nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2023‒04‒24
29 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Analisis Pengaruh Kelangkaan Minyak Goreng Terhadap Omzet Penjualan Pedagang Gorengan Di Kota Kediri By Suryawijaya, Tito Wira Eka; Mayasari, Lita; Gamalael, Kelvin Pedro; Palimirma, Reza Yahya Pahlevi; Winata, Mutiara Ayu
  2. Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic on National Security Issues: Indonesia as a Case Study By Alam, Md. Mahmudul; Fawzi, Agung Masyad; Islam, Monirul; Said, Jamaliah
  3. Non-market economy status in anti-dumping investigations and proceedings: A case study of Vietnam By Huynh, Pham Duy Anh
  4. Projecting the long run impact of an economic reform: the case of the Indonesian Omnibus Law and concurrent changes in trade policy By Gupta, Krisna; Gretton, Paul; Patunru, Arianto
  5. Customers’ Perceptions of FinTech Adaptability in the Islamic Banking Sector: Comparative study on Malaysia and Saudi Arabia By Oladapo, Ibrahim Abiodun; Hamoudah, Manal Mohammed; Alam, Md. Mahmudul; Muda, Ruhaini; Olaopa, Olawale Rafiu
  6. Strengthening the Liberal Arts Along the Pacific Rim: The Pacific Alliance of Liberal Arts Colleges (PALAC) By Penprase, Bryan E; Schneider, Thomas
  7. The impact of cold waves and heat waves on mortality: Evidence from a lower middle‐income country By Cuong Viet Nguyen; Manh Hung Nguyen; Toan Nguyen
  8. Intended and Unintended Impacts of Minimum Wage Change: A Computable General Equilibrium Model Analysis with Cross-border Labor Mobility in the Philippines By Sy, Deborah Kim; Hosoe, Nobuhiro
  9. What has been driving work-to-work transitions in the emerging world? a comparative study of Indonesia and South Africa By Brehm, Johannes,; Doku, Angela,; Escudero, Verónica,
  11. Cost of Science Asian Researchers and the Disparity in US By Robinson, Jonny
  12. Do online communities of practice complement or substitute conventional agricultural extension services? Evidence from Indonesian shrimp farmers' participation in a Facebook group By Guenwoo Lee; Ayu Pratiwi; Farikhah; Aya Suzuki; Takashi Kurosaki
  13. Financial factors influencing environmental, social and governance ratings of public listed companies in Bursa Malaysia By Alam, Md. Mahmudul; Tahir, Yasmin Mohamad; Saif-Alyousfi, Abdulazeez Y. H.; Waehama, Wanamina; Muda, Ruhaini; Nordin, Sabariah
  14. Regulatory Similarity Between APEC Members and its Impact on Trade By Choi, Bo-Young; Heo, Inae
  15. Impact of Digital Economy Agreements on ASEAN Development: Estimates from a CGE Model By Lim, Jing Zhi; Toh, Mun-Heng; Xie, Taojun
  16. Revisiting the energy-economy-environment relationships for attaining environmental sustainability: Evidence from Belt and Road Initiative countries By Shakib, Mohammed; Yumei, Hou; Rauf, Abdul; Alam, Md. Mahmudul; Murshed, Muntasir; Mahmood, Haider
  17. Do The Inward And Outward Foreign Direct Investments Spur Domestic Investment In Bangladesh? A Counterfactual Analysis By Islam, Monirul; Tareque, Mohammad; , Abu N.M. Wahid; Alam, Md. Mahmudul; Sohag, Kazi
  18. Global Natural Gas Market Integration in the Face of Shocks: Evidence from the Dynamics Of European, Asian, and US Gas Futures Prices By Farag, Markos; Jeddi, Samir; Kopp, Jan Hendrik
  19. Tác động của trách nhiệm xã hội của doanh nghiệp đến lòng trung thành của khách hàng: Bằng chứng thực nghiệm tại các hãng hàng không giá rẻ ở Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh By Vuong, Bui Nhat
  20. Does Institutional Quality Matter to Korean Outward FDI? A Gravity Model Analysis By Muhammad Akhtaruzzaman, Muhammad Akhtaruzzaman
  21. Limited Commitment, Social Control and Risk-Sharing Coalitions in Village Economies By Daniel J. Hernandez; Fernando Jaramillo; Hubert Kempf; Fabien Moizeau; Thomas Vendryes
  22. Climate change impacts on health in Viet Nam, COP 26, AFD GEMMES By Manh-Hung Nguyen
  23. Estimating Protection in Services Sector: A PPML Analysis By Faizi, Bushra; Shah, Mohamed Eskandar
  24. Influences of Creativity and Resource Availability in the Intelligent Career Framework: Empirical Investigation of Nigerian Entrepreneurs By Salisu, Isyaku; Alam, Md. Mahmudul
  25. Germany is looking for foreign labour: How to make recruitment development-orientated, sustainable and fair By Angenendt, Steffen; Knapp, Nadine; Kipp, David
  26. Mối quan hệ giữa các Hiệp định Thương mại Ưu đãi và Đầu tư Trực tiếp Nước ngoài By Phan, Ngoc
  27. Digital Business and Business Model By Matondang, Ryan Nathanael
  28. Shari’ah Governance Quality and Environmental, Social and Governance Performance in Islamic Banks. A Cross-Country Evidence. By Yossra Boudawara; Kaouther Toumi; Amira Wannes; Khaled Hussainey
  29. Shifted out: the well-being and justice implications of evening and night commuting By Palm, Matthew; Allen, Jeff; Farber, Steven

  1. By: Suryawijaya, Tito Wira Eka; Mayasari, Lita; Gamalael, Kelvin Pedro; Palimirma, Reza Yahya Pahlevi; Winata, Mutiara Ayu
    Abstract: Proposal penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyelidiki dampak kenaikan harga minyak goreng terhadap pendapatan penjual makanan goreng di Kota Kediri, Indonesia. Kelangkaan minyak goreng di Indonesia telah menyebabkan peningkatan permintaan dan penurunan pasokan, yang mengakibatkan harga yang lebih tinggi. Proposal ini menyarankan penggunaan metode kuantitatif dengan analisis regresi untuk menentukan hubungan antara kenaikan harga minyak goreng dan pendapatan penjual makanan goreng di Kota Kediri. Data akan dikumpulkan melalui wawancara dengan penjual dan observasi langsung harga minyak goreng dan pendapatan penjualan. Proposal ini memberikan tinjauan pustaka tentang minyak goreng, termasuk definisinya, fungsi, dan berbagai jenisnya. Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dapat bermanfaat bagi penjual makanan goreng dalam mengelola bisnis mereka lebih efektif dan berkontribusi pada pemahaman dampak kenaikan harga minyak goreng terhadap industri makanan goreng di Indonesia.
    Date: 2022–03–23
  2. By: Alam, Md. Mahmudul (Universiti Utara Malaysia); Fawzi, Agung Masyad; Islam, Monirul; Said, Jamaliah
    Abstract: The national security issues in particular non-traditional security issues such as law enforcement, health, food, supply chain management, industry etc. are severely impacted by the COVID-19 outbreak in all countries of the world. As such, the developing country like Indonesia has largely been suffering from this epidemic. In this context, this paper attempts to analyse some national security issues that are affecting Indonesia, which is currently struggling with the COVID-19 pandemic. Proposed here are policy measures to combat both present and future challenges. The study uses secondary data collected from different sources concerning COVID-19 pandemic and security issues of Indonesia. The study analyses the data based on descriptive statistics, highlighting the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Indonesian law enforcement issues, and security of health, food, supply chain management, industrial and other economic sectors. The study argues that if the vulnerability continues in these security-related issues due to pandemic, the country will face a harsh reality to manage the state-affairs. Therefore, the policy options are mainly concerned with the COVID-19 issue. Indonesia’s government should identify what measures to take by conducting rapid diagnostics (RPD) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests in the laboratory, respectively. Moreover, the government and relevant stakeholders need to develop strategies that break the stranglehold of COVID-19 transmission in order to resolve Indonesian national security concern.
    Date: 2022–03–08
  3. By: Huynh, Pham Duy Anh
    Abstract: The research uses a qualitative methodology design, by which data was collected primarily using desk-based study, supplemented by interviews with anti-dumping experts, Vietnamese exporters and government officials. It involves the examination of international law pertaining to anti-dumping, the US and EU anti-dumping laws and investigation procedures, analysis of the WTO anti-dumping dispute settlement procedures and related jurisprudence, as well as the analysis of Vietnam’s transition to a market economy. The research has found that both the US and EU treat Vietnam as a NME and have developed their own specific methodologies for anti-dumping investigations on exports from Vietnam. Furthermore, it highlights the wide discretion of the US and the EU under their domestic laws in many stages of anti-dumping investigations. The findings also show that the WTO Dispute Settlement Body generally considers the US and the EU practices to be consistent with the ADA provisions. However, certain US and EU practices were found to be inconsistent with the ADA, including ‘zeroing’, limited examination, surrogate country selection, and the imposition of the ‘entity-wide rate.’ Further, by applying these practices, investigating authorities might establish unpredictable normal values that may inflate the estimated dumping margins and ultimately lead to the imposition of a higher than appropriate anti-dumping duty. The analysis concludes that the NME status of countries such as Vietnam disadvantages them when facing claims of dumping. Finally, this thesis provides recommendations for Vietnamese exporters that will serve to improve their competence as defendants/respondents in anti-dumping investigations and proceedings and more effectively demonstrate the degree to which their operations are based on market-based principles. Recommendations are also provided to the Vietnam Government on ways in which it can support Vietnamese exporters in anti-dumping investigations and proceedings.
    Date: 2023–03–04
  4. By: Gupta, Krisna; Gretton, Paul; Patunru, Arianto
    Abstract: Indonesia has been trying to improve its investment climate. The most recent development in this process is the enactment of a ‘Job Creation Law’ which aims to improve the investment climate through simplifying complicated red tape, eliminating large numbers of overlapping regulations and the adoption of a Risk Based Assessment approach to business licensing. In parallel to this development, the Indonesian Government is pursuing an Import Substitution Strategy to preserve external balance while fostering local activity. This paper discusses the changes introduced by these policies and how each may be captured in policy simulations. It then looks to simulate the potential national and sectoral impacts of the policies using the recursive dynamic GDyn-FS model of the global economy. It highlights impacts of the policies on national investment and trade over time and the flow-on impacts to industries and households. The analysis also takes into account changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic to Indonesia’s economy in the baseline scenario. The result of the policy simulations reflects a new and materially higher growth trajectory for the Indonesian economy in the situation where institution and country risk is lowered through better regulation. On the other hand, the projections indicate that the pursuit of an import substitution strategy, while possibly favouring individual protected activities, is likely to act as a drag on the wider economy.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Oladapo, Ibrahim Abiodun; Hamoudah, Manal Mohammed; Alam, Md. Mahmudul (Universiti Utara Malaysia); Muda, Ruhaini; Olaopa, Olawale Rafiu
    Abstract: Purpose – This paper aims to compare the perceptions of Islamic bank customers concerning FinTech services in Malaysia and Saudi Arabia. It also investigates the level to which customers are willing to adapt FinTech services. Design/methodology/approach – Primary data were collected from May to September 2019 using a questionnaire to survey 102 Islamic bank customers in Malaysia, and 147 in Saudi Arabia.The data are analysed based on Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) using the partial least squares (PLS) approach. Findings – The findings show that knowledge, attitude, and subjective norms are the highly significant determining factors that influence customers’ opinions on adapting to new technology, but awareness demonstrates only a moderately positive effect. Moreover, the impact of these factors on the intention to adopt FinTech services significantly differs between Malaysian and Saudi Arabian customers. Originality/value – This is an original study based on primary data on customers of Islamic banking in Malaysia and Saudi Arabia. It provides some novel insights into how the Islamic banking industry can boost customers’ confidence and enhance their patronage by adopting FinTech in their business operation model. These findings should be of value to managers, policymakers, and regulators in the Islamic banking industry in both Muslim and non-Muslim countries.
    Date: 2022–03–08
  6. By: Penprase, Bryan E; Schneider, Thomas
    Abstract: Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.2.2023 Strengthening the Liberal Arts Along the Pacific Rim: The Pacific Alliance of Liberal Arts Colleges (PALAC) April 2023 * Bryan Edward Penprase Soka University of America Thomas Schneider Association of Pacific Rim Universities Copyright 2023 Bryan E. Penprase and Thomas Schneider, all rights reserved. ABSTRACT While international alliances among research universities are relatively well established, the challenges for the small liberal arts college to execute a meaningful global collaboration can be much more difficult, due both to the much smaller size of the institution, its more limited resources, and its smaller and more intimate culture centered on undergraduate teaching and learning. A new alliance of liberal arts colleges known as the Pacific Alliance of Liberal Arts Colleges (PALAC) was established in 2021 with the purpose to better articulate the global components of liberal arts education, and to collaborate on key projects that will build collective capacity for student-centered liberal arts education that engages with the world’s most pressing problems. PALAC contains nine of the best liberal arts institutions from across the Pacific Region, including institutions in China, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Canada, and the United States. This essay describes the origins, motivations, and context of the creation of PALAC, its member institutions, and some of the initial projects planned by the new organization, and goals for global impact for PALAC. Keywords: Liberal Arts, Global Higher Education, Asian Higher Education A wide variety of consortial arrangements advance collective action among universities and colleges and have been a mainstay of the higher education world for many decades. Many consortia among colleges and universities are based on proximity, to enable easier exchanges and meetings among faculty and students. Examples include the Ivy League, the Claremont Colleges, the Associated Colleges of the Midwest, the Great Lakes Colleges Association (GLCA), the Northwest 6. These regional consortia enable deep engagement among the membership, and often include arrangements for athletics competitions, faculty exchanges, and joint curriculum development projects. In recent decades, more expansive geographic ranges have been explored for consortia of research universities to span the globe. These include, among others, the Association of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU), the Universitas 21 consortium, and the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU). These larger research universities have the capacity and funding levels to engage across the globe and to develop a stronger collective capacity to conduct high impact research on global challenges, and to share ideas on instructional approaches that are consistent with the missions of these universities. While international alliances among research universities are relatively well established, the challenges for the small liberal arts college to execute a meaningful global collaboration can be much more difficult, due both to the much smaller size of the institution, its more limited resources, and its smaller and more intimate culture centered on undergraduate teaching and learning. Notable US consortia of liberal arts institutions include the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities (NAICU), which includes over 1000 private colleges and universities, and the Annapolis Group of Liberal Arts Colleges, which includes 180 of the leading private liberal arts Colleges, the American Association of Universities and Colleges (AAC&U). These domestic US alliances are often too large to collaborate deeply in exchanges of students or faculty, but can provide collective advocacy, and serve to represent the interests of the broad number of institutions in their membership that share similar institutional missions. Examples can include AAC&U advocating for and advancing liberal arts within the US, and the Annapolis Group providing annual meetings for Presidents and Deans to discuss administrative strategies and leadership in the liberal arts. While these domestic consortia can discuss particular topics of interest for US liberal arts institutions, more global perspectives are generally absent from their membership and from their programs. Consortia can be divided into different categories, based on their functions. Glazer-Raymo (2002) reviewed the nature of the 125 member consortia in the US, as identified by the Association for Consortium Leadership. These consortia vary in size from 3 to 100 institutions, and most can be grouped into categories such as technology-planning consortia (cooperating on IT issues and distance learning), business and industry-linked consortia (focused on workforce training and economic development), research and academic library consortia (gaining economies of scale in sharing electronic collections and interlibrary loans), and scientific research and development consortia (sharing resources to reduce the costs associated with research). Some of the scholarly literature on consortia and alliances have stressed some of the fundamental principles needed for success in a consortium. Baus (1988) notes that the complex relationships among numerous disparate institutions calls for a “strictly maintained attitude of neutrality” in advancing the enlightened self-interest of institutions, while maintaining the limits of each institution as it works toward solving a problem with other institutions. Neal (1988) describes how consultations on teaching approaches and curriculum can be a particularly effective form of institutional cooperation, particularly in helping in promote best practices among faculty and recognizing excellence. Fuller (1988) describes some of the early experience within the Great Lakes Colleges Association (GLCA), founded in 1961 to advance the interests of liberal arts colleges in the Midwest. The GLCA worked together to promote off-campus study programs, by leveraging individual institutional connections to various international partners, and sharing these connections to provide a sustainable set of off-campus program abroad. The GLCA was also able to pioneer programs in women’s studies, and work collectively to solve problems for faculty development and the needs of untenured faculty within their group of institutions. A longitudinal study of Educational Consortia (Keim 1999) provides a history of the major consortia and alliances over the 20th century and describes how these consortia evolved through phases of development according to a series of stages as described by Grupe (1975). These phases included a first phase of exploration, which can be initiated by an individual, a second phase of planning, which ideally involves a committee of presidents and other representatives to assure the correct level of institutional support, and then a third stage of implementation. This final phase can include the development of an administrative structure, with a formal activation of programs as administered by an executive director. Keim (1999) also provides a thorough review of taxonomy of consortia among both US and international institutions. From a study of 134 consortia located in the US, Canada, Costa Rica, Australia and other countries, and noted the increase in size of consortia from 1983 to 1996 by number of members, with an overall decline in the number of consortia, which included 64 percent that were founded in the period from 1961 to 1980. The most common governance structure for these consortia was a Board of Directors (40%), with the most common funding mechanism being a mix of dues and grants. Tadaki and Tremewan (2013) have documented how consortia can serve as a testing ground for new ideas among multiple institutions, and thereby provide a “transformative space” for educational change. The consortium model can be especially necessary in bringing together international partnerships and the consortium has been a place where new practices of global collaboration can be tested and validated. In this way, the international consortium can also serve to mitigate the divergence and adverse consequences of globalization, by balancing the diverse cultural, political, economic and academic interests among the partners by providing new spaces and venues for cultivating the policies, leadership practices and economic ties that make international cooperation possible. International alliances and associations among US universities and international partners also exist, and includes such consortia as the Association of American Universities (AAU), which brings together 61 institutions in the US and Canada, the Association of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU), which includes 60 universities, representing 19 economies of the Pacific Rim, the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU), which represents 11 top-ranked research universities in nine countries, and the Universitas 21 organization (U21), which brings together 24 research intensive universities across the world. Additional consortia include the International Association of Universities (IAU), a UNESCO based open membership organization that includes nearly 600 member institutions, and the Worldwide University Network (WUN), bringing together 24 institutions in 6 continents for collaboration in research. International consortia of liberal arts colleges are much rarer, for the reasons mentioned above, and yet do exist. Examples include a grouping of Asian liberal arts institutions known as the Alliance of Asian Liberal Arts Universities (AALAU), formed by Lingnan University in Hong Kong in 2017, which includes 28 institutions from Hong Kong, Mainland China, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, and India, and the Global Liberal Arts Alliance (GLAA), which includes 11 US liberal Arts Colleges from midwestern states, paired with 17 international liberal arts colleges from a disparate list of countries that include Ecuador, Hong Kong, Ivory Coast, Japan, Switzerland, Pakistan, India, Saudi Arabia, Slovakia, Ghana, France, Nigeria, Egypt, Bulgaria and Greece. While both of these two alliances have pioneered transnational collaboration within liberal arts colleges, the two alliances are either distributed across the globe or concentrated in Asia, leaving an opening for a new alliance which can focus on engaging the wide range of nations and economies in the Pacific Region. In Spring 2020, Bryan Penprase from Soka University of America, and Thomas Schneider from the University of British Columbia, discussed the idea of new consortium after dozens of zoom conversations with leaders of liberal arts institutions across the Pacific Basin. From these conversations, it became clear that there was a need for a consortium of liberal arts institutions from across the Pacific Basin to focus on regional research projects and collectively create online and in-person programs and events, including fieldwork and student projects, shared instruction, and joint programs. The need for such a consortium was also clear since many of the new liberal arts institutions in Asia were founded in the past decade, and would benefit from a consortium that provides them with the expertise and leverage that could be provided by well-established US institutions. As we described in our “concept paper” which was circulated to the Presidents of the PALAC institutions, the proliferation of the liberal arts college within Asia provided an opportunity for renewal and dialog of liberal arts globally. The liberal arts college, initially developed in the US, has been widely adopted across the world, particularly since 2000 in Asian countries, as the liberal arts college is seen to provide an innovative, student-centered, interdisciplinary higher education that is a high-quality alternative to large research universities. Many of these new Asian liberal arts institutions are moving from the phase of institution-building to a second phase in their history where collaborating with international partners and finding their place on the global stage becomes a priority, providing an additional impetus for the new PALAC alliance. This new consortium could also engage in collaborative research on public policy and provide a shared commitment to advancing more global perspectives in liberal arts teaching and research in the Pacific region. The consortium can fill a gap in the international higher education landscape by creating a liberal arts analog similar in geographical scope to the APRU, but instead focused on collaborative research and teaching in the liberal arts context. As mentioned earlier, many liberal arts consortia have worked together to establish study-away sites, and to focus in the US context on issues related to liberal arts pedagogy. However, a gap exists in exploring how the liberal arts model translates in different cultural contexts, and how to fine tune the American approaches to be true to liberal arts in China, Hong Kong and other Asian cultures. This topic has been the subject of many international conferences in recent years, and a review of global liberal arts approaches in emerging new liberal arts programs in China, Japan, Singapore and India was presented as part of the conference at Beijing University in January 2020 (Penprase, 2021). The roots of liberal arts in the Western European culture are exemplified by the medieval quadrivium and trivium, and in the Chinese culture are exemplified by the Confucian tradition of developing “virtue” through the concept of the Great Learning or daxue. These different roots contribute to distinctly Asian and Western approaches to modern liberal arts, and in many cases, these new institutions in Japan, China, Hong Kong, and Singapore blend Asian and Western elements of liberal arts curriculum and pedagogy in new ways. These new models of liberal arts are being developed at many of the institutions within PALAC, and the alliance has the potential to collectively study and share the advances in liberal arts within the PALAC institutions. With this motivation in mind, the Pacific Alliance of Liberal Arts (PALAC) was established in 2021. This essay further describes the goals, details of the establishment of PALAC, some of the initial projects planned by PALAC, and longer-term goals for global impact. THE GOALS OF PALAC PALAC includes nine top liberal arts institutions from China, Hong Kong, the US, Canada, and Vietnam, as listed in Appendix I. Appendix I also includes the founding date of each institution and the number of students enrolled. The median size of the PALAC institutions is 1650 students, and the median founding date for PALAC institutions is 2001. These characteristics give the PALAC organizations a tendency toward innovation, as many are new “startup” institutions, and institutional cultures built around a tight-knit community made possible by the small size. PALAC members are now collectively developing new innovative educational environments and opportunities for collaborative education and research among their faculty and students. The group of colleges share a commitment to comprehensive interdisciplinary training, experiential learning, a focus on creativity and critical thinking, seminar-style instruction, undergraduate research experiences, individual development and personal mentoring, and an emphasis on global citizenship. As an example, Soka University of America centers its institutional mission on building global citizenship and is organized within broad areas of inquiry instead of by departments. Another example is the Fulbright University Vietnam YSELI Academy, which provides leadership training for future leaders across Southeast Asia, which is designed to “strengthen ties between the United States and Southeast Asia and nurture an ASEAN community” (Fulbright University Vietnam 2023). The University of Puget Sound has been leading innovation in engagement with Asia among liberal arts colleges since 1970, with its PacRim program, which provides six months of immersion in Asia that integrates experiential learning and internships (University of Puget Sound 2023). Pomona College is launching its new Global Pomona program, which mirrors the mission of PALAC as it seeks to respond to how “the world is ever more interconnected in confronting vast problems and pursuing the search for solutions” which makes liberal arts education “essential” since it is “creative, holistic and rigorous” and it prepares students “to lead the way in an ever-changing world” (Pomona College 2015b). The goal of PALAC is to share innovations from its individual member institutions, while building a larger collective intellectual capacity and impact that the individual institutions would not be able to achieve on their own. The new PALAC Alliance is designed to be small and nimble to enable significant progress on collaborative projects with demonstrable added value for the member institutions. The group of institutions together can significantly advance the research and education aligned with the UN SDG’s and to promote global citizenship and create cultural bridges across the Pacific region. As one example, the Hong Kong Baptist University in Hong Kong has developed a Global Virtual Hackathon to advance the UN SDGs in 2021, entitled “A Sustainable New Normal” (HKBU 2021). The HBKU hackathon provided the blueprint for a possible new PALAC hackathon focused on global climate change. Another example is the DKU iGEM team, which is an interdisciplinary effort to use genetically engineered microbes to help fight antibiotic resistant pathogens, which advances the UN SDGs, 3, 9, and 17 (DKU 2023). It is hoped that with PALAC, additional teams can be developed to further advance the UN Sustainable Development Goals. A further example is the new Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance (ESG) fund at NYU Shanghai to help promote global sustainability in research and education as well as the broader impacts of these activities (NYU Shanghai 2022). Initial Projects Initial conversations and follow-up discussions with academic leaders showed a significant interest to collaborate in four areas. By selecting initial projects that are of mutual interest among many of the institutions, it is hoped that 10-20% of the faculty of the individual colleges may be committed to active involvement in these initiatives. Some of the initiatives that appeared suitable for PALAC include the following: Experiential field schools, similar to EnviroLabs Asia (Claremont Mckenna College 2019) or the Global Clinic program (Harvey Mudd College 2023) at the Claremont Colleges, or shared research programs for students similar to the Keck Geology Consortium, which brings together an extensive group of liberal arts colleges fostering student and faculty research during summers. Such field schools could replace or complement traditional student exchange and operate outside of the usual academic semester calendars, avoiding scheduling difficulties. Additional “study institutes” in summer or winter break periods could rotate among the institutions. Online collaborative research among the institutions could operate in parallel to the regular academic year offerings. In the first years of the program, groups of institutions could initiate a series of online study institutes that would bring together faculty and students in discussion of common challenges facing their home countries and the Pacific Region, and ways to research solutions toward implementing the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Shared online courses and faculty development programs. The consortium could share best practices in course design, curriculum development and pedagogy, comparable to the US-based Liberal Arts Collaborative for Digital Innovation, which gathers ten liberal Arts Colleges together for coordinated development of online learning capacity. Discipline-specific and pedagogy-specific resources at individual colleges tend to be limited by the small faculty; shared instruction can enhance the curricula for institutions through shared development of online courses in languages, skill-building summer courses for students in mathematics and writing, select advanced and highly specialized courses not available at many campuses, and online tutoring and programs in languages and other subjects. The Alliance can also provide a platform for frequent discussions among faculty and students within member institutions and can provide a mechanism for promoting intercultural exchanges and developing a stronger sense of global citizenship among students. Credit-bearing programs during summer or other off-calendar periods could be offered to students within the Alliance to leverage the specific strengths of member institutions or share opportunities to experience these diverse geographic and cultural environments represented within the Alliance. Short winter-break or summer courses could be developed on topics such as sustainable cities, management of water and air resources, entrepreneurship, global climate change, and the needs of marginalized communities within the region. After some time, such credit-bearing programs could be applied toward a joint degree program in Ocean Stewardship or Pacific Studies, or other subjects not offered at individual institutions. Promoting a liberal arts education across the Pacific Basin, advising on issues of public policy from a liberal arts perspective, and enhancing the cultural dialogue among the cultures and countries within the Pacific Basin. A strategic collaboration with the APRU would make these engagements more effective and powerful. Examples of existing research institutes within institutions include the Pacific Basin Institute at Pomona College (Pomona College 2015a) and the Pacific Basin Research Center at Soka University of America (Soka University of America 2023). INITIAL YEAR IMPLEMENTATION From the initial planning discussions with academic leaders, an administrative structure was developed which included Thomas Schneider as founding Executive Director and Bryan Penprase as founding Academic Director. This structure was based loosely on the initial arrangements of the APRU, which begin in 1997, and was governed by a rotating secretariat, who was one of the APRU university presidents. In APRU, the secretariat then sponsored the costs of staffing and operations from the President’s office and handed off these responsibilities to other APRU presidents. By 2007, an international APRU secretariat was set up, and was located in Singapore and is now based in Hong Kong. Discussions with the APRU founding COO suggested adopting a simple administrative structure for PALAC at beginning to reduce bureaucracy. A plan to rotate the meetings of PALAC among the member institutions was also advised to share the costs and administrative burden (Cheng 2021). Like APRU, the management of PALAC was envisioned to rotate through each of the PALAC institutions for a two-year term, with additional institutions taking the lead role as Academic Director, and hosting a meeting for the PALAC alliance. Other administrative tasks for PALAC in the first years were placed within the lead institution, which in the first years was set at Soka University of America (SUA). The costs of the PALAC administration were borne by the lead institution, SUA, which provided administrative support, IT support for the website development and funding for the in-person meeting. To formalize membership in PALAC, the member institutions were given a prospectus “concept paper” that described the goals of PALAC, and each signed a Statement of Founding that provided a description of the administrative structure of PALAC, the host institution, and other details. Each of the 9 institutions then returned the signed Statement of Founding with the signature of the President or Chief Academic officer to authorize PALAC to represent the alliance officially. These initial costs were borne by Soka University of America in the launch year, but with a longer-term goal toward shifting toward a more traditional consortial arrangement supported by either external funding from a grant, or from dues collected by member institutions. To publicize PALAC, Penprase and Schneider wrote an article in Times Higher Education featuring PALAC in September of 2021. The article made the case that liberal arts in Asia will benefit from peer support form a consortium such as PALAC, and provided some of the initial goals for PALAC (Penprase and Schneider 2021). A PALAC website was developed, using a domain and hosting outside of any of the PALAC institutions (to assure continuity with changes in leadership) with the domain name of, with the costs for the web server borne by the HBKU/UIC. To help increase awareness of PALAC, Penprase gave a presentation on PALAC at the Times Higher Education Liberal Arts Forum on June 23, 2022 (Times Higher Education 2022), and a LinkedIn page was created to begin posting social media articles about liberal arts in Asia in mid-2022. During academic year 2021-2022, discussions via zoom continued to refine the initial project selection for PALAC, and to develop specific working groups for implementation in the academic year of 2022-2023. The first in-person PALAC meeting was held at Soka University of America on June 3-4, 2022, and featured John Sexton, President Emeritus of New York University, who gave a plenary talk entitled “A Twenty-First Century Case for a Liberal Arts Institution.” Sexton also was present on both days of the meeting to provide advice and suggestions for the new alliance. Travel funding from SUA was provided to two of the representatives to offset their costs for attending, as well as funding for John Sexton’s appearance. The meeting included 20 in-person attendees representing six of the nine PALAC institutions, from Vietnam, China, Canada, and the USA, with about 20 additional attendees online, as the meeting was conducted in “hybrid” mode. The entire set of presentations, representing all the nine PALAC institutions are all available on the PALAC website (Soka University of America 2022). SECOND YEAR PROJECTS AND IMPLEMENTATION Based on the discussions from the first in-person PALAC meeting, several top priorities were identified. Administrative governance and other procedures were discussed, and it was recognized that a more formal mission statement, governance documents and financial support mechanism would be needed to sustain PALAC in the coming years. These steps are ongoing, as are plans for seeking external funding to support the activities of PALAC. The goal in these discussions was to find priorities for PALAC that were shared from as many of the partner institutions as possible, to assure widespread participation across the alliance. To also share the responsibilities for managing the alliance, PALAC developed a plan to rotate the governance of PALAC on a semi-annual basis, and to also rotate the venue for a PALAC meeting among the member institutions. The specific projects which appeared most feasible in the second year, centered around two main areas – collaborative instruction and research on global climate change and its impacts on marginalized communities, and faculty exchanges. To provide a bit more information on these two topics, some specific ideas which will be implemented in the coming year are outlined below. Collaborative instruction on global climate change As many of the institutions within PALAC have expertise on the topic of global climate change, and since the Pacific Region is both impacted by global climate change, as well as a source of the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases generated by the dynamic economies of Asia and North America, the possibility of a global engagement between China, Hong Kong, Vietnam, and the USA on global climate change seemed an ideal focus for PALAC. To begin implementation, SUA will begin to develop a new website featuring shared instructional materials, new imagery from NASA on global climate change, and articles on global climate change. This project is planned to develop into the Pacific Alliance Project and a new online textbook known as the Pacific Alliance College Press, with an editorial board that includes members from PALAC institutions. To begin the project, SUA faculty members George Busenberg and Robert Hamersley will work with the SUA group to gather materials for the online resource and aided by visiting faculty member Hung Phan (formerly from Fulbright University Vietnam), a series of online discussions on the topic will be conducted with students and faculty at SUA and other PALAC institutions in Vietnam and China. Additional projects that are hoped to be developed in the coming year include: Hackathon bringing students together across PALAC to work on topics of mutual interest, perhaps related to the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals.Global dialogs among students across PALAC focused on pressing issues, such as global climate change.Collaborative Online International Learning (COIL) courses for exchange (could include both synchronous and asynchronous coordinated courses).Collaborative offerings for summer courses among PALAC institutions (could be a mix of in-person and virtual experiences). Faculty Exchange To begin implementing faculty exchanges, openings at the PALAC campuses for visiting instructors are being shared, with the hope that faculty members on sabbatical or visiting the other campus can offer a course or a lecture to begin a series of exchanges. Since many of the PALAC institutions are quite new, having the mix of experienced and new faculty meeting and sharing ideas will be a great avenue for faculty development. Faculty opportunities at Fulbright University Vietnam and Duke Kunshan University are already being shared within PALAC, and procedures for posting opportunities and arranging for housing and payment for the visiting faculty are being worked out. In the coming year it is hoped that PALAC can create many opportunities for faculty exchange that would include: Faculty exchanges for short-term teaching and for sabbaticalCoordinated efforts within PALAC administration for sharing experiences and solutionsStudent exchange programs for experiential learning in Jan. term and short immersions as well as semesters FUTURE DIRECTIONS After the initial years of founding, it is hoped that the PALAC alliance can serve a vital role in articulating how liberal arts education translates into the different cultures and countries in the Pacific Region. Already the emergence of new liberal arts institutions in China, Singapore, Japan and India have redefined the nature of liberal arts in exciting ways that have integrated cultural elements from each country into the canon of texts that are read, and the priorities of the institution that reflect the needs of the local cultures and economies of Asia. These efforts also are shaping the ways that new technologies such as AI and biotechnology in the exponentially changing economies of the “Fourth Industrial Revolution” and liberal arts approaches are vital in making more ethical and sustainable development of these technologies in the Asia-Pacific Region (Penprase, 2011). Understanding the value and cultural rooting of liberal arts institutions in a diverse mix of countries will help clarify the essential nature of liberal arts education in liberating the talents and creative capacities of students and faculty. In addition to the educational projects mentioned above, the larger collective body of expertise within PALAC should enable something like a “meta-university” that has larger critical mass in several areas. With the advances of online and remote learning, solidified by the COVID-19 pandemic, the ability to easily connect communities and students in meaningful ways has become technologically easier than ever. By developing avenues for collaboration in instruction and communication, as well as an online infrastructure to enable fast and frequent communication between PALAC students and faculty, new research and new insights will emerge that would have been impossible on the campuses in isolation. The global PALAC “meta-university” in some ways mirrors Clark Kerr’s notions of the multiversity (Kerr 2001). Kerr’s 1961 work, The Uses of the University, described the multiversity as one that “draws on many strands of history” to create interlocking communities centered on the diverse intellectual cultures proliferating in the increasingly specialized research universities of the 20th century. Kerr’s multiversity describes the competing fractionalization within individual research universities, which can be a source of chaos and competing interests that often are irreconcilable. A closer description of the potential PALAC “meta-university” was provided by John Sexton, who in building the NYU global portal campuses in Shanghai and Abu Dhabi described how global universities can become “incubators for a secular ecumenism” by building “a community of interlocking communities” (Sexton 2020). It is hoped that the intense residential communities within the PALAC campuses can work together to create this PALAC meta-university, based on its “community of interlocking communities.” To accelerate the process of development of this collective research capacity, PALAC will also explore development of new types of online infrastructure for sharing procedures for managing research. These types of infrastructure could include many kinds of resources, both administrative and academic. An online academic commons for PALAC will facilitate and accelerate this development, and minimize barriers for productive research collaboration among our members. As outlined by Pomona College President Gabrielle Starr, some of the steps that might be particularly helpful in moving toward collective research capacity in PALAC would include working out the details for a unified and shared understanding of the following: IRB alignment/facilitationConsideration of export controlsShared understanding of peer review standards, perhaps aligned with the Hong Kong principles of the World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRIF 2022; Wager and Kleinert 2013) It may also be possible to share significant research resources among PALAC institutions, due to the increasingly distributed and online nature of much of today’s scientific research. Examples of specific research infrastructure that could be shared among PALAC institutions includes: Shared resources for high performance computing Shared resources for instrumentation/analysis DNA sequencing Spectrometry Others Online instrumentation with remote operation, such as Remotely operated telescopes Oceanographic research instruments Weather and pollution monitoring stations With the collective resources made possible by PALAC, it will be possible for the group of liberal arts colleges to advance both in teaching and research. Through the shared academic commons, it will also be possible to have shared case studies of environmental changes in our regions with impacts on marginalized communities, and a mechanism for publishing research with peer review among the PALAC institutions. With this collective capacity the institutions within PALAC should be able to advance and achieve far more than they could individually and create impact on global research and education far greater than would be typical for institutions of their small size. Ongoing discussions are also underway to add member institutions in key regions of the Asia-Pacific (Japan, Malaysia, Australia, etc.) to allow PALAC to fully implement its initiatives and to take advantage of the different teaching schedules within the Northern and Southern hemispheres. An additional possible emphasis for PALAC will be to help increase the capacity of each institution for more effective academic administration, perhaps involving visits or exchanges among administrators. Together these steps will help PALAC provide both increased advocacy for the liberal arts across the Pacific, and more support towards the fledgling institutions as they develop beyond their “launch” in to mature and sustainable universities and colleges. REFERENCES Baus, Frederick. 1988. “The Third-Party Role.” In Consortia and Interinstitutional Cooperation. New York: MacMillan. Cheng, Sherman. 2021. “Phone Interview, April 2021, ” 2021. Claremont Mckenna College. 2019. “EnviroLab Asia.” 2019. DKU. 2023. “IGEM 2022 Wiki.” 2023. Fulbright University Vietnam. 2023. “YSEALI Academy.” YSEALI Academy. 2023. Fuller, Jon. 1988. “Consortia as Risk Takers.” In Consortia and Interinstitutional Cooperation. New York: MacMillan. GLAZER-RAYMO, Judith. 2002. “Consortia in Higher Education - Types of Consortia, Conclusions.” 2002. Grupe, Fritz H. 1975. Managing Interinstitutional Change. Potsdam, New York: Associated Colleges of the St. Lawrence Valley. Harris, Suzy. 2011. The University in Translation : The Internationalization of Higher Education. New York: Continuum. Harvey Mudd College. 2023. “Global Clinic.” Harvey Mudd College. 2023. HKBU. 2021. “Global Virtual Hackathon 2021 - Hack for a Sustainable ‘New Normal.’” 2021. Keim, Marybelle C. 1999. "Educational Consortia--a Longitudinal Study." College and University 74 (3) (Spring): 30. Kerr, Clark. 2001. The Uses of the University. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Marybelle, Keim. 1999. “Educational Consortia--a Longitudinal Study - ProQuest.” 1999. Neal, Donn C. 1988. Consortia and Interinstitutional Cooperation. Free Press. NYU Shanghai. 2022. “Mr. Zach Du Chao Gives His Support to NYU Shanghai’s New ESG Center | NYU Shanghai - Education Development Foundation.” December 2022. Penprase, Bryan. 2021. “Global Liberal Arts and New Institutions for 21st Century Higher Education.” Higher Education Forum 18 (18): 157–72. Penprase, Bryan, and Thomas Schneider. 2021. “After Yale-NUS Closure, Liberal Arts in Asia Will Benefit from Peer Support.” Times Higher Education (THE). September 23, 2021. Pomona College. 2015a. “Pacific Basin Institute.” Pomona College in Claremont, California - Pomona College. May 22, 2015. ———. 2015b. “Global Pomona Project Goals and Charge.” Pomona College in Claremont, California - Pomona College. May 26, 2015. Sexton, John. 2020. STANDING for REASON : The University in a Dogmatic Age. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Soka University of America. 2022. “2022 Meeting Summary | Pacific Alliance of Liberal Arts Colleges.” 2022. ———. 2023. “Pacific Basin Research Center | Soka University of America.” 2023. Tadaki, Marc, and Christopher Tremewan. 2013. “Reimagining Internationalization in Higher Education: International Consortia as a Transformative Space?” Studies in Higher Education 38 (3): 367–87. Times Higher Education. 2022. “THE Liberal Arts Forum 2022.” 2022. University of Puget Sound. 2023. “Pacific Rim Study Abroad Program | University of Puget Sound.” 2023. Wager, Elizabeth, and Sabine Kleinert. 2013. “Why Do We Need International Standards on Responsible Research Publication for Authors and Editors?” Journal of Global Health 3 (2). WCRIF. 2022. “Hong Kong Principles.” WCRIF - the World Conferences on Research Integrity Foundation. 2022. Appendix I: Listing of PALAC institutions (more information available at Location University or College Year of Founding Undergraduate Enrollment website Canada Quest University Canada 2007 600 China NYU-Shanghai 2012 2000 Duke Kunshan University 2013 1000 Hong Kong Hong Kong Baptist University 1956 10, 000 HKBU United International College 2005 6000 USA Soka University of America 2001 540 Pomona College 1887 1650 University of Puget Sound 1888 2650 Vietnam Fulbright University Vietnam 2016 500 * Bryan Penprase, Vice President of External Academic Relations at Soka University of America, is the current and founding Academic Director of PALAC, while Thomas Schneider is the current Chief Executive of the APRU. We are grateful to the support of Soka University of America for providing the funds needed to launch the PALAC alliance.
    Keywords: Education, Liberal Arts, Global Higher Education, Asian Higher Education
    Date: 2023–04–03
  7. By: Cuong Viet Nguyen (VNU - Vietnam National University [Hanoï]); Manh Hung Nguyen (TSE-R - Toulouse School of Economics - UT Capitole - Université Toulouse Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Toan Nguyen (ANU - Australian National University)
    Abstract: We estimate the impact of temperature extremes on mortality in Vietnam, using daily data on temperatures and monthly data on mortality during the 2000-2018 period. We find that both cold and heat waves cause higher mortality, particularly among older people and those living in the hot regions in Southern Vietnam. This effect on mortality tends to be smaller in provinces with higher rates of airconditioning and emigration, and provinces with higher public spending on health. Finally, we estimate economic cost of cold and heat waves using a framework of willingness to pay to avoid deaths, then project the cost to the year 2100 under different Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios.
    Keywords: Health, Mortality, Vietnam, Weather extremes
    Date: 2023–02–22
  8. By: Sy, Deborah Kim; Hosoe, Nobuhiro
    Abstract: Minimum wage is used as a support for low-wage workers, but it is expected to increase unemployment and cause deterioration of the welfare of the unemployed. While earlier studies identify negative side effects of minimum wage, that may not be the case in the Philippines, where many workers migrate and send home large remittances. This study uses a computable general equilibrium model to examine the impacts of an increase in the domestic minimum wage on unemployment, migration, and output, as well as on welfare and inequality, in the Philippines. Our simulation results show that a minimum wage increase would indeed reduce domestic labor demand and prompt many unemployed workers to migrate out, leaving relatively few unemployed at home. While an increased volume of remittances would improve household welfare, it would also have some unintended effects, such as currency appreciation; decreased domestic production in labor-intensive and export-oriented industries; greater income disparity; and tax base erosion.
    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Brehm, Johannes,; Doku, Angela,; Escudero, Verónica,
    Abstract: This paper examines these elements in the context of South Africa and Indonesia– two middle-income countries with similar development levels yet different labour market characteristics. We employ a comparative cross-country methodology using long-term panel data.
    Keywords: informal employment, economic sector, rural employment, youth employment, occupational qualification
    Date: 2023
  10. By: Bruno Jetin (Universiti Brunei Darussalam, CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - LABEX ICCA - UP13 - Université Paris 13 - Université Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UPCité - Université Paris Cité - Université Sorbonne Paris Nord - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Université Sorbonne Paris Nord)
    Abstract: Energy transition is now considered a necessity for moving towards sustainable development and to improve living standards. This is especially the case in Southeast Asia where energy demand is expected to increase by 50% and electricity demand to double by 2025. The region has not enough fossil fuels to cope with this growing demand and will have to increase its imports which may endanger its energy security.
    Keywords: Energy transition, China, Southeast Asia, Renewables, Electric car, batteries
    Date: 2023
  11. By: Robinson, Jonny
    Abstract: Cost of Science Asian Researchers and the Disparity in US
    Date: 2023–03–05
  12. By: Guenwoo Lee; Ayu Pratiwi; Farikhah; Aya Suzuki; Takashi Kurosaki
    Abstract: Using a unique dataset of 1, 574 shrimp farmers, this study investigates whether online communities of practice can replace or compensate for traditional agricultural extension services. This study reveals that the correlation between the use of the community and conventional extension services, such as neighboring farmers, family members, and extension workers, is not statistically significant in the full sample. However, on excluding the non-community members, the results indicate that those who obtain information from their neighbors or extension workers are more likely to use the community. Regarding the reliability of the community, those who obtain information from their neighboring farmers or family members are less likely to choose the community as their most reliable source of information. This is consistent with the results obtained after excluding non-community members. Furthermore, we found a negative and statistically significant correlation between the frequency of information sharing and inquiries and information sources such as neighboring farmers and family members, and no association between increased time spent at home due to the COVID-19 pandemic and increased use of the community. The results suggest that online communities of practice may not yet have penetrated farmers in Indonesia and act as a complement to, rather than a substitute for, conventional extension services.
    Date: 2023–03
  13. By: Alam, Md. Mahmudul (Universiti Utara Malaysia); Tahir, Yasmin Mohamad; Saif-Alyousfi, Abdulazeez Y. H.; Waehama, Wanamina; Muda, Ruhaini; Nordin, Sabariah
    Abstract: Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) ratings are widely recognised methods to assess the sustainability practices of corporations. However, the scores of these ratings are not satisfactory in emerging market economies. This study examines the financial factors that influence ESG ratings regarding public listed companies on the FTSE4 Good Bursa Malaysia Index (F4GBM Index). This paper uses static and dynamic Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) techniques to analyse the data of 31 public listed companies on the F4GBM Index and reported full ESG ratings data for the period 2007-2016. To utilise the maximum number of observations by avoiding the missing data and outlier due to COVID-19, this study applied the sample data up to 2016. Using the two-step system dynamic GMM estimator, such results indicate that highly profitable Malaysian companies enjoy a higher score for ESG overall ratings as well as all three individual ratings. Poorer credit management diminishes the environmental ratings, yet increases overall scores such as the social and governance scores. Companies with higher leverage have a weaker social, governance and overall score, but a higher environmental rating. Finally, companies eliciting a higher sustainable growth rate have weak governance and overall scores. This study provides empirical evidence that will be useful to capital market investors, management teams of these companies and policymakers in their efforts to promote responsible investment in Malaysian public listed companies in line with UN-PRI policy.
    Date: 2022–03–08
  14. By: Choi, Bo-Young (Kyungpook National University); Heo, Inae (Kyungpook National University)
    Abstract: This paper examines the regulatory similarity between APEC economies by NTM types and sectors. We calculate the regulatory distance proposed by Cadot et al. (2015) and identify which industries or NTM type needs further cooperation through the Free Trade Area of Asia-Pacific (FTAAP). We refer to the two pathways of FTAAP, the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) and analyze how FTAAP may incorporate the existing mega FTAs to reduce regulatory disparities among APEC economies. We find that regulatory distance differs across industries and thus focusing on specific industries like CPTPP may be an effective way to mitigate unnecessary trade costs attributed to the heterogeneity of regulations. We also argue that including provisions related to technical assistance and capacity building is essential as regulatory distance is especially big between developed economies and developing economies.
    Keywords: Regulatory distance; Free Trade Area of Asia-Pacific; Technical Barriers to Trade; Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
    JEL: F14 F15
    Date: 2022–12–16
  15. By: Lim, Jing Zhi; Toh, Mun-Heng; Xie, Taojun
    Abstract: Technology strategy and governance have turned from a priority to an imperative for firms and governments alike in today's digital economy. Paving the way for the future, ASEAN has entered discussions for an ASEAN Digital Masterplan in 2025 to improve economic integration, and promote inclusive, sustainable growth for the region. We conduct a computable general equilibrium analysis of the impacts of the DEA on the signatories' economies, the ASEAN region, and the world. We find that DEAs will positively increase the output of the ICT sector and has downstream benefits for the business services & financial sector, increasing their output by an average of 6.78%. The DEAs which aim to improve the interoperability of digital systems between countries will also increase inter-regional trade by an average of 7.27%. Data localization clauses that are overly restrictive may be counterproductive and decrease the ICT sector's sectoral output. We also find that countries with a higher proportion of unskilled labor would see the most considerable growth in demand for skilled labor in ICT, reiterating the importance of reskilling the workforce.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022
  16. By: Shakib, Mohammed; Yumei, Hou; Rauf, Abdul; Alam, Md. Mahmudul (Universiti Utara Malaysia); Murshed, Muntasir; Mahmood, Haider
    Abstract: The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is an ambitious development project initiated by the Chinese government to foster economic progress worldwide. This study aims to investigate the dynamics of energy, economy, and environment among 42 BRI developing countries using an annual frequency panel dataset from 1995 to 2019. The major findings from the econometric analysis revealed that higher degrees of energy consumption, economic growth, population growth rate, and FDI inflows exhibit adverse environmental consequences by boosting the CO2 emission figures of the selected developing BRI nations. However, it is interesting to observe that exploiting renewable energy sources, which are relatively cleaner compared to the traditionally-consumed fossil fuels, and fostering agricultural sector development can significantly improve environmental well-being by curbing the emission levels. On the other hand, financial development is found to be ineffective in explaining the variations in CO2 emission figures of the selected BRI member countries. Besides, the causality analysis shows that higher energy consumption, FDI inflows, and agricultural development cause environmental pollution by boosting carbon dioxide emissions. However, economic growth, technology development, financial progress, and renewable energy consumption are evidenced to exhibit bidirectional causal associations with carbon dioxide emissions. In line with these findings, several relevant policies can be recommended.
    Date: 2022–03–08
  17. By: Islam, Monirul; Tareque, Mohammad; , Abu N.M. Wahid; Alam, Md. Mahmudul (Universiti Utara Malaysia); Sohag, Kazi
    Abstract: The net contribution of the decomposed measures of foreign direct investment (FDIs), e.g., the inward and outward flows of FDIs, to domestic investment is still inconclusive in the case of underdeveloped and developing countries. The current literature bears testimony to this fact. Hence, this research examines the impact of inward and outward foreign direct investments (FDIs) on the domestic investment in Bangladesh. This study considers annual time series data from 1976 to 2019 and estimates this data property under the augmented ARDL approach to cointegration. In addition, this research employs the dynamic ARDL simulation technique in order to forecast the counterfactual shock of the regressors and their effects on the dependent variable. The results from the augmented ARDL method suggest that the inward FDI has a positive impact on domestic investment, while the outward FDI is inconsequential in both the long run and the short run. Besides, our estimated findings also show the economic growth’s long-run and short-run favorable effects on domestic investment. At the same time, there is no significant impact of real interest rates and institutional quality on domestic investment in the long run or the short run in Bangladesh. In addition, the counterfactual shocks (10% positive and negative) to inward FDI positively impact domestic investment, indicating the crowding-in effect of the inward FDI on the domestic investment in Bangladesh. As the inward FDI flow is a significant determinant for sustained domestic investment in Bangladesh, the policy strategy must fuel the local firms by utilizing cross-border investment.
    Date: 2022–03–08
  18. By: Farag, Markos (Energiewirtschaftliches Institut an der Universitaet zu Koeln (EWI)); Jeddi, Samir (Energiewirtschaftliches Institut an der Universitaet zu Koeln (EWI)); Kopp, Jan Hendrik (Energiewirtschaftliches Institut an der Universitaet zu Koeln (EWI))
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the integration of the American, European, and Asian natural gas markets over the period 2016-2022, with a focus on how the demand shock caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and the supply shock caused by geopolitical tensions in the European market affected this integration.We also examine which regional market is leading in reflecting new information and shocks into the market price. Our analysis indicates that the market integration process has been impacted by external shocks, leading to a decrease in the degree of integration between the European and Asian markets. Additionally, we find that the American market is no longer integrated with the other two markets after the supply shock, potentially due to the US's congested and fully utilized LNG infrastructure. Our analysis also shows that the gas price differentials adjust asymmetrically in response to disturbances, suggesting that markets respond differently to positive and negative shocks. Moreover, we show that the lead/lag relationship changes over time and exhibits a dynamic behavior. Finally, we discuss the fundamental changes in the global gas market that align with our empirical results.
    Keywords: Natural gas markets; Market integration; Threshold Co-integration; Time-varying causality
    JEL: C32 D40 D58 F21 F41 G13 G14 L95 Q35 Q41
    Date: 2023–04–05
  19. By: Vuong, Bui Nhat (Vietnam Aviation Academy)
    Abstract: Mục đích của nghiên cứu này là khám phá mối quan hệ giữa trách nhiệm xã hội của doanh nghiệp và lòng trung thành của khách hàng thông qua niềm tin thương hiệu và sự yêu thích thương hiệu. Mô hình nghiên cứu đã được đề xuất dựa vào lý thuyết bộ ba cốt lõi bền vững và lý thuyết trao đổi xã hội. Dữ liệu đã được thu thập từ 305 khách hàng trên 18 tuổi đã từng sử dụng dịch vụ của hãng hàng không giá rẻ (Vietjet Air và Pacific Airlines) và đang sống tại Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh. Mô hình hóa phương trình cấu trúc bình phương nhỏ nhất từng phần đã được sử dụng để phân tích dữ liệu. Kết quả nghiên cứu cho thấy rằng trách nhiệm xã hội của doanh nghiệp giúp gia tăng lòng trung thành của khách hàng. Thêm vào đó, mối quan hệ tích cực này đã được trung gian bán phần bởi niềm tin thương hiệu và sự yêu thích thương hiệu. Nghiên cứu cũng đã đề xuất một số hàm ý quản trị cho các nhà quản lý tại các hãng hàng không giá rẻ thực hiện các hoạt động trách nhiệm xã hội của doanh nghiệp để cải thiện lòng trung thành của khách hàng.
    Date: 2023–02–27
  20. By: Muhammad Akhtaruzzaman, Muhammad Akhtaruzzaman (Toi Ohomai InstitTechnologyute of)
    Abstract: According to Korea’s Ministry of Knowledge Economy (currently the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy), foreign investment has now become one of the major economic pillars driving the Korean economy over the past 15 years (Tang 2022). The Korean economy started to open up to rest of the world following the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and was the biggest FDI policy reformer among 40 developed and emerging economies over the period from 1997 to 2010 (Nicolas et al. 2013). Over the last decade, Korea’s outward FDI grew much faster than inward FDI (See Figure 1) and Korea is now a net capital exporter to the world. In 2021, Korea’s outward FDI flows totaled $76.64 billion and a total of 2323 Korean enterprises invested in overseas countries (Korea EXIM Bank 2022). Due to this increased amount of outward FDI, a large number of studies (Kim and Rhee 2009; Park and Jung 2020) investigated what determines Korea’s outward FDI (OFDI). Institutional quality is found to be a major determinant in FDI literature in general. It suggests that political risk (lack of/poor institutional quality) not only deters FDI inflows to host countries but also can lead FDI to countries with higher risks and to ‘pollution heaven’ which might have an adverse impact on long term growth and development in both host and home countries. There are strong empirical evidences in literature that lack of institutional quality or good governance is associated with lower FDI inflows. An extensive literature (Alfaro et al. 2008; Ali et al. 2010; Akhtaruzzaman et al. 2017; Bénassy‐Quéré et al. 2007) investigated FDI response to various types of institutional quality in FDI host countries. Over the last 20 years data evidenced that Korea’s OFDI flowed to developing countries with a sustained large gap existing in institutional quality between host countries and Korea (See, Fig 2 top panel); however; those countries had been offering a higher degree of capital account openness. A sharp increase in capital account openness since the early 2000s coincides with sharp increase in Korea’s OFDI to those host countries. For example, Peru was the least open economy and started to initiate measures to open capital account since the mid-90s and early 2000s. The degree of openness in Peru is now similar to that of developed countries. (the rest omitted)
    Keywords: A Gravity Model Analysis; Outward FDI; Institutional Quality
    Date: 2023–01–03
  21. By: Daniel J. Hernandez (Université Paris Saclay, Ecole Normale Supérieure Paris-Saclay, CEPS); Fernando Jaramillo (Universidad del Rosario, Bogota, Colombia); Hubert Kempf (Université Paris Saclay, Ecole Normale Supérieure Paris-Saclay, CEPS); Fabien Moizeau (Université de Rennes, CNRS, CREM-UMR6211, F-35000 Rennes, France); Thomas Vendryes (Université Paris Saclay, Ecole Normale Supérieure Paris-Saclay, CEPS)
    Abstract: The need to insure against idiosyncratic income risk leads to the formation of risksharing groups in village economies where formal financial markets are absent. We develop a theoretical model to address the impact of limited commitment and social control on the extent of informal risk sharing when agents are induced to form such risk-sharing coalitions. Social control increases the prospect of future punishment of present defectors and thus mitigates the absence of commitment. A defection-proof core-partition exists, is unique and homophilic. Riskier societies may not be more segmented and may not pay a higher cost for insurance. A higher social control leads to a less segmented society but does not necessarily lead to a lower price for sharing risk. We provide evidence, based on data on Thai villages, that consumption smoothing conforms with our theoretical result of homophily-based coalitions and that social control contributes to a lesser segmentation of a society.
    Keywords: Risk Sharing, Informal Insurance, Group Formation, Social Control, Risk Heterogeneity, Homophily, Dyadic Models, Thailand
    JEL: C71 D81 O12 O17
    Date: 2023–03
  22. By: Manh-Hung Nguyen (TSE-R - Toulouse School of Economics - UT Capitole - Université Toulouse Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: In this chapter, we look at the effects of climate variability on a range of tropical diseases and on general mortality. We find a strong impact of temperature on vector-borne and water-borne disease, where the incidence of infection is significantly decreased at temperatures below 15°C, but increased on the bin above 30°C for vector-borne disease. The impact is weaker on airborne diseases than the two other types. The effect of weather changes on the incidence of major diseases differs by climate region. Provinces located in the South and Southern Central Coast appear to have a higher level of sensitivity to infections at 15°C-18°C temperatures than other provinces. Regarding mortality, we find robust evidence on the positive effects of cold and heat waves on mortality. An additional day in a cold wave is estimated to increase the monthly mortality rate by 0.6%. The corresponding figure for a day in a heat wave is 0.7%. The effect of cold waves as well as heat waves tends to increase when the cold and heat waves last for a longer time. Compared with a cold wave, the effect of a heat wave on the mortality rate is more significant and of a larger magnitude. All climate change scenarios also imply an increase in the number of heat waves with a clear impact on mortality.
    Keywords: Climate change, Infectious disease, Mortality, Health policy, Viet Nam
    Date: 2023–03–24
  23. By: Faizi, Bushra; Shah, Mohamed Eskandar
    Abstract: The paper provides the tariff equivalent (AVEs) of the trade regulations in services from the gravity equation estimated at the sectoral level and access protection by comparing the actual trade values against a benchmark (free trader). The AVEs are calculated using the bilateral trade flows in 19 services sectors for 121 countries from the latest version of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) database for 2014. We conclude that protection is heterogeneous across the sectors and is indirectly linked with the level of development. The countries with the least protected services are developed countries. On average, the most restrictive sector is the Gas sector with average AVE of 440 percent while the most open sector is Air transport with average AVE of 38 percent. Taking the average of AVEs in all sectors, Luxemburg, Singapore, Belgium, and Ireland are the most open economies while Bangladesh, Zimbabwe, Pakistan, and Tajikistan are more restrictive. As part of services is implicit in merchandise trade, Services value-added accounts for more than 60 percent of global GDP in 2020; liberalization can have spillover effects and welfare gains. Protection is primarily high in developing (emerging) countries; liberalization of the service sector is expected to increase their competitiveness and global trade share. Further, it can decrease the widening inequality amid the pandemic.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022
  24. By: Salisu, Isyaku; Alam, Md. Mahmudul (Universiti Utara Malaysia)
    Abstract: Purpose: This research investigates the influence of creativity and resource availability on career competencies and career success of entrepreneurs in Nigeria using the Intelligent Career Framework. Design/methodology/approach: Data was obtained using answers to questionnaires given to 348 successful entrepreneurs. The data was analysed using non-parametric software (Smart-PLS). Finding: The results indicate that entrepreneurs who understand “know-why”, “know-how”, and “know-whom” can access the required resources and are doing well in their careers. It is suggested that these competencies were significantly related to entrepreneurial career success. Resource availability moderates the relationship of knowing-how, knowing-why competencies and career success, while creativity moderates only the link between knowing-whom and entrepreneurs having successful careers. Research limitations/implications: The results help us to comprehend better the nature of successful entrepreneurial careers and the prominent role of tripartite competencies in achieving a successful career. Also emphasised here is the prominence of a more holistic perspective of these components based on a mix of social, motivational, and human capital. Practical implications: These findings hinted that entrepreneur should pay uniform consideration in fostering each career competency. There are implications for career advisers, practitioners, and entrepreneurship programs. Originality/value: This is a first-of-its-kind research that used primary source data in understanding career competencies - “knowing-how, knowing-whom, and knowing-why” - with entrepreneurs' career success in Nigeria.
    Date: 2022–03–08
  25. By: Angenendt, Steffen; Knapp, Nadine; Kipp, David
    Abstract: Germany's shortage of skilled workers has sharply increased, especially in the social and education sectors, health and care, construction and skilled crafts, information technology and jobs in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Simultaneously, the demand for low qualified labour has also been growing, for instance in help and household-related services. While EU member states continue to be the source for the majority of labour migration, their migration potential is declining due to their similarly ageing and shrinking populations. Recruiting workers from third countries, including Germany's development partner countries, will become of strategic importance. In spite of many recent reforms, the recruitment of workers from third countries is still inadequate, and not enough attention has so far been paid to development policy aspects. Germany's recruitment activities need to be more closely embedded in fair, development-orientated partnerships with countries of origin, in which their interests are taken into account and the rights of migrant workers are respected. Since many industrialised countries now recruit workers, this could also be a competitive advantage for Germany. The German government should make use of the extensive experience gained from the pilot projects to attract skilled workers for large-scale recruitment programs. These projects will require the systematic cooperation of all relevant ministries (whole-of-government approach) as well as the involvement of civil society and the private sector to set the course for development-orientated recruitment. The German government should engage even more strongly in the relevant global processes and forums whilst advocating fair recruitment.
    Keywords: skilled workers, labour migration, demographic potential, Skilled Immigration Act (FEG), medical health jobs, language skills, qualifications, recruitment
    Date: 2023
  26. By: Phan, Ngoc
    Abstract: Nghiên cứu này xem xét tác động của các Hiệp định Thương mại Ưu đãi (PTA) đối với dòng vốn Đầu tư Trực tiếp Nước ngoài (FDI). Kết quả thực nghiệm cho thấy rằng FDI thu được từ thương mại ưu đãi đang tăng lên theo quy mô thị trường của các đối tác thương mại ưu đãi nhưng không phải do sự gần gũi về kinh tế và địa lý của họ với nước sở tại. Mối liên hệ giữa PTA và dòng vốn FDI chỉ tồn tại ở các nước thu nhập trung bình và cao, trong khi mối quan hệ này đã biến mất đối với các nước thu nhập thấp. Nghiên cứu này khuyến nghị các quốc gia nên cung cấp các lợi ích khác nhau liên quan đến thương mại cho các nhà đầu tư nước ngoài để thu hút dòng vốn cao hơn
    Date: 2023–03–07
  27. By: Matondang, Ryan Nathanael
    Abstract: Kata E-commerce merupakan singkatan dari kata electronic dan commerce. Secara singkat arti dari e-commerce adalah perdagangan elektronik. Namun jika diartikan lebih jauh e-commerce bisa berarti segala kegiatan perdagangan yang meliputi proses pemasaran hingga distribusi barang atau jasa yang dilakukan secara online atau melalui jaringan elektronik. E-commerce menyediakan suatu kemudahan untuk menjual dan membeli produk serta informasi melalui internet atau sarana lainnya tanpa terbatas oleh area geografis.
    Date: 2023–03–03
  28. By: Yossra Boudawara (Université de Sfax - University of Sfax); Kaouther Toumi (LGTO - Laboratoire de Gestion et des Transitions Organisationnelles - UT3 - Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées); Amira Wannes (Université de Sfax - University of Sfax); Khaled Hussainey (University of Portsmouth)
    Abstract: Purpose: The paper examines the impact of Shari'ah governance quality on environmental, social, and governance (ESG) performance in Islamic banks. Design/methodology: The study's sample consists of 66 Islamic banks from 14 countries over 2015-2019. The research uses the Heckman model, which is a two-stage estimation method to obtain unbiased estimates, as ESG scores are only observable for 17 Islamic banks in the Eikon Refinitiv database at the time of the analysis. Findings: The analysis shows that Shari'ah governance has a beneficial role to achieve ESG performance. It also shows that enhanced profiles of Shari'ah supervisory boards' attributes are more efficient than the operational procedures to promote ESG performance. In addition, the analysis shows that enhanced Shari'ah supervisory boards' attributes strengthen the bank's corporate governance framework while sound-designed procedures increase the bank's social activities by emphasizing their roles to ensure Shari'ah compliance. Finally, the analysis sheds light on the failure of Shari'ah governance to promote environmental performance. Originality: The research complements the governance-banks' ESG performance literature by examining the role of Shari'ah governance. The research also extends the literature on Islamic banks' sustainability by pointing to the Shari'ah governance failure to enhance environmental performance and thus, achieve Maqasid al-Shariah regarding the environment. Practical implications: The research provides policy insights to Islamic banks' stakeholders to promote social and governance performance in the Islamic finance industry through improving Shari'ah governance practices. However, raising environmental awareness is imminent among all actors implicated in the Shari'ah governance processes to help overcome the anthropogenic risks.
    Keywords: ESG Impact, Islamic banking, Sustainability, Governance
    Date: 2023
  29. By: Palm, Matthew; Allen, Jeff (University of Toronto); Farber, Steven
    Abstract: This study analyses shift work commuting. We ask: who works evening and night shifts, how do they commute, and how does working these shifts impact activity participation and wellbeing? We answer these questions using two national datasets. Our results offer four overarching findings. First, we find significant demographic differences along lines of race, poverty status, immigration, and household type, differences reflecting occupational segregation. Black, Filipino, South Asian, and Indigenous commuters are significantly overrepresented. Second, evening and night shift workers are more likely to commute as car passengers or by bus or walking. Third, we find limited evidence that shift workers make fewer overall trips throughout the day. Fourth, we find that while shift workers have significantly lower life satisfaction, auto ownership may ameliorate this impact. In light of these results, we conclude that improving the transport situation for shift-workers is essential to advancing both wellbeing and transportation justice.
    Date: 2023–03–14

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