nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2023‒02‒13
twenty papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Sustainable Finance in Southeast Asia By Swisa Ariyapruchya; Ulrich Volz
  2. Growth of the Vietnamese Fintech Industry and its Implications By Jung, Sunin
  3. Mengenal Bisnis Waralaba di Era Society 5.0 By Adelya, Arztin Intan
  4. Analysis of Tourism Demand for Okinawa in Asia (Japanese) By IWAHASHI Roki
  5. Analisis Rasio Likuiditas Pada PT. Bank Nagari Cabang Utama Padang By , Rojalina; Putra, Yosep Eka; Susanto, Romi
  6. Intergenerational Transmission of Education in a Developing Country: Evidence from A Mass Education Program in Vietnam By Trung Hoang; Ha Nguyen
  7. Enhancing Digital G2P Transfer Capacities in the Asian LDCs By Nitin Madan; Alberto Isgut
  8. Sustainable E-commerce Logistics for Customer Satisfaction: Evidence from Vietnam By Nguyen, Phi Dung; Huynh, Cong Minh
  9. Analisis Tingkat Kesehatan Bank Ditinjau Dari Non Performing Loan (NPL) Pada PT. BPR Batang Selo Padang Ganting By Rahayu, Yuke Nur; Putra, Yosep Eka; Susanto, Romi
  10. Income Inequality in Indonesia: Which Aspects Cause the Most? By Sulistyaningrum, Eny; Tjahjadi, Alexander Michael
  11. ASEAN's Portfolio Investment in a Gravity Model By Tomoo Kikuchi; Satoshi Tobe
  12. The impact of the covid-19 pandemic on major Asian stock markets: evidence of decoupling effects By Onour, Ibrahim
  13. An Analysis of Mobile Governance and Its Impact on the Economy in the Asian Context By Heikkinen, Daan
  15. Oil Market Shocks and Financial Instability in Asian Countries By Dagher, Leila; Hasanov, Fakhri
  16. Economic impact of the digital revolution on the Asian economy By Oliver, Dr
  17. World, European and French trade in oilseeds By Vincent Chatellier
  18. Pilihan Investasi Waralaba bagi Generasi Z By Grafinsi, Giska Aura
  19. Enhancing health information infrastructures in Asia: an economic impact study By Johansen, Elias
  20. Epidemics and rapacity of multinational companies By Sonno, Tommaso; Zufacchi, Davide

  1. By: Swisa Ariyapruchya; Ulrich Volz
    Abstract: This chapter provides an overview of the state of sustainable finance activities and practices in Southeast Asia. It first reviews the emerging landscape of sustainable financial governance and policy efforts for scaling up funding for investments with green and social impacts across the ten member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). It subsequently tracks the development of sustainable finance practices in banking and capital markets in the region. The chapter also examines the challenges in scaling up sustainable finance and investment and discusses opportunities and actions that could be seized by ASEAN countries individually and collectively.
    Keywords: Development; Financial Market and Asset Pricing; Environmental and Ecological Economics
    JEL: G18 Q01 Q58
    Date: 2023–01
  2. By: Jung, Sunin (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade)
    Abstract: Among the Internet economy, e-commerce has recently emerged as the most dynamic sector. E-commerce GMV in Southeast Asia more than quadrupled from 5.5 billion USD in 2015 to 23 billion USD in 2018 with an annual growth rate of 62 percent over the period. Vietnam, along with Indonesia, is considered the fastest growing country in the e-commerce. The size of the Vietnamese e-commerce market sharply increased from 400 million in 2015 to 2.8 billion USD in 2018 and is expected to reach 15 billion USD in 2025. Besides e-commerce, the online media, online travel and online transportation and food delivery markets are promising, projected to expand significantly from 2.2 billion USD, 3.5 billion USD, and 500 million USD in 2018 to six billion USD, nine billion USD and two billion USD by 2025, respectively. The growth of the Internet economy including e-commerce is closely related to the demand for fintech. For example, digital payments are essential to the growth of the Internet economy. In Vietnam, only one in four e-commerce customers is shown to use digital payments because cash is traditionally favored and cash on delivery is widely accepted on major e-commerce platforms. However, this type of cash payment in e-commerce markets could cause friction between providers and consumers and incur additional costs. To this end, digital payment solutions are on the rise. In additional to digital payments, demand for various fintech solutions is expected to rise further, allowing for new types of transactions and investments as new business models based on the Internet and mobile have emerged.
    Keywords: Vietnam; fintech; financial services; e-commerce
    JEL: E42 G18 G23 G28 L84
    Date: 2023–01–08
  3. By: Adelya, Arztin Intan
    Abstract: Menurut KBBI, waralaba adalah suatu kerjasama di bidang komersial dengan pembagian keuntungan berdasarkan kesepakatan, hak pengelolaan dan hak pemasaran. Namun menurut pendapat saya, waralaba adalah suatu kontrak di mana salah satu pihak berhak untuk menggunakan atau memanfaatkan hak atas kekayaan intelektual (HAKI) atau pertemuan karakteristik komersial milik pihak lain dengan biaya berdasarkan persyaratan yang ditetapkan oleh pihak lain sehubungan dengan penyediaan dan/atau penjualan barang dan jasa. Istilah waralaba juga merupakan gabungan dari kata wara yang artinya lebih dan laba yang berarti keuntungan. Waralaba di Indonesia sendiri diatur dalam Peraturan Pemerintah (PP) No 42 tahun 2007 tentang Waralaba. Bisnis waralaba juga banyak yang berkembang pesat di Indonesia, misalnya bisnis restoran, minimarket, kedai kopi, dan sebagainya. Dalam membangun sebuah bisnis, tidak sedikit ditemui orang menginginkan sesuatu yang instan. Sebagaimana yang telah dijelaskan sebelumnya bahwa waralaba juga dapat disebut konsep pemasaran yang berkembang menjadi konsep bisnis dan strategi perluasan. Waralaba juga mempermudah untuk mengatasi masalah SDM & Pendanaan karena terpolanya kerjasama sederajat antara franchisor & franchisee. Seperti contohnya tidak sedikit orang yang sudah mempunyai mimpi besar namun kekurangan modal untuk memperluas bisnisnya bertemu dengan orang yang memiliki modal namun tidak mempunyai ide tersebut. Sehinga terjadinya kerja sama tersebut. Hal ini berarti waralaba juga telah memanfaatkan dari skala ekonomi.
    Date: 2023–01–12
  4. By: IWAHASHI Roki
    Abstract: Tourism demand for Okinawa during 2010-2019 is examined in this paper with two different approaches. First, the number of visitors to Okinawa from 6 Asian regions (i.e., Taipei, Seoul, Shanghai, Hongkong, Bangkok, and Singapore) are explained with simple linear regression model where reginal GDP, real effective exchange rate index, and temperature difference are explanatory variables. Rapid recent growth of Asian economies, and the weaker yen are decisive factors in increasing the number of foreign tourists to Okinawa. Second, we developed a theoretical model where probability of travel to Okinawa is defined for two types of travelers—one for first-time travelers and the other for frequent travelers. We have estimated the dynamics of these probabilities to understand the behaviors of travelers from 4 Asian regions. Especially, travelers from Shanghai and Hongkong are more willing to return once they visit Okinawa.
    Date: 2023–01
  5. By: , Rojalina; Putra, Yosep Eka; Susanto, Romi
    Abstract: The purpose of this research, namely to determine the level of bank liquidity ratios seen from the Cash Ratio, Quick Ratio, and Loan to Deposit Rasio at PT. Bank Nagari for the period 2016-2020. Qualilative data analysis method, namely, by analyzing systematically related to Liquidity Ratio Analysis at PT. Bank Nagari Cabang Utama Padang. The results showed the level of liquidity ratio at PT. Bank Nagari as seen for the Cash Ratio is in a healthy condition, and the Quick Ratio is in an unhealthy condition for Bank Indonesia, and the Loan to Deposit Ratio is in a healthy condition because it is in position 82
    Date: 2022–12–13
  6. By: Trung Hoang; Ha Nguyen
    Abstract: We study the long-run and multi-generational effects of a mass education program in Vietnam during the First Indochina War (1946-1954). Difference-in-difference estimations indicate that the children of mothers exposed to the education program had an average of 0.9 more years of education. We argue that the impact is via mother’s education. An additional year of maternal education increases children’s education by up to 0.65 years, a stronger effect than those found in the existing literature. Better household lifestyles and a stronger focus on education are possible transmission pathways.
    Keywords: mass education; human capital transmission; mother education; Vietnam; education program; ha Nguyen; household lifestyle; intergenerational transmission; Labor markets; Income; Women; Insurance; Global
    Date: 2022–12–09
  7. By: Nitin Madan (Consultant, Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division of ESCAP); Alberto Isgut (Economic Affairs Officer, Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division of ESCAP)
    Abstract: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, globally, there has been a rapid scale up of Government-to-Person (G2P) payments, especially digital cash transfers via mobile money agents and e-wallets. Many least developed countries (LDCs) have relied on robust mobile money agent networks, and high levels of mobile connectivity and ownership which enable G2P transactions. Such transfers are particularly advantageous in emergency situations like the COVID-19 pandemic as they allow for digital payments to take place in situations of social distancing and lockdowns. Digital payments can offer multiple benefits to various stakeholders, including governments, recipients, and service providers. Digital payments are a driver of financial inclusion, with payments often serving as a gateway to account ownerships and access to savings and loan products. Furthermore, evidence suggests that shifting government payments to digital platforms results in substantial government savings for cash transfer programmes. For example, in 2018, the Government of India estimated that using digital payments for social cash transfers resulted in savings of over $12.7 billion (Pazarbasioglu and others, 2020). Many countries, including LDCs in Asia, have started to strengthen and improve their G2P cash transfer systems. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, 1, 414 social protection measures have been either planned or implemented across 222 countries or territories as of December 2021. These included various social assistance, social insurance, and labor market measures. Social assistance measures constituted 55 per cent of such measures on average (in East Asia and Pacific, it is higher at 61 per cent and South Asia, it is at 70 per cent) and within that, 42 per cent were cash transfers (Gentilini and others, 2020). The capacity of countries to manage G2P transfers effectively as well as to ensure inclusion, especially of informal workers, has become more important in light of the use of cash transfers as a policy response to the pandemic. Lessons from the rapid scale-up of G2P systems in various countries suggest three building blocks for a system: a unique ID (preferably digital with biometrics), socio-economic databases that are linked to the unique ID, and a channel for digital delivery. This paper reviews the three building blocks in eight Asian LDCs – Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Nepal, and Timor-Leste – and discusses measures that can enhance the capacity of these countries. It also looks at whether the reviewed LDCs offer any lessons for others in the region. The paper also reviews the regulatory frameworks for digital payments and digital delivery channels in the reviewed LDCs.
    Keywords: government-to-person (G2P) payments, Asian least developed countries, COVID-19 pandemic, social cash transfers, mobile money
    JEL: O38
    Date: 2022–12
  8. By: Nguyen, Phi Dung; Huynh, Cong Minh
    Abstract: Recent technical development, globalization, and the COVID-19 pandemic have all contributed to an increase in the number of e-commerce logistics activities. However, there has been little investigation on the quality of e-commerce logistics services. This study fills this gap in the existing literature with the evidence from an emerging market like Vietnam, especially in Binh Duong province. It aims to identify the service quality factors of the e-commerce logistics that affect customer satisfaction, such as quality of information, quality of order, delivery quality, price of delivery, and customer service. Results find that: i) customer service has the greatest impact on customer satisfaction; ii) the quality of the order, the quality of the information, and the quality of the delivery come after, respectively; and iii) price of delivery is the final component that has the least impact. Our findings provide useful evidence for businesses in the e-commerce industry in satisfying their customer experiences.
    Keywords: Customer Satisfaction, Logistics, E-commerce, Online Shopping, Covid 19 pandemic
    JEL: B16 M10 M31
    Date: 2023–01–12
  9. By: Rahayu, Yuke Nur; Putra, Yosep Eka; Susanto, Romi
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the soundness level of the bank in terms of non-performing loans at PT. BPR Batang Selo Padang Ganting. Data analysis uses quantitative data analysis, namely analyzing the ratio of the financial statements at PT. BPR Batang Selo Padang Ganting. Research results on Non-Performing Loans (NPL) for the 2018-2020 period with successive percentages of 17.08%, 11.24%, 12.35%. In 2018 the value was 17.08%, in accordance with Bank Indonesia's regulatory criteria, namely NPL > 5%, meaning the bank was in an unhealthy condition. This proves that banks are not able to manage credit properly. While in 2019 it decreased from the previous year to 11.24%, according to Bank Indonesia standards, it was set > 5% in unhealthy conditions. In 2020 it has increased again by 12.35% according to the standard set by BI > 5% is in the bad or unhealthy category
    Date: 2022–12–14
  10. By: Sulistyaningrum, Eny; Tjahjadi, Alexander Michael
    Abstract: Inequality is one of the fundamental economic problems in Indonesia that has the potential to cause the non-optimal distribution of resources, economic instability, and may even lead to an economic crisis. This study discusses the three main aspects of inequality: the highest level of education attained, urban-rural area, and gender. Using IFLS data from 1993, 1997, 2000, 2007, and 2014, this study wants to enrich the empirical research, particularly the longitudinal studies. This study uses the Theil index for decomposition analysis and quantile regression analysis to analyze each class of income, particularly in the context of income inequality factors. The findings show that, for the gender aspect, male workers in the lower class have a greater income than female workers. In addition, for the education aspect, workers with an elementary school level experience higher inequality than workers with other levels of education do. Moreover, for the area aspect, higher inequality occurs for urban workers in both the upper and lower classes, compared to workers in rural areas. This study also conducts a quantile regression analysis to analyze each income class. The results show that, in terms of gender, income inequality between men and women is reducing. Women now have greater opportunities to earn higher incomes. Second, in relation to education, the number of completed years has less influence compared to that in earlier periods, because more and more people enter education to increase their income. The most recent trend is that education is perceived by the upper middle class, thus leading to income inequality. Lastly, urban workers have different incomes from rural workers, though the gap is reducing. It means both urban and rural workers have greater opportunities to earn a better income.
    Keywords: income inequality, urban inequality, theil index, quantile regression
    JEL: D13 I31 J22 K31
    Date: 2022–07–22
  11. By: Tomoo Kikuchi; Satoshi Tobe
    Abstract: We investigate the elasticity of portfolio investment to geographical distance in a gravity model utilizing a bilateral panel of 86 reporting and 241 counterparty countries/territories for 2007-2017. We find that the elasticity is more negative for ASEAN than OECD members. The difference is larger if we exclude Singapore. This indicates that Singapore's behavior is very different from other ASEAN members. While Singapore tends to invest in faraway OECD countries, other ASEAN members tend to invest in nearby countries. Our study also shows the emergence of China as a significant investment destination for ASEAN members.
    Date: 2023–01
  12. By: Onour, Ibrahim
    Abstract: Abstracts: This paper investigates the impact of covid-19 pandemic on stock markets behavior in Asia stock markets: Shanghai, Hong Kong , Japan, and Korea during the period 12/2/2019 to 13/3/ 2020. Results indicate evidence of two states that distinguish the behavior of the stock markets during the sample period. In state 1, Shanghai stock market reacted positively to Hong Kong and Japan stock markets behavior, but in state 2, Hong Kong stock market digressed and Japan’s Nikkie remained a strong driver of Shanghai stock market. Our findings also indicate in state 1, Hong Kong market was significantly influenced by Korea stock market, but in state 2, reacted significantly to the news from Shanghai stock market, and then digressed from Korea stock market behavior. The response of Japan stock exchange indicate Nikkei was strongly linked with Shanghai stock exchange in state 1, but decoupled from all three markets in state 2.
    Keywords: covid-19; Markov switching; Asia; stock markets
    JEL: E44 E52 E58
    Date: 2021–06–02
  13. By: Heikkinen, Daan
    Abstract: Since Government-to-Citizen (G2C) services are becoming increasingly mature in Asia in terms of electronic delivery, as they become more mature, the demand for multi-channel delivery of Government-to-Citizen (G2C) services is increasing at an increasing pace as the maturity of electronic delivery of G2C services in Asia increases. There is a growing trend of teledensity and mobile penetration in many countries, which means that a growing number of mobile services can be provided via mobile devices as a result of the increasing teledensity in the country. In Asian cities outside of metropolises that are not located within metropolises, a wide range of services are being offered through mobile devices that can be accessed via a mobile device. Mobile government is becoming increasingly accepted for use in government, however, it is important to determine which sectors, like education, infrastructure, etc., will be using it. It is likely that the government will be able to benefit from the application of this technology as a way of providing services to the public once it gains acceptance in the government. It should be pointed out that in order to identify which sectors are likely to be able to benefit from mobile government services, it is necessary to examine the factors that determine which sectors are likely to be prioritized by the government in the future. This study aims to provide a qualitative analysis based on the purpose of providing a qualitative analysis based on the purpose of identifying the top priority sectors for mobile government applications in Asia, as well as how those sectors will impact the economy, and how these sectors will be prioritized in the future in light of different factors.
    Keywords: Mobile governance, impact of mobile governance on economy, mobile governance in asia, mobile governance economic sectors
    JEL: H1 H52 I28 O1
    Date: 2021–08–14
  14. By: triyawan, andi
    Abstract: Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis dan menjelaskan : 1) Pengaruh simultan inflasi dan ekspor terhadap Produk Domestik Bruto (PDB), 2) Pengaruh parsial inflasi terhadap Produk Domestik Bruto (PDB), 3) Pengaruh parsial ekspor terhadap Produk Domestik Bruto (PDB). Metode penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif dengan menggunakan analisis data regresi linear berganda. Hasil analisis data dalam penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa : 1) Variabel inflasi dan ekspor secara simultan tidak berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan ekonomi Thailand, 2) Variabel inflasi berpengaruh negatif dan signifikan terhadap pertumbuhan ekonomi, 3) Variabel ekspor berpengaruh negatif dan signifikan terhadap produk domestik bruto (PDB).
    Date: 2023–01–13
  15. By: Dagher, Leila; Hasanov, Fakhri
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between oil market shocks and financial instability in Asian countries using a Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) following Kilian’s (2009) methodology. Instability in the Asian financial markets is measured by the Financial Stress Index (FSI). Based on impulse response functions, the findings confirm that the source of an oil price shock (supply side or demand side) is extremely important to financial markets. When the oil price increases as a result of oil-specific demand shocks, the financial markets experience less stress. However, when the oil price increases as a result of oil-specific supply shocks, the financial markets experience increased stress. The findings of the study should be useful for international and domestic investors for portfolio diversification and other investment-production purposes, as well as for financial stability regulators and other monetary authorities.
    Keywords: FSI, oil price, oil supply, Asian countries, SVAR, impulse response functions
    JEL: E44 G01 G18 Q43
    Date: 2022
  16. By: Oliver, Dr
    Abstract: As a result of digital technologies, many Asian countries are in a position to enhance their competitiveness and promote economic growth by increasing their use of these technologies. As a research paper, the paper focuses on the development of digitalization in the modern economy of Asia, as well as its impact on the economic processes that determine the economic growth of the country. As long as people are capable of interpreting and adapting the impact of digitalization, we will be able to observe the impact of digitalization. A person has to be able to make judicious decisions when it comes to their finances, so he or she needs to be financially literate. As more and more people transact their financial transactions over the Internet, digital financial literacy has become an increasingly important skill. By leveraging the potential of digitalization, we have the possibility of changing a business model and creating new revenue-generating and value-creating opportunities. There will be an emphasis on the effects of digitalization on the MSME and service sectors in this paper, as well as how industry 4.0 has not been implemented to a greater extent as a result of digitalization having an impact on the MSME and service sectors. In order to understand why digitization is so important and which sectors have been affected and how we can as a nation emerge as the third largest economy in the near future, we must understand why digitisation is so important and what sectors have been impacted. In addition, digitalisation has assisted in the increasing use of e-wallets as well as bringing transparency to financial transactions. There is significant potential for Asian public finance to improve in the years to come with the advent of digitalisation, which is highly correlated with good institutions and performance. The fact that there is a risk of erosion of the tax base does not mean that policies that increase data sharing and withholding mechanisms cannot be introduced as a way of mitigating these risks.
    Keywords: Digital revolution and economic development, digitisation and economic impact in Asia, digitisation for competitiveness, Asian economy and digital journey
    JEL: F6 F62 F68 O1 O10 O14 O2 O20 O4 O42
    Date: 2023–01–05
  17. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART-LERECO - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the evolution of world, European and French oilseed trade over the last twenty years (since 2000). The statistical information used comes from three complementary databases, namely BACI for international trade, Comext for European Union (EU-27) trade and French Customs for French trade. World trade in oilseeds amount to 161 billion euros in 2020 (excluding intra-EU trade), or nearly 15% of international trade in agri-food products. These are dominated by soya (51% of the total in value), in its various forms (soya beans, soya meal, soya oil), ahead of palm oil (17%), sunflower (8%) and rapeseed (8%). In 2020, the top three oilseed exporters are Brazil (19% of world exports in value), the United States (18%) and Indonesia (11%). While the first two countries export exclusively soya, the third is specialized in palm oil. China has become the world's largest importer of oilseeds (28% of the total in 2020), ahead of the EU-27 (15%), whose deficit for these products (-21.3 billion euros in 2021) is sometimes linked to its large surplus in animal production (47.5 billion euros). France has a deficit in oilseeds (-1.83 billion euros in 2021), mainly due to its purchases of soya meal from the American continent; the latter, which is the subject of controversy because of the deforestation induced in the Amazon, has however decreased by 31% in volume between 2000 and 2021.
    Abstract: Cette communication présente l'évolution, sur une vingtaine d'années (depuis 2000), des échanges mondiaux, européens et français d'oléagineux. Les informations statistiques utilisées sont issues de trois bases de données complémentaires, à savoir BACI pour les échanges internationaux, Comext pour ceux de l'Union européenne (UE-27) et les douanes françaises pour ceux de la France. Les échanges mondiaux d'oléagineux représentent un montant de 161 milliards d'euros en 2020 (hors commerce intra-UE), soit près de 15% du commerce international des produits agroalimentaires. Ceuxci sont dominés par le soja (51% du total en valeur), sous ses différentes formes (graines, tourteaux et huile), devant l'huile de palme (17%), le tournesol (8%) et le colza (8%). En 2020, les trois premiers exportateurs d'oléagineux sont le Brésil (19% des exportations mondiales en valeur), les Etats-Unis (18%) et l'Indonésie (11%). Si les deux premiers pays exportent exclusivement du soja, le troisième est spécialisé en huile de palme. La Chine est devenue le premier importateur mondial d'oléagineux (28% du total en 2020) devant l'UE-27 (15%), dont le déficit pour ces produits (-21, 3 milliards d'euros en 2021) est parfois mis en relation avec son fort excédent en productions animales (47, 5 milliards d'euros). La France est déficitaire en oléagineux (-1, 83 milliard d'euros en 2021), en raison surtout de ses achats de tourteaux de soja sur le continent américain ; ces derniers, qui font l'objet de controverses en raison de la déforestation induite en Amazonie, ont cependant baissé de 31% en volume entre 2000 et 2021.
    Keywords: Oilseeds, Soybeans, Vegetable oils, International trade, EU trade, Oléagineux, Soja, Huiles végétales, Commerce international, Echanges de l’UE
    Date: 2022–12–15
  18. By: Grafinsi, Giska Aura
    Abstract: Franchise atau yang biasa disebut pula dengan waralaba merupakan suatu metode bisnis dalam melakukan pendistribusian produk maupun layanan jasa yang dimana pemiliknya akan melisensikan operasinya yang termasuk menetapkan merek dagang dan sistem bisnisnya. Hal ini membuat pemilik waralaba akan mendapatkan keuntungan serta mendapatkan royalti berkelanjutan dari si penerima waralaba. Pada saat ini, banyak sekali bisnis yang menggunakan model bisnis waralaba karena adanya kemudahan dan keuntungan yang diperoleh, yang mana model bisnis waralaba ini sepenuhnya didasarkan pada hubungan pengertian dan dukungan antara pemilik dan penerima waralaba. Biasanya terdapat dua model bisnis waralaba yang paling umum digunakan, yaitu waralaba distribusi produk dan waralaba format bisnis. Waralaba sendiri banyak menawarkan manfaat yang sekiranya berguna baik bagi waralaba itu sendiri, pembeli waralaba dan juga pemilik waralaba. Beberapa contoh manfaat tersebut adalah bekerja/beroperasi dengan nama merek yang sudah besar/mapan, mengurangi risiko kegagalan, standar kualitas barang/jasa, perlindungan territorial, periklanan nasional, kepemimpinan yang berkualitas, biaya operasional yang rendah, dan lain-lain. Hal inilah yang sekiranya menjadi alasan mengapa harus membeli waralaba.
    Date: 2023–01–12
  19. By: Johansen, Elias
    Abstract: Throughout Asia, low- and middle-income countries are experiencing a rapid growth of health information systems. Interoperability is being made a priority and steps are being taken to reduce fragmentation and ensure interoperability. There are several approaches to determining economic well being based on the use of a master facility list. This represents a standard list of health facilities that are associated with economic well being. Considering the many socioeconomic complexities that exist within our society today, the development and deployment of such an initiative represents a formidable issue. Information infrastructure theory gives guidance on how to approach complex, large-scale, and distributed information systems from a theoretical point of view. An integral part of the process of integrating health information technology into primary care can be found in the use of a variety of electronic methods for managing information regarding people's health and health care, both individually and in group settings. These methods include the use of a variety of electronic methods for managing patient information. Health information technology can significantly reduce the cost of providing health care as well as ensure that the quality of the care is maintained. Through the use of health information technology, the quality of healthcare can be improved.
    Keywords: Economic development and health infrastructure, economic impact and health issues, asian health infrastructure, economic fragmentation and health infrastructure
    JEL: I1 I11 I12 I14 I15 I18 K32 P36
    Date: 2021–06–15
  20. By: Sonno, Tommaso; Zufacchi, Davide
    Abstract: Do multinationals engage in rent-seeking behaviour in developing countries during crises? With a difference in discontinuity approach, we use the Ebola epidemic in Liberia as a natural experiment on the sharp increase in deforestation, which produced a dramatic growth in newly planted palm oil trees and a 1428% increase in palm oil exports. We show that the probability of forest fire - the fastest way to clear forests and start new production - increased by 125% in the same period. Both effects are amplified in areas populated by ethnic minorities.
    Keywords: epidemics; multinational enterprises; land grabbing; palm oil
    JEL: C23 F23 O13
    Date: 2022–03–01

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