nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2023‒03‒27
33 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. A Study of Supply Chains of Korean Firms in Vietnam Based on Business Survey Data (2022) By Kim, Dongsoo; Sakong, Mok; Park, Byungyul; Lee, Eun-Song
  2. Negara VS Korporasi (Studi Kasus Kebakaran Hutan dan Lahan di Indonesia) By afandi, syed agung
  3. Analyzing Filipinos’ Openness to Trade Partnerships and Globalization Using Sentiment Analysis By Quimba, Francis Mark A.; Barral, Mark Anthony A.
  4. Does Similarity in Philippine FTAs Matter in Trade? By Quimba, Francis Mark A.; Barral, Mark Anthony A.
  5. The Implications of Developing a Philippine Nuclear Energy Program By Navarro, Adoracion M.
  6. Impact Evaluation of the Human Resource for Health Deployment Program (HRHDP) By Opiniano, Gina A.; Abrigo, Michael R.M.; Tam, Zhandra C.
  7. Rethinking Taxation in the Digital Economy By Bañez, Emerson S.
  8. Implications of Lifting the Open-Pit Mining Ban in the Philippines By Domingo, Sonny N.; Manejar, Arvie Joy A.; Pascual, Ludwig John H.
  9. Disabilities and Care Needs among Older People: Evidence from Vietnam By Nguyen, Cuong Viet; Nguyen, Quynh Ngoc
  10. The Determinants of the Socioeconomic Inequality and the Trajectory of Child Stunting in the Philippines By Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; Uy, Jhanna; Casas, Lyle Daryll D.; Capanzana, Mario V.; Nkoroi, Alice; Galera, Rene Gerard Jr.; Carpio, Maria Evelyn; Tan, Frederich
  11. Impact Evaluation of DOH’s Implementation of Articles 6 and 11 of the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control By Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; dela Cruz, Nina Ashley O.; Flaminiano, Clarisa Joy A.; Ballesteros, Alfredo Jose C.; Villanueva, Alyssa Cyrielle B.
  12. Cash Transfers and Labor Supply: New Evidence on Impacts and Mechanisms By Nguyen, Cuong Viet; Tarp, Finn
  13. Phasing out coal power in a developing country context: Insights from Vietnam By Thang Nam Do; Paul J. Burke
  14. The COVID-19 and Filipino Migrant Workers: Looking into the Philippine Government’s Post-COVID-19 Support Mechanism By Tabuga, Aubrey D.; Vargas, Anna Rita P.; Baino, Madeleine Louise S.
  15. Philippine Air Transport Infrastructure: State, Issues, Government Strategies By Francisco, Kris A.; Lim, Valerie L.
  16. Identifying and Addressing the Determinants of Stunting in the First 1000 Days: Review of Nutrition Governance Strategies and Implementation of the Philippine Plan of Action for Nutrition (PPAN) 2017–2022 By Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; Nuevo, Christian Edward L.; Bagas, Joy; Ballesteros, Alfredo Jose C.; Silvestre, Maria Asuncion A.
  17. Is Government a Good Investment? Public Transfers for Filipino Generations Born in 1950 to 2020 By Estopace, Katha Ma-i M.; Abrigo, Michael R.M.; Tam, Zhandra C.; Alicante, Kean Norbie F.
  18. Déterminants des prix de transfert pour les multinationales marocaines : Étude empirique sur les sociétés cotées à la bourse de Casablanca pour la période 2016-2019 Transfer pricing determinants for Moroccan multinationals: Empirical study on companies listed on the Casablanca Stock Exchange for the period 2016-2019 By Abdeljalal Elhammoudi; Yousra Abkar
  19. Is Taiwan’s New Southbound Policy Effective in the Global Supply Chain? By Chen, Chien-Hsun
  20. Addressing Data Gaps with Innovative Data Sources By Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Vizmanos, Jana Flor V.; Muñoz, Mika S.; Brucal, Arlan; Halili, Riza Teresita; Lumba, Angelo Jose; Patanñe, Gaile Anne
  21. An Outcome Evaluation of the Philippine Health Technology Assessment Program By Wong, John Q.; Co, Stephanie Anne L.; Modina, Cheyenne Ariana Erika; Fowler, Krizelle Cleo; Tarroc, Mary Gil; Mallari, Eunice U.; Abigail L. Tan; Carlo Yao
  22. Process Evaluation of the Deployment of Service Attachés or Representatives of Certain Government Agencies By Bacasmas, Jill Angeli V.; Amador, Julio S. III; Orinion, Maria Gisela B.; Del Rosario, Mary Ann L.
  23. The Impact of Investments on Economic Growth: Evidence from Tajikistan By Abduvaliev, Mubnzhon
  24. Analysis of the National Health Expenditure Survey Round 1 and Design of Survey Protocol for NHES Round 2 (Phase 1) By Pantig, Ida Marie T.; Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; Tolin, Lovely Ann C.; Javier, Xylee
  25. Bridging Gaps, Breaking Barriers, and Building Capacities in Online Marketplaces By Bayudan-Dacuycuy, Connie; Sinsay, Leih Maruss V.
  26. Sotavuosi runteli Venäjän rahoitusmarkkinoita By Solanko, Laura
  27. Information Favoritism and Scoring Bias in Contests By Shanglyu Deng; Hanming Fang; Qiang Fu; Zenan Wu
  28. IFAD RESEARCH SERIES 89: Incorporating the Impact of Climate and Weather Variables in Impact Assessments: An Application to an IFAD Climate Change Adaptation Project in Viet Nam By McCarthy, Nancy; Cavatassi, Romina; Mabiso, Athur
  29. Akuntansi: UMKM Naik Kelas By Rakhmawati, Ita; Cahyadi, Iwan Fahri; Lida, Ulfah Mey
  30. Ecological footprint and population health outcomes: an analysis of E7 countries By Tajul Masron; Mduduzi Biyase; Talent Zwane; Thomas Udimal; Frederich Kirsten
  31. Population Aging, Silver Dividend, and Economic Growth By Park, Donghyun; Shin, Kwanho
  32. General Versions of the Ekeland Variational Principle: Ekeland Points and Stop and Go Dynamics By Le Phuoc Hai; Phan Quoc Khanh; Antoine Soubeyran
  33. The production Inefficiency of the U.S. Electricity Industry in the Face of Restructuring and Emission Reduction By Manh-Hung Nguyen; Chon van Le; Scott Atkinson

  1. By: Kim, Dongsoo (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade); Sakong, Mok (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade); Park, Byungyul (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade); Lee, Eun-Song (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade)
    Abstract: As of 2021, Korean trade volume with Vietnam ranks fourth after China, the United States, and Japan, while direct investment in Vietnam ranks third, after the United States and China, and excepting the Cayman Islands and Hong Kong. Surveys on the business environment of Korean companies in Vietnam are conducted intermittently, so it is necessary to secure basic statistics on time series. For this, a business survey was conducted from August to October 2022, the second such survey of Korean businesses in Vietnam (the first having been conducted in 2021) by the Korean Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade (KIET) and the Korean Chamber of Commerce (KORCHAM) in Vietnam. In addition, KIET interviewed several Korean companies in Hanoi. This work analyzes the results of a survey on the business environment and the actual conditions faced by Korean enterprises in Vietnam. The Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh offices of the Korean Chamber of Commerce oversaw the implementation of the survey as co-organizer. KIET planned and conducted the survey together with KORCHAM in Vietnam. Written responses were collected from 326 companies.
    Keywords: Vietnam; Korea; FDI; trade; manufacturing; supply chains; raw materials; rare earths; foreign investment in China; COVID-19; regulation; business outlook in Vietanam; business environment in Vietnam; Korea-Vietnam relations
    JEL: F01 F20 F21 F23 F51 G32 G38 H32 O24 Q27 Q37
    Date: 2023–02–28
  2. By: afandi, syed agung
    Abstract: Luasnya hutan Indonesia serta lemahnya kapasitas politik pemerintah telah menyebabkan eksploitasi secara masif. Dalam konteks ini laju deforestasi tidak terbendung. Negara tidak mampu melakukan upaya pencegahan secara efektif sekalipun dampak yang ditimbulkan sudah sangat luas. Secara keseluruhan, deforestasi serta kabut asap telah merampas banyak ruang dan keadilan bagi seluruh mahluk hidup.
    Date: 2023–03–02
  3. By: Quimba, Francis Mark A.; Barral, Mark Anthony A.
    Abstract: Empirical evidence points to globalization being favorable for a nation’s growth and development. For the Philippines, trade openness and foreign portfolio helped increase per capita GDP as investment and productivity improved. With trade openness and globalization, nations share and gain access to knowledge and technology, inputs of lower costs, new markets, and talents, which improve domestic economic processes. Over the years, however, skepticism about globalization emerged, which affects governments’ foreign strategies and policies and, in turn, the realization of intended benefits. With respect to RCEP, which the country signed in 2020, the Philippines is yet to ratify the deal after clamors to delay or reject the deal. Considering the opposing views, this paper aims to analyze Filipino’s openness to globalization and trade partnerships using text mining and sentiment analysis to detect evidence suggesting prevailing perspectives towards these issues. In general, the paper finds favorable sentiments toward globalization and trade openness. This study demonstrates the potential of understanding moods and sentiments toward policy to provide distinctive explanatory power that can be used in harmonizing differences in opinions across several domestic and international issues. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: globalization;international trade;RCEP;sentiment analysis;trade openness
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Quimba, Francis Mark A.; Barral, Mark Anthony A.
    Abstract: This study seeks to understand the design of the Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement and European Free trade Association (EFTA), notably the similarities with other free trade agreements (FTAs) of Japan and EFTA-member countries, respectively, and how these similarities affect Philippine trade. To do this, the study proposes using text-of-trade-analysis, that is, text analysis employing text-as-data. The paper demonstrates the application of text analysis to complement the conventional methods of assessing the impacts of trade agreements. The results reveal that similarity across trade agreements, both at document and chapter or topic-specific provisions (e.g., trade in goods, rules of origin, strong references to sustainable development) may influence and encourage trade. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: EFTA-PH FTA;Cosine LSA;Export;Jaccard;Free Trade Agreements;PJEPA;Non-Tariff Measures;Rules of Origin;Sustainable Development;Text Analysis;Similarity;Trade in Goods
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Navarro, Adoracion M.
    Abstract: Nuclear energy remains a promising option for the Philippines. But as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reiterated, deciding to use nuclear energy is a long-term commitment and one that should consider a time frame of 100 years from construction to decommissioning and waste disposal or storage. Thus, it would do well for the Philippines to follow the IAEA's Milestones Approach and for every government administration to be consistent in seeking progress through this approach. As a demonstration of understanding the commitment involved in nuclear energy development, the positive national position adopted by the Duterte administration may have to be confirmed and reinforced by the Marcos Jr. administration by issuing a fresh mandate to the inter-agency committee for the nuclear energy program and by setting new targets and timetable for the requirements that remain unaddressed. The Philippines also needs to ratify the past international legal instruments it signed. The existing legal framework in the Philippines for nuclear energy development and regulation also needs to be updated. On the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP), the decision on whether to rehabilitate it must be guided by project economics. Aside from the huge cost, the biggest hurdle in rehabilitating the BNPP is that the government is no longer allowed under the Electric Power Industry Reform Act to engage in power generation except for missionary electrification. Suppose the project economics of BNPP rehabilitation, or a new nuclear power plant at the same site with flexible dispatchability, would prove that this is worth undertaking. In that case, it is better to attract the private sector to the project economics of it through incentives rather than the government directly making the investments and competing in the generation sector. Lastly, the prospects for nuclear energy development in the Philippines must not only be well argued before policymakers but also be convincingly communicated to the general public. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: nuclear energy;nuclear power;Bataan Nuclear Power Plant;nuclear safety;generation mix;clean energy;energy transition
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Opiniano, Gina A.; Abrigo, Michael R.M.; Tam, Zhandra C.
    Abstract: We assess the short-term impacts of the Doctors-to-the-Barrios (DTTB), a national physician deployment program in the Philippines that augments the supply of rural healthcare workers in underserved areas, on several health sector outcomes. Using regression discontinuity design, we find that the DTTB program doubles modern contraceptive-use prevalence and reduces child underweight prevalence in poor municipalities, coinciding with an increased propensity of having rural health physicians in the community. We estimated an internal program rate of return of 15.9%, which is likely to be severely understated. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: rural health physician;doctors-to-the-barrios program;maternal and child health;healthcare workers
    Date: 2023
  7. By: Bañez, Emerson S.
    Abstract: The study aims to evaluate the country’s legal framework for taxing digital transactions, specifically, the extent to which the provisions of the law can map onto the value of digital markets. Based on the findings on the structure of the digital commerce value chain and its possible interactions with both current and proposed tax regimes, four policy prescriptions are recommended: (1) to optimize existing tax authority over platforms, (2) to establish a digital-ready tax administration, (3) to expand the scope for investigation and liability, and (4) to promote engagement at the international level. Nonresident providers have gained the most from digital markets while minimizing the tax impact of their activities. Thus, the Philippines should continue to explore multilateral options for reallocating taxing rights and addressing base erosion and profit shifting. These include regional tax treaties and the OECD framework treaty. Efforts at negotiating and crafting the provisions should consider the Philippines’ trading power relative to other countries and its comparative ability to exercise jurisdiction. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: digital taxation;taxes;digital commerce;tax law;tax administration
    Date: 2022
  8. By: Domingo, Sonny N.; Manejar, Arvie Joy A.; Pascual, Ludwig John H.
    Abstract: An order “banning the open-pit method of mining for copper, gold, silver, and complex ores in the country” was issued by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) on April 27, 2017. Justifications for the order included past environmental disasters caused by mining operations that employed the open-pit mining method and indicated that such mining method poses risks to host communities and the environment. The order affects prospective mining projects that would employ the open-pit mining method. On December 23, 2021, the ban was lifted on the premise that the “revitalization of the mineral resource industry is one measure to achieve economic growth amid the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.” The rationale behind opposing development perspectives/sentiments on open-pit mining was reviewed, and the ecological integrity implications of open-pit mining were discussed. Facts were cited, and challenges or high-level opportunities for improvement on various aspects of regulating mining activities, in general, were flagged. The method of mining (i.e., surface/open pit or underground) and type of commodity extracted (i.e., metallics, non-metallics were emphasized as not the only major factors causing unacceptable outcomes from mining, such as potentials for environmental disasters or negative impact on social welfare. Two major directions were provided, and options moving forward to optimize benefits from approved mining projects were enumerated. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: open-pit mining;tailings management;governance;benefit cost analysis;environmental valuation;social impact;equitable distribution;fair share;fiscal regime
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Nguyen, Cuong Viet; Nguyen, Quynh Ngoc
    Abstract: In this study, we study disability among older people (aged 60 or older) using the 2016 Viet Nam National Disability Survey. We find that 31% and 12% of older people are living with low and high disabilities, respectively. These rates are remarkably higher than the disability rate identified by local authorities. Disability is found to be more prevalent in older people and women. There is a strong and negative association between education and disability, as well as between wealth and disability. Next, we analyze the need for care among older people with disabilities. We find that around 10% of older people need care, which is equivalent to around 1.2 million people. The proportion of people in need of care is 29% for older people with disabilities and 53.8% for older people with severe disabilities.
    Keywords: Disability, older people, care need, unmet care, Vietnam
    Date: 2023
  10. By: Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; Uy, Jhanna; Casas, Lyle Daryll D.; Capanzana, Mario V.; Nkoroi, Alice; Galera, Rene Gerard Jr.; Carpio, Maria Evelyn; Tan, Frederich
    Abstract: About a third of Filipino children are stunted or chronically malnourished. However, there is a paucity of evidence on the socioeconomic inequalities of stunting in the Philippines. This study has two objectives. First, it discusses various determinants of the large socioeconomic disparity in stunting. Second, it models the trajectory of stunting until 2030 should the country expand the coverage of key nutrition and health interventions. Based on the authors’ previous decomposition analysis, maternal nutritional status and education factors, quality of prenatal care, and child diet are significant drivers of the disparity. Furthermore, using a compartment-based model, it finds a 10-percentage point reduction in the prevalence of stunting, with the expansive promotion of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and complementary food interventions. Lastly, the authors note that addressing the socioeconomic disparity in child stunting and universal provision of nutrition and health interventions puts the country on track to its 2030 Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: undernutrition;child stunting;stunting projection;Philippines;stunting
    Date: 2023
  11. By: Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; dela Cruz, Nina Ashley O.; Flaminiano, Clarisa Joy A.; Ballesteros, Alfredo Jose C.; Villanueva, Alyssa Cyrielle B.
    Abstract: In the Philippines, graphic health warning (GHW) labels are replaced every two years with new designs. As a result, it is critical to assess whether the law is accomplishing its goal of reducing cigarette demand and smoking initiation among the youth. This study aims to evaluate the impact of GHW on cigarette packaging in terms of cigarette demand, number of smokers, and smoking initiation. The potential impact of GHW on smoking demand was evaluated using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) method. According to the research, dark-colored packaging and larger pictures on GHWs had a statistically significant influence on reducing cigarette demand by 5 percent. We also discover that the GHW will result in a 750, 000 reduction in smokers. On the effects on nonsmokers, the new dark-colored GHWs reduce nonsmokers' probability of buying cigarettes by 6 percent. However, plain gray packaging increases cigarette consumption by 10 percent for both smokers and nonsmokers. Therefore, the findings of this study are instrumental in the transition to new GHW or plain packaging designs and will support the advocacy for better tobacco prevention and control measures in the Philippines. Based on our results, we recommend the image of diseases be large, more graphic, and printed on dark-colored packaging to reduce cigarette demand and smoking initiation. In addition, the images of the diseases should be easily recognizable, so smokers will be prompted to think that they could also contract the same diseases if they continue their smoking habits. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: tobacco;graphic health warnings;discrete choice experiment;cigarette demand;cigarette consumption;number of smokers;smoking initiation
    Date: 2023
  12. By: Nguyen, Cuong Viet; Tarp, Finn
    Abstract: We study the impact of a national cash transfer program in Vietnam on labor supply using large household surveys and a regression-discontinuity design based on discontinuity in age eligibility. We do not find evidence of a disincentive effect of the cash transfer on labor supply for adults aged 15-64. More importantly, we find robust evidence that the transfer program causes the adults to move from self-employed non-farm work to wage-paying jobs. A likely mechanism is that the transfer program reduces the labor force participation of older people, and they help housework and childcare for younger adults to have wage-paying jobs.
    Keywords: Cash transfer, social security, employment, labor market participation, Vietnam
    JEL: J22 N35 H55
    Date: 2023
  13. By: Thang Nam Do (Crawford School of Public Policy, Australian National University); Paul J. Burke (Crawford School of Public Policy, Australian National University)
    Abstract: At the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 26th Conference of the Parties (COP 26) in November 2021, Vietnam pledged to phase out unabated coal power by the 2040s or as soon as possible thereafter. Achieving this will require major efforts. This study investigates the drivers for Vietnam’s coal power phase-out decision, barriers to Vietnam achieving a successful unabated thermal coal phase out, and potential strategies to achieve the pledge. To this end, a survey of 43 experts from government agencies, research institutions, civil society, and industry was carried out, supplemented by 23 follow-up interviews. The results indicate that ambition to attract international support for green growth initiatives in a context of limited financing options for new coal power projects appears to have been the primary driver for the decision. Key barriers include concerns about electricity shortages and incomplete regulatory frameworks for new clean power options. Recommended strategies include: 1) reforming regulations to facilitate investments in clean energy, electricity transmission, and energy storage; 2) continuing political prioritisation; and 3) building broad-based support from the community and enterprises. Vietnam’s case is relevant to other developing countries and beyond.
    Date: 2023–01
  14. By: Tabuga, Aubrey D.; Vargas, Anna Rita P.; Baino, Madeleine Louise S.
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic was an unprecedented event that tested the Philippine government’s capacity to keep migrant workers and their families protected and secured. It was not only a matter of a simple repatriation process, but it also entailed a multidimensional system encompassing repatriation, health interventions (e.g., testing for COVID-19, treatment, and health monitoring), accommodation and logistical support for quarantine, and economic interventions in the form of financial grants to eligible workers, among others. Existing policy frameworks have guided government response whenever applicable. However, nothing has prepared the system for the scale of effects that the COVID-19 pandemic has brought. Thus, managing the influx of returning overseas migrants in the tens and even hundreds of thousands required no less than a whole-of-nation approach. Government agencies involved were forced to expand their networks, innovate their systems, and adapt to changing events. This entailed a range of interrelated activities and programs facilitated by close collaboration and consistent communication among various actors. Based on the findings of the paper, it is crucial to build on the existing digital systems created during this period, strengthen newly formed and existing partnerships, reexamine OFW’s insurance and social protection coverage, and consider the creation of, or expansion of existing, contingency fund to address future events of similar nature and magnitude. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: overseas Filipino workers;COVID-19 response;migration policy;crisis management;OFW
    Date: 2022
  15. By: Francisco, Kris A.; Lim, Valerie L.
    Abstract: The air transport sector is important in facilitating economic growth and development. In a country made up of more than 7, 000 islands, air transportation serves as the fastest mode of connectivity within the country and the rest of the world. The direct impact of the air transport sector on the Philippine gross domestic product may appear small at 0.61 percent in 2019, but its enabling role for high-value industries such as trade, manufacturing, and tourism justifies the need to prioritize this sector. Having sufficient, well-functioning, and efficient air transport infrastructure is necessary to ensure maximum benefits to the economy. However, the country’s air transport infrastructure suffers from capacity and technical capability constraints. While the government recognizes the need to improve the country’s air transport infrastructure by providing new airports and improving existing facilities and technical capabilities, time is crucial, and huge investments are needed to catch up with the burgeoning demand for air travel. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: air transport sector;air transport policy;airports
    Date: 2022
  16. By: Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; Nuevo, Christian Edward L.; Bagas, Joy; Ballesteros, Alfredo Jose C.; Silvestre, Maria Asuncion A.
    Abstract: This study reviewed public expenditures on nutrition (Annual Investment Plans [AIPs] and Gender and Development [GAD)] budgets) and evaluated the implementation of the Philippine Plan of Action for Nutrition (PPAN 2017–2022) at regional to barangay levels to examine whether current strategies and investments are directed toward cost-effective interventions. The delivery and management of nutrition-sensitive programs and interventions were also assessed by looking at the three dimensions of awareness, adoption, and accountability. Qualitative data collection through key informant interviews (KIIs) was undertaken for Objective 3a (LGU nutrition governance) and Objective 3b (PPAN assessment) in an integrated manner. Eight KIIs were conducted at the regional, 9 at the provincial, and 26 at the city/municipality levels, and 104 interviews were conducted at the barangay level from January to March 2021. Higher levels of governance (regional to city/municipality levels are cognizant of the PPAN (2017–2022) as the national strategy to improve nutrition. Integral to the Philippine Development Plan, considered as a roadmap for operationalizing programs, projects, and activities. At these levels, the PPAN framework is integrated with local nutrition action and investment plans. However, there is a general lack of awareness of the PPAN at the barangay level, which is the locus of implementation. Budget allocation and implementation are inconsistent and highly fragmented across different governance levels. At lower LGU levels financing nutrition programs is perceived to be highly dependent on the priority of and buy-in from local chief executives, particularly mayors. This disparity in funding across LGUs is highly indicative of a lack of specific guidance for budget allocation. Given the limited budget, local nutrition committees must prioritize programs and target beneficiaries. A deficit in human resources, especially at the city/municipality and barangay levels, remains a major bottleneck in implementation. Regional NNC Offices serve as a conduit for accountability and reporting between the national level and LGUs. They are also responsible for advocating resource generation and mobilization and building linkages. The MELPPI is done to track program implementation. Provinces function as intermediaries between LGUs and stakeholders through advocacy, strategy development, and overall knowledge brokering. Cities and municipalities, on the other hand, are the primary drivers of implementation. They craft and develop local nutrition action plans and support barangays at the forefront of implementation. At their level, they perform a program implementation review (PIR) to assess the accomplishment of targets and programmatic performance based on nutrition outcomes evidenced by OPT results - the main data for reporting the prevalence of different forms of malnutrition and overall nutritional status. Results helped inform a proposed evidence-based framework for the comprehensive and sustainable implementation of the First 1000 Days Strategy and Nurturing Care Framework for Early Child Care and Development. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: nutrition governance;plan of action for nutrition;awareness;adoption;accountability;First 1000 Days;Nurturing Care;stunting
    Date: 2023
  17. By: Estopace, Katha Ma-i M.; Abrigo, Michael R.M.; Tam, Zhandra C.; Alicante, Kean Norbie F.
    Abstract: This paper presents a new comprehensive and consistent set of public transfer accounts, disaggregated by age and major government programs from 1950 to 2020. Based on these public transfer accounts, we find that except for some programs, particularly social health insurance and old-age pensions, the Philippines’ public transfer system as a whole is fiscally sustainable, with cumulative lifetime net contributions due to government across cohorts. The implied rates of return from key social protection programs also approximate market interest rates, especially when these programs are taken together, suggesting that the country’s public transfer system closely mimics competitive market outcomes. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: public sector;demographic change;National Transfer Account;intergenerational transfers;intergenerational equity;fiscal sustainability
    Date: 2022
  18. By: Abdeljalal Elhammoudi (FSJES TANGER - faculté des sciences juridiques economiques et sociales de Tanger); Yousra Abkar
    Abstract: Transfer pricing is a concern for all countries in the world. In fact, a number of studies around the world have examined the determinants of transfer pricing in countries such as Australia and Indonesia, but their results are contradictory as to the determinants of transfer pricing(as an example; the study by Richardson. G and al (2013) of 183 Australian listed companies for the year 2009 as well as the study of Atwal.A and al (2020), related to industrial companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2015-2018). The present study was conducted in Morocco to examine the effect of firm size, profitability, leverage, taxation and multinationality on transfer pricing for Moroccan multinationals. Thus, it uses secondary data on financial reports or annual reports of companies listed on the Casablanca Stock Exchange for the period 2016-2019. The sampling technique uses the purposive method to obtain 80 samples in the observation period of 2016-2019. In this study, descriptive statistical tests were conducted and logistic regression test was used to test the hypotheses. As a result of the research, debt and multinationality have a significant effect on the transfer pricing decision. In contrast, firm size, profitability and taxation do not have a significant effect on transfer pricing decisions. This work will provide academics with data for the development of transfer pricing design in Morocco and will also provide the Moroccan tax administration and companies with information to take into account when setting transfer prices
    Abstract: Les prix de transfert sont devenus une préoccupation pour tous les pays du monde. En fait, un certain nombre d'études dans le monde ont examiné les déterminants des prix de transfert dans des pays comme l'Australie et l'Indonésie, mais leurs résultats sont contradictoires quant aux déterminants des prix de transfert (à titre d'exemple; l'étude de Richardson. G et al (2013) de 183 entreprises australiennes cotées pour l'année 2009 ainsi que l'étude de Atwal.A et al., (2020), relative aux entreprises industrielles cotées à la Bourse d'Indonésie en 2015-2018). La présente étude a été menée au Maroc pour examiner l'effet de la taille de l'entreprise, de la rentabilité, de l'effet de levier, de la taxe et de la multinationalité sur les prix de transfert des multinationales marocaines. Ainsi, elle utilise des données secondaires sur les rapports financiers et les rapports annuels des sociétés marocaines cotées à la Bourse de Casablanca pour la période 2016-2019. La technique d'échantillonnage utilise la méthode intentionnelle pour obtenir 80 échantillons dans la période d'observation de 2016-2019. De plus, des tests statistiques descriptifs ont été réalisés ainsi le test de régression logistique a été utilisé pour valider ou rejeter les hypothèses de cette étude. Il résulte de cette recherche que la dette et la multinationalité ont un effet significatif sur la décision de prix de transfert. En revanche, la taille de l'entreprise, la rentabilité et la fiscalité n'ont pas d'effet significatif sur les décisions de prix de transfert. Ce travail fournira aux universitaires des données pour le développement de la conception des prix de transfert au Maroc et fournira également à l'administration fiscale marocaine et aux entreprises des informations à prendre en compte lors de la prise des décisions en matière des prix de transfert.
    Keywords: Faculté des Sciences Juridiques Economiques et Sociales BP.1373-Poste principale-Tanger taille d'entreprise rentabilité endettement taxe multinationalité prix de transfert JEL Classification : F23 H2 M4 Type de l'article : Recherche empirique company size profitability debt tax multinationality transfer pricing JEL Classification: F23 H2 M4 Paper type: Empirical research, Faculté des Sciences Juridiques, Economiques et Sociales BP.1373-Poste principale-Tanger taille d'entreprise, rentabilité, endettement, taxe, multinationalité, prix de transfert JEL Classification : F23, H2, M4 Type de l'article : Recherche empirique company size, profitability, debt, tax, multinationality, transfer pricing JEL Classification: F23, M4 Paper type: Empirical research
    Date: 2022–11–30
  19. By: Chen, Chien-Hsun
    Abstract: The emergence of the international fragmentation of production has led to structural changes in world trade. Trade in intermediate goods has turned out to be an important part of world trade, with an emphasis on the information and communications technology (ICT) sector in particular. Economic interdependence within the East Asia region indicates that this region as a whole is gradually being transformed into a single trading bloc, with a pronounced increase in the intensity of intra-regional trade. In terms of the global supply chain, China is now the nexus of a production network involving most countries in Asia and a final export market for the East Asia region. Indeed, China has become a regional hub for supply chain trade. However, China’s position within the global supply chains is changing. China has become more competitive in intermediate goods due to industrial upgrading. The New Southbound Policy proposed by the Tsai administration is based on four principles, namely, economic cooperation, special talent exchange programs, resource sharing and regional integration, and is aimed at deepening economic and cultural links with 16 ASEAN and South Asian countries, as well as with Australia and New Zealand. In terms of the political and economic viewpoint, the goal of the New Southbound Policy is to keep Taiwan from becoming overly dependent on a single market (e.g., China), and to seek to establish bilateral economic partnerships with targeted countries to support a New Model for Economic Development.
    Keywords: Taiwan’s New Southbound Policy; global supply chain; international fragmentation of production
    JEL: F13 F15 F2 F21 F23
    Date: 2023–03–07
  20. By: Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Vizmanos, Jana Flor V.; Muñoz, Mika S.; Brucal, Arlan; Halili, Riza Teresita; Lumba, Angelo Jose; Patanñe, Gaile Anne
    Abstract: With the advent of digital transformation, information and communications technology innovations have also led to a “data revolution” wherein more data is being captured, produced, stored, accessed, analyzed, archived, and reanalyzed at an exponential pace. An examination of new data sources, including big data and crowd-sourced data, can complement traditional sources of statistics and unlock insights that can ultimately lead to interventions for better outcomes by informing policies and actions toward attaining robust, sustainable, and inclusive development. This study will examine PIDS website download data and Twitter data to illustrate stories obtained from new data sources and explore how access, analysis, and use of new data sources can be promoted. Several quantitative tools are used on these new data sources, including (a) market basket analysis for website download data, (b) text mining (and sentiment analysis) for web scraped Twitter data, and (c) other big data analytics tools. Policy issues are also discussed, including risk management for using these new data sources. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: data revolution;big data;new data sources;social media data;market-basket analysis;web scraping;text mining;sentiment analysis
    Date: 2022
  21. By: Wong, John Q.; Co, Stephanie Anne L.; Modina, Cheyenne Ariana Erika; Fowler, Krizelle Cleo; Tarroc, Mary Gil; Mallari, Eunice U.; Abigail L. Tan; Carlo Yao
    Abstract: The passage of the UHC law in 2019 mandated the creation of the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Program to identify and recommend the most cost-effective health technologies for the Philippine government to procure. Since its inception, the HTA has mainly assessed COVID-19-related technologies. But with changing demands, current HTA processes must be evaluated for their relevance and usefulness post-pandemic and performance relative to international best practices. More importantly, there is a need to assess the far-reaching impacts of pricing and procurement on end users. Given these criteria, this study reviewed HTA policies and assessed end-user outcomes. Special attention was given to the utilization, assessment, and satisfaction with the processes, reports, and recommendations of the HTA by end users. Multiple factors, including changes in leadership and the COVID-19 pandemic, have delayed the HTA roadmap. However, end users still utilize HTA assessments and recommendations in agenda setting, policy formulation, decisionmaking, and procurement. This was especially apparent for technologies related to COVID-19. But despite these achievements, much can be improved. The HTA must navigate through the challenges of inadequate local data. It must also consider adopting international best practices and adding human resources to increase assessment capacity and improve current processes. Finally, the program must transition to essential medicine and technologies for high-burden diseases and widen its scope, given its value to agencies involved in improving public health. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: health technology assessment;evaluation;outcome
    Date: 2022
  22. By: Bacasmas, Jill Angeli V.; Amador, Julio S. III; Orinion, Maria Gisela B.; Del Rosario, Mary Ann L.
    Abstract: This study evaluates the deployment processes of service attachés of eight government agencies. It reviews the current systems, frameworks, and criteria in place for deploying service attachés at the relevant partner agencies and the Department of Foreign Affairs based on laws and policies (i.e., agency-specific and interagency). Further, it reviews the monitoring and evaluation systems in place that have captured the measurable outputs and performance of the deployed service attachés. Findings validate that the processes involved in the deployment of service attachés are based on policies (i.e., department orders, administrative orders, and joint circulars) of the concerned partner agencies and governed by legal bases (i.e., Executive Order 292, EO 74, series of 1993, and the Philippine Foreign Service Act of 1991 or Republic Act 7157). While laws and policies for a uniform rules and regulations on assignments at Foreign Service Posts (FSP) exist, partner agencies have varying degrees of policy consistencies (i.e., creation of a selection committee for recruitment of service attachés, roster, or rotation pool) and discrepancies in the implementation of their own policies (i.e., length of stay at FSPs). On the other hand, the monitoring and evaluation systems of the partner agencies proved to be a challenge to obtain. While some of the government agencies’ home service units confirmed the existence and submission of performance and evaluation reports by service attachés or heads of post, actual samples of these reports were not received. Thus, this study opens further research on the examination of the service attachés’ performance and evaluation reports, a review of their content, and an analysis of their outputs vis-à-vis the government agencies’ budget costs. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: budget;foreign service;performance evaluation;service attachés
    Date: 2022
  23. By: Abduvaliev, Mubnzhon
    Abstract: This paper assesses the impact of remittances on economic growth in Central Asian countries during the COVID-19 outbreak. We use a panel data set on economic growth in five Central Asian Republics which were former members of the Soviet Union. We found that a 1% decline in remittance inflow would result in a 0.05% to 0.06% decrease in the average per capita GDP of Central Asian country's economies. We also found that a 1% decrease in the Russian economy, from which most remittances are sent, would reduce the average per capita GDP of Central Asian countries by 0.06%.
    Keywords: Central Asian countries, COVID-19, remittances, economic growth, Russian spillover effect
    JEL: F22 F23
    Date: 2022
  24. By: Pantig, Ida Marie T.; Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; Tolin, Lovely Ann C.; Javier, Xylee
    Abstract: From 2018 to 2021, the Department of Health (DOH), with assistance from United States Agency for International Development-Health Policy Plus (USAID-HP+) and European Union-Philippine Health Sector Reform Contract, implemented a National Health Expenditure Survey (NHES). The NHES consists of two components: a household survey (NHES-HC) and a medical provider survey (NHES-MPC). Healthcare use and financing information provided by select NHES-HC respondents are cross-referenced during the NHES-MPC with their health facility records. Intended as a regular tool to inform decisionmaking on health sector reforms, DOH plans to implement a second round of NHES by 2022 to 2023. DOH commissioned the Philippine Institute for Development Studies to redesign the NHES questionnaires to address the challenges encountered during its first round of implementation, capture critical facets of the Universal Health Care agenda, and revise the sampling design to consider panel surveys and be representative at the regional level. NHES Round 1 related reports, datasets, and documentation obtained from DOH were reviewed to identify the recommendations. The first round of NHES yielded rich information on health-seeking behavior and utilization, healthcare billing, healthcare expenditure, financial protection, and quality of care. The recommendations of USAID-HP+ on NHES tools are valid and sufficient as enhancements for the next round of NHES. The health utilization, expenditure, and financial information that can be collected through NHES are adequate. In NHES-HC, questions on referral; primary health care; components of out-of-pocket spending; and delay in health-seeking behavior are proposed to be added. Health facilities visited by respondents for primary care, as well as referring and/or referral facilities identified in NHES-HC with health care events in the last 6 months, are recommended to be subject to the conduct of the proposed NHES-MPC Supplemental questionnaire. Deleted questions for the next round do not necessarily mean discontinued questions but could be collected intermittently for certain rounds, particularly if NHES will be implemented as a panel survey. If so, the frequency and interval between rounds shall determine if there are sections, subsections, or questions that can be omitted in some rounds. In the meantime, some questions are proposed to be removed due to space constraints and consideration for respondent fatigue in general in lieu of other proposed questions to be explored. The abovementioned recommendations, however, are subject to change pending discussions with DOH for priority specifications and indicators. In terms of NHES sampling methodology, due to data limitations, it is proposed to use the same Round 1 sampling design with a 12, 500 sample size or up to 15, 625 if interested in conducting NHES as a panel design. The additional 25 percent accounts for possible attrition in the next round. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: national health expenditure survey;household survey;medical provider survey;health facilities;health care;healthcare utilization;healthcare financing;sources of financing;healthcare expenditure;health account;out-of-pocket spending;catastrophic health;sources of medical care;healthcare provider
    Date: 2023
  25. By: Bayudan-Dacuycuy, Connie; Sinsay, Leih Maruss V.
    Abstract: As the Fourth Industrial Revolution transforms the conduct of work and enterprises, inequalities and the digital-spatial divide become front and center of conversations that aim to promote online marketplaces and maximize their benefits. This paper takes stock of the development in human capital, labor market, and e-commerce, identifies state-led initiatives to build capacities, and analyzes barriers and gaps in labor and retail platforms. Data collected through desk reviews and key informant interviews with stakeholders were synthesized to highlight state-led initiatives and programs related to platform work, identify barriers to participation in the digital economy, and draw recommendations to address gaps. The paper finds that several state-led programs and initiatives for online marketplaces and legislative agenda related to the digital economy are in place. Despite this, the paper finds that (1) barriers related to gender roles, business environments, and financing exist and (2) gaps in social protection, digital competencies, and infrastructure support remain. Some directions to bridge gaps, break barriers to participation, and build capacities are forwarded to harness the full potential of labor and retail platforms. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: Online marketplaces;platform work;freelancing;human capital;labor;retail platforms
    Date: 2022
  26. By: Solanko, Laura
    Abstract: Helmikuussa 2022 sodan syttymistä seurasi markkinapaniikki, jonka rauhoittamiseksi Venäjän keskuspankki toimi nopeasti ja voimakkaasti. Ruplan kurssin vapaapudotuksen ja talletuspaon estämiseksi ohjauskorko nostettiin 20 prosenttiin, likviditeetin tarjontaa lisättiin, sääntelyä höllennettiin ja pääomien siirtoa ulkomaille rajoitettiin. Akuutin tilanteen rauhoituttua markkinoita avattiin vähän kerrallaan. Vaikka arvostustasot jäivät alhaisiksi ja osa sijoittajista poistui, kaupankäynti virkosi kesän mittaan ja pankkien kotimainen toiminta jatkui liki normaalisti. Loppuvuoden 2022 aikana markkinat alkoivat sopeutua kohti uutta tasapainoa. Moni asia on kuitenkin muuttunut. Ennen sotaa Venäjän finanssimarkkinat olivat monin tavoin osa kansainvälisiä markkinoita, mutta sodan seurauksena näin ei enää ole. Monet ulkomaiset rahoitustuotteet ja -palvelut eivät enää ole saatavilla, ja merkittävä osa ulkomaisista sijoittajista on poistunut markkinoilta.
    Date: 2023
  27. By: Shanglyu Deng (University of Maryland); Hanming Fang (University of Pennsylvania); Qiang Fu (National University of Singapore); Zenan Wu (Peking University)
    Abstract: Two potentially asymmetric players compete for a prize of common value, which is initially unknown, by exerting efforts. A designer has two instruments for contest design. First, she decides whether and how to disclose an informative signal of the prize value to players. Second, she sets the scoring rule of the contest, which varies the relative competitiveness of the players. We show that the optimum depends on the designer's objective. A bilateral symmetric contest - in which information is symmetrically distributed and the scoring bias is set to offset the initial asymmetry between players - always maximizes the expected total effort. However, the optimal contest may deliberately create bilateral asymmetry - which discloses the signal privately to one player, while favoring the other in terms of the scoring rule - when the designer is concerned about the expected winner's effort. The two instruments thus exhibit complementarity, in that the optimum can be made asymmetric in both dimensions even if the players are ex ante symmetric. Our results are qualitatively robust to (i) affiliated signals and (ii) endogenous information structure. We show that information favoritism can play a useful role in addressing affirmative action objectives.
    Keywords: All-pay Auction; Contest Design; Information Favoritism; Scoring Bias
    JEL: C72 D44 D82
    Date: 2023–03–09
  28. By: McCarthy, Nancy; Cavatassi, Romina; Mabiso, Athur
    Abstract: This paper discusses which climate variables to collect, and from which sources, when incorporating them into an impact assessment. It finds that severe saline intrusion in Viet Name—caused by climate change and land and water use—had significant effects on crop choices and negative impacts on a range of production and livelihood outcomes.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, International Development, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2023–03–03
  29. By: Rakhmawati, Ita; Cahyadi, Iwan Fahri; Lida, Ulfah Mey
    Abstract: Di era serba digital, kehidupan bertransformasi menjadi serba canggih. Kemajuan teknologi membawa akuntansi turut mengimbangi dengan inovasi-inovasi terkini. Lahirnya Era Society 5.0 pun mendukung pola berpikir serta upaya mengembangkan kreatifitas dan inovasi. Usaha Mikro, Kecil, dan Menengah (UMKM) belakangan merangkak dengan produk inovasi masa kini. Kemajuan yang cukup pesat demi menyongsong masa baru di bidang industri. Akuntasi menjadi salah satu pondasi yang akan membawa UMKM ini menuju jenjang yang lebih tinggi. Buku ini akan memberikan pengalaman dan pengetahuan baru tentang era Revolusi Industri. Selain itu, buku ini sangat membantu pembaca, terutama pelaku Usaha Mikro, Kecil, dan Menengah yang saat ini sedang merintis untuk dapat berkembang dan maju di masa yang akan datang.
    Date: 2022–12–08
  30. By: Tajul Masron (School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia); Mduduzi Biyase (College of Business and Economics, School of Economics, University of Johannesburg); Talent Zwane (College of Business and Economics, School of Economics, University of Johannesburg); Thomas Udimal (Southwest forestry University); Frederich Kirsten (College of Business and Economics, School of Economics, University of Johannesburg)
    Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between ecological footprint and health outcomes in E7 countries from 1990 to 2017. The study makes use of panel fully modified ordinary least square (FMOLS) and dynamic ordinary least square (DOLS) models to assess the relationship between the ecological footprint and health outcomes. Although the findings show that ecological footprint has a positive effect on life expectancy, implying that the current levels of ecological footprints support life expectancy, failure to strictly observe the level of ecological footprint in the long run may result in a negative impact on life expectancy. Therefore, a more serious efforts and strategies are needed to keep the size of ecological footprints to be favorable to human life.
    Keywords: Ecological footprint, CO2, CH4, N2O, life expectancy, mortality, E7
    Date: 2023
  31. By: Park, Donghyun (Asian Development Bank); Shin, Kwanho (Korea University)
    Abstract: While there are growing concerns about population aging, some studies explore the possibility that population aging can give rise to a silver dividend that contributes to economic growth (ADB 2019). While the demographic dividend refers to the increase of the working-age population, the silver dividend points to increased longevity and longer working life as potential sources of growth in an aging society. Extending Lee and Shin (2021) to include developing countries, we examine the potential for a silver dividend by investigating the channels through which population aging affects economic growth. We find that lower total factor productivity growth is the main mechanism through which population aging harms economic growth. Labor shortage caused by population aging is mostly offset by higher labor force participation rates of males, females, and older workers. In particular, the labor force participation rate of the older people increases the most.
    Keywords: aging; growth; labor force participation; total factor productivity; silver dividend
    JEL: E20 J10 J21 O40 O47
    Date: 2023–03–08
  32. By: Le Phuoc Hai (University of Science – Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam); Phan Quoc Khanh (Ton Duc Thang University [Hô-Chi-Minh-City]); Antoine Soubeyran (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We establish general versions of the Ekeland variational principle (EVP), where we include two perturbation bifunctions to discuss and obtain better perturbations for obtaining three improved versions of the principle. Here, unlike the usual studies and applications of the EVP, which aim at exact minimizers via a limiting process, our versions provide good-enough approximate minimizers aiming at applications in particular situations. For the presentation of applications chosen in this paper, the underlying space is a partial quasi-metric one. To prove the aforementioned versions, we need a new proof technique. The novelties of the results are in both theoretical and application aspects. In particular, for applications, using our versions of the EVP together with new concepts of Ekeland points and stop and go dynamics, we study in detail human dynamics in terms of a psychological traveler problem, a typical model in behavioral sciences.
    Keywords: Ekeland variational principle, Two perturbation bifunctions, Better perturbation, Ekeland points, Partial quasi-metric space, Worthwhile move, Variational trap, Stop and go dynamics
    Date: 2022–10–01
  33. By: Manh-Hung Nguyen (TSE-R - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Chon van Le (VNU-HCM - Vietnam National University - Ho Chi Minh City); Scott Atkinson (University of Georgia [USA])
    Abstract: The paper investigates the production inefficiency of the US electricity industry in the wake of restructuring and emission reduction regulations.
    Keywords: Technical inefficiency, Electricity industry, Restructuring, Emissions
    Date: 2022–11–24

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