence that unequal division of household labor leads to unequal gains from remote work.
    Keywords: gender, income, COVID-19, remote work, flexible work, time use
    JEL: J16 J24
    Date: 2023
  24. By: Galang, Ivory Myka R.
    Abstract: This paper identifies the benefits and problems in the subdivision of collective land titles in the Philippines. In particular, it discusses how the parcelization of collective Certificates of Land Ownership Awards (CCLOAs) can improve the agricultural performance of farmers. Baseline survey data from the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR)’s Project Convergence on Value Chain Enhancement for Rural Growth and Empowerment provide evidence favoring to accelerate the subdivision of CCLOAs. This study encourages the adoption of other rural development strategies, such as farm consolidation, aside from the parcelization of land titles. DAR must also adopt a modern cadaster and record system to improve the country’s agrarian justice delivery system and efficiently implement the parcelization program.
    Keywords: CCLOAs;agrarian reform beneficiaries;agriculture;Project ConVERGE
    Date: 2022
  25. By: Julia, Brynn Jonsson R.
    Abstract: This study assesses the diversity and inclusivity of Philippine export activities to the European Union (EU) amid the country’s status as a beneficiary of the Generalised Scheme of Preferences Plus (GSP+), a trade agreement that removes EU tariffs in exchange for the compliance of developing countries with international conventions. It used official statistics, documents, open-ended questionnaires, and email correspondence with key informants from the government to analyze the economic incentives that the country gains from the GSP+. It suggests that while some sectors benefited from the GSP+, the scheme’s impacts on Philippine exports to the EU are limited.
    Keywords: Trade;Philippine exports;GSP+;European Union
    Date: 2022

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