nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2023‒01‒23
forty-five papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  3. Analysis of the Readiness of Philippine Tourism Enterprises for Trade Liberalization in Asia-Pacific By Rivera, John Paolo R.; Gutierrez, Eylla Laire M.; Bautista, Marie Jel D.
  4. Road and Rail Transport Infrastructure in the Philippines: Current State, Issues, and Challenges By Navarro, Adoracion M.; Latigar, Jokkaz S.
  5. Scoping Study on Health and Social Security Systems Literacy of Filipino Migrant Workers in East Asia By Celero, Jocelyn O.; Garabiles, Melissa R.; Katigbak-Montoya, Evangeline O.
  6. What Can We Learn from the Formal Agricultural Sector? Trends, Scale, and Governance of Agriculture and Fishery Establishments in the Philippines By Briones, Roehlano M.
  7. Mengawali Perencanaan Agrisbisnis dimasa Resesi 2023 By Arvitio, Christian
  8. Mengamati Tren Industri Makanan Indonesia di Tengah Ancaman Resesi Global By savira, irma
  9. Persiapan Strategi Bisnis Kecantikan Dikala Resesi 2023 By putri, shafira ivana eka
  10. Perubahan Kondisi Ekonomi Indonesia dan Global dalam Menghadapi Bahaya Resesi 2023 By Saraswati, Maudi Aulia
  11. The Impact of Post-GFC Monetary Policy in the US on Capital Flows to the SEACEN Economies By Juhro, Solikin M.; Anglingkusumo, Reza
  13. makalah bahasa indonesia By sinlae, megi
  14. KEBIJAKAN MONETER ISLAM DI INDONESIA By istiqomah, Bunga sahila hizbul
  15. FTA Utilization in the Philippines: Trends and Determinants By Quimba, Francis Mark A.; Andrada, Abigail E.; Moreno, Neil Irwin S.
  18. The Effects of CPTPP on Philippine Employment and Earnings: A CGE Approach By Tuano, Philip Arnold P.; Alvarez, Julian Thomas B.; Pascua, Gerald Gracius Y.; Lanzona, Leonardo A.; Castillo, Rolly Czar Joseph T.; Lubangco, Cymon Kayle
  19. Perencanaan Usaha Energy Supply dan Perusahaan Sekuritas serta Resesi 2023 By Nathanael, Marvelous
  20. Outcome Evaluation of the Public Management Development Program By Domingo, Sonny N.; Diokno-Sicat, Charlotte Justine; Saquing, Mary Pauline V.; Abrigo, Michael R.M.; Ocbina, John Joseph S.; Bernardo, Perla U.S.
  21. Cash Transfers and Labor Supply: New Evidence on Impacts and Mechanisms By Cuong Viet Nguyen; Finn Tarp
  22. Resesi Ekonomi 2023 Meramal Nasib Pertumbuhan Kosmetik Indonesia di Tengah Ancaman Mati Lampu Dunia By Ksanthih, Alundia
  25. Foreign bank penetration in Vietnam following Vietnam’s accession to the WTO: matching expectations with reality By Huong, Pham Thu
  26. instrumen kebijakan moneter islam di Indonesia By Arkam, Fadel
  27. Public-Private Partnerships in Agriculture Value Chains: The Case of Project ConVERGE in the Philippines By Ballesteros, Marife M.; Ancheta, Jenica A.
  28. Does Performance Pay Enhance Social Accountability? Evidence from Remote Schools in Indonesia By Arya Gaduh; Menno Pradhan; Jan Priebe; Dewi Susanti
  29. Asia's push for monetary alternatives By Noland, Marcus
  31. Waspada Terhadap Resesi Ekonomi 2023 By Maya, Bintang Avida Gusti
  33. Prospects for the Development of Polish Agri- -Food Exports to the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Countries By Ambroziak, Łukasz; Szczepaniak, Iwona; Pawlak, Karolina
  34. Optimal Contact Tracing and Social Distancing Policies to Suppress a New Infectious Disease By Stefan Pollinger
  35. Implementing Crisis and Risk Communication in a Pandemic: Insights from LGUs’ COVID-19 Experience By Siar, Sheila V.; Lorenzo, Pauline Joy M.
  36. Ancaman atau Bertahan Resesi 2023 By Fatika, Putri
  37. The Philippine Digital Sector and Internet Connectivity: An Overview of the Value Chain and Barriers to Competition By Serafica, Ramonette B.; Oren, Queen Cel A.
  38. A Structural Dynamic Factor Model for Daily Global Stock Market Returns By Linton, O. B.; Tang, H.; Wu, J.;
  39. Innovation Begets Innovation and Concentration: the Case of Upstream Oil & Gas in the North Sea By Michele Fioretti; Alessandro Iaria; Aljoscha Janssen; Robert K Perrons; Clément Mazet-Sonilhac
  41. Assessing global interest in decentralized finance, embedded finance, open finance, ocean finance and sustainable finance By Ozili, Peterson K
  42. EKONOMI MONETER ISLAM MASA DEPAN By putri, Aulia ananda
  44. PENGORGANISASIAN DAN REVISI PESAN-PESAN BISNIS DI PERBANKAN SYARIAH By istiqomah, Bunga sahila hizbul; R, Nurul Zahra Zahirah; Yaqin, Ainul
  45. Peranan Administrasi Pendidikan By , Khoirunnisya

  1. By: , Jawaria
    Abstract: Nepotisme merupakan bagian dari KKN (Korupsi, Kolusi, dan Nepotisme). Nepotisme sudah menjadi budaya yang melekat didarah pemerintahan Indonesia dan sudah menjalar ke tingkat strata sosial masyarakat. Sudah tanggung jawab pemerintahan untuk bebas dari kata nepotisme untuk memenuhi persyaratan menjadi “Good Government Governance” yang bersih bertanggung jawab, bersih akuntabilitas dan bersih tranparansi serta bersihnya aturan hukum sesuai yang diinginkan/harapkan masyarakat Indonesia. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan dalam penelitian kali ini adalah Studi Pustaka.
    Date: 2022–12–02
  2. By: , Indi
    Abstract: silitas Pembiayaan Jangka Pendek Bagi Bank Syraiah atau sering disebut dengan FPJPS merupakan instrumen dari Bank Indonesia sebagai The Lender Of Last Resort bagi Bank-bank Syariah yang mengalami kesulitan likuiditas atau kesulitan pendanaan jangka pendek yang disebabkan oleh tergantungnya arus dana masuk yang lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan arus dan keluar (mismatch). Fasilitas Simpanan Bank Indonesia Syariah (FASBIS) merupakan fasilitas yang diberikan Bank Indonesia kepada Bank untuk menempatkan dananya di Bank Indonesia dalam rangka kegiatan Operasi Pasar Terbuka (OPT).
    Date: 2022–12–02
  3. By: Rivera, John Paolo R.; Gutierrez, Eylla Laire M.; Bautista, Marie Jel D.
    Abstract: Amid the signing of various trade agreements defining trade rules and commitments for economies globally, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) both emerged as the largest and latest of them. Dubbed as a comprehensive agreement involving 15 and 11 member economies, respectively, the combined impact of these trade agreements is expected to facilitate deepened integration of its members to the global economy, resulting in global economic growth and poverty alleviation. Similarly, such agreements may also present threats such as increased inequality and stiffer competition for local industries, among others. Given the opportunities and threats of these agreements to participating economies, examining the readiness of enterprises to liberalization remains a crucial subject for its member economies and prospective members, including the Philippines. We look at the tourism industry in the Philippines, given its significance as the country’s top economic pillar heavily affected by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. We explicate the continuously expanding role of the tourism industry in the economy, identify opportunities for and threats to the tourism industry, and assess the readiness of tourism enterprises to participate—by addressing the research problem: how can tourism enterprises prepare themselves for the impacts of trade liberalization brought about by RCEP and CPTPP? Using the triangulation method, specifically qualitative data gathering methods: document review, key informant interviews (KIIs), and focus group discussion (FGD), we construe that both agreements offer limited opportunities for tourism stakeholders to participate in liberalization activities, while tourism stakeholders remain challenged by issues pertaining to mutual recognition and standardization of skills and capacity development. Findings are useful to industry practitioners, government, and academicians understand where the tourism industry stands amid these local and international economic developments. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: CPTPP;enterprises;RCEP;trade liberalization;travel and tourism
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Navarro, Adoracion M.; Latigar, Jokkaz S.
    Abstract: In this study, the analysis of quantity and quality indicators in the road and rail transport sector shows that the Philippines continues to suffer from inadequate and poor quality road and rail transport infrastructure. In most metrics of comparison with ASEAN neighbors, the Philippines is also behind in improving the quantity and quality of its road and rail transport infrastructure. The assessment of targets and achievements in the Philippine Development Plan, the Public Investment Program, and the expenditure program reveals that many of the targets were unmet. The low absorptive capacity, as indicated in unmet expenditure targets, of the major agencies in charge of the road and rail transport sector suggests problems in implementation. Digging deeper into the implementation challenges, the study finds that the persistent problems are right-of-way acquisition, financing, political intervention, weak capacity at the local government level, natural calamities, and project management issues. There were also newly introduced problems. One is the adverse effects of the pandemic on the materials and manpower supply chain, but systems for addressing these are already in place, and implementing agencies just need to continue improving the implementation of revised procedures in response to the pandemic. Another newly introduced problem is the difficulty of implementing projects under the “for later release” funds category related to Congress-introduced new budget items or budget increases. Meanwhile, the public is getting caught in the battle of wills between two major influences—the legislators and the sitting President—on budget allocation, releases, and implementation. At the national level, seeking reform champions for minimizing the Congressional introductions and fast-tracking executive approvals is necessary. At the regional level, one solution that can be attempted is for government officials to strengthen the practice of project identification and prioritization through the Regional Development Council processes. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: transport infrastructure;public investment program;road transport;rail transport;infrastructure quality
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Celero, Jocelyn O.; Garabiles, Melissa R.; Katigbak-Montoya, Evangeline O.
    Abstract: The Philippines has been a major source of female domestic labor in East Asia. The migration of Filipino female household service or domestic workers contributed to the sustained economic growth in countries like Japan, Hong Kong, PRC, and Singapore, amidst chronic demographic and labor issues. Being literate in the health and social security systems is vital to ensuring the well-being of Filipino migrant workers and the sustainable development of both the Philippines and East Asian countries. This scoping study examines the state of scholarship on health and social security systems literacy of Filipino migrant workers in East Asian countries, specifically Japan, Hong Kong SAR, and Singapore, as well as the Philippines. Using the Six-Stage Methodological Framework for Scoping Review adapted from notable social researchers (Arksey and O’Malley 2005; Levac, Colquhoun and O’Brien 2010; Liu et al. 2015) and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses-Extension for Scoping Reviews or PRISMA-ScR, the study searched for published literature on six databases and extracted studies based on criteria for inclusion using Covidence software. This scoping review showed that of the 60 studies analyzed, 25 focused on Japan, 16 on Hong Kong, and eight looked at the case of Singapore (including three, which focused on the Association of Southeast Asian Nations or ASEAN); the remaining 11 were about the health and social security systems in the Philippines for OFWs. The study found no existing conceptualization of migrant health and social security systems literacy in East Asia and the Philippines. While a few studies utilize the term ‘health literacy’, these papers also fail to operationalize the concept in the research. Most health and social security systems studies are concerned with accessibility more than literacy. A few studies that include Filipino migrant workers’ experiences with the health and social security systems of destination countries only go so far as describing such experiences using the words “knowledge”, “understanding”, and “familiarity.” To facilitate consultation as the sixth stage of the scoping review process, the study conducted focus group discussions with Filipino domestic workers in Japan, Hong Kong, and Singapore and semi-structured interviews with select Philippine government agencies. Findings revealed that migrants themselves, governance, social networks, informal channels, and media contribute toward enabling or constraining Filipino migrant workers’ health or social security systems literacy. Most Filipino migrant workers are systems literate only to the extent that they are familiar with and partially understand the basic social and health security schemes offered in destination countries and the Philippines. This study proposes a framework for defining health and social security systems literacy both as a complex process that is intimately tied to the portability of healthcare and social security and as an individual migrant competence that consists of shifting levels of connection to the health and social security systems of the Philippines and destination countries. It offers several research and policy recommendations that advance collaboration between the Philippine government, academics, migrant NGOs, and Filipino migrant workers. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: health system;social security system;health and social security systems literacy;overseas Filipino workers;Japan;Hong Kong;Singapore;Philippines
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Briones, Roehlano M.
    Abstract: The Philippines’ Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA) identifies one of the modernization objectives as “to encourage horizontal and vertical integration, consolidation, and expansion of agriculture and fisheries activities, group functions and other services through the organization of cooperatives, farmers’ and fisherfolk’s associations, corporations, nucleus estates, and consolidated farms” (Section 3.d). Consolidation is an issue in developing countries, including the Philippines, where agriculture is dominated by small family farms. Consolidation will also entail formal recognition of farm enterprises, in any of the possible modalities of landholding, from sole proprietorships to partnerships, corporations, cooperatives, and other private institutions. Organizing and registering smallholders offers access to capital, government programs, business services, and markets. Based on official Census of Philippine Business and Industry data for 2006, 2012, and 2018, the study finds the following: Over time, the size of the formal agricultural sector has been increasing, as well as that of Crops and Animal raising. Likewise, formal establishments have been showing increasing output per worker but not profitability nor innovation. Government support for privately-owned establishments is insignificant, with no clear trend over time nor preference for a legal organization. Based on production function analysis, economies of scale exist in the operation of agricultural establishments. However, there is insufficient evidence to show that cooperatives exhibit larger size, greater inclusiveness, and similar economic performance, such as profitability. The study concludes with some implications for policy. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: formal economy;family farm;economies of scale;increasing returns;economic organization;agricultural development;agriculture
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Arvitio, Christian
    Abstract: Resesi adalah kondisi atau keadaan dimana ekonomi pada suatu negara sedang mengalami trend penurunan, hal ini dapat dilihat dari angka dari Produk Domestik Bruto yang berada pada angka minus. Seperti yang kita ketahui, satu dari sekian banyak efek dari resesi adalah penurunan penghasilan masyarakat yang berakibat pada lemahnya daya beli masyarakat, sementara harga property yang cenderung akan turun akibat menurunnya daya beli masyarakat akan mendorong ternjadinya resesi yang berkelanjutan pada suatu negara dikarenakan pendapatan kas Negara akan mengalami penurunan akibat dari rendahnya PPN yang diterima oleh Negara. Dampak lain yang akan terjadi adalah adanya kemungkinan Pemutusan Hubungan Kerja (PHK) secara masal, sehingga banyaknya pengangguran yang akan memperparah kondisi resesi dikarenakan kekuatan atau daya beli masyrakat yang tergolong lemah. Disisi lain output dari perusahaan yang melakukan PHK akan menurun, sehingga pembayaraan pajak pada Negara juga akan ikut menurun. Dilihat dari situs, disebutkan bahwasannya growth-rate produk domestik bruto (PDB) dari Indonesia pada saat ini disebutkan berada pada angka 5.44 yang mana hal ini menunjukkan growth-rate dari Indonesia masih baik-baik saja dan belum mendekati ataupun menunjukkan angka negatif. Meskipun memang pada periode Juli 2020 sampaidengan Januari 2021 PDB Indonesia berada pada angka negatif, hal ini dikarenakan stagnansi ekonomi akibat pandemi Covid-19 yang berdampak pada hampir seluruh negara didunia. Growth-rate Indonesia pada periode ini cenderung meningkat dibandingkan periode-periode sebelumnya yang menunjukkan angka dibawah 5.44. Banyak muncul spekulasi bahwasanya ditahun 2023 diramalkan perkonomian dunia akan mengalami ketidak stabilan. Menteri Keuangan Sri Mulyani mengatakan negara tengah mewaspadai kenaikan suku bunga yang berpotensi menimbulkan gejolak pasar keuangan (Hidayat, 2022). Beberapa penyebab terjadinya resesi ditahun 2023 antara lain adalah adanya pandemi Covid-19 yang dua tahun kebelakang melemahkan sektor-sektor penting diseluruh dunia yang mana dampak terberat dirasakan oleh sektor ekonomi dunia yang dua tahun terakhir melemah, selanjutnya yang diduga sebagai penyebab daripada resesi 2023 adalah adanya invasi yang dilakukan Russia terhadap Ukraina. Indonesia sendiri kemungkinan tidak akan terlalu merasakan dampak langsung dari terjadinya invasi Russia ke Ukraina, hal ini dipicu oleh Indonesia tidak tergantung oleh komoditas ekspor dari Russia ataupun Ukraina, yang akan merasakan dampak langsung dari invasi tersebut adalah negara-negara yang berada di Benua Eropa karena negara-negara tersebut memiliki ketergantungan untuk menggunakan produk dari Russia dan Ukraina terutama adalah penggunaan gas dari Russia.
    Date: 2022–12–13
  8. By: savira, irma
    Abstract: Resesi merupakan penurunan ekonomi yang terjadi di dunia. Hal ini berdampak banyak bagi seluruh dunia
    Date: 2022–12–12
  9. By: putri, shafira ivana eka
    Abstract: Isu adanya potensi resesi pada tahun 2023 akhir – akhir ini menjadi topik yang sangat serius di negara Indonesia. Dapat kita ketahui pula bahwa presiden Indonesia Bapak Jokowidodo serta Menteri keuangan Indonesia Ibu Sri Mulyani telah mengatakan secara terang – terangan dan terbuka bahwa Indonesia memiliki potensi mengalami resesi di tahun 2023 yang akan datang ini. Hal tersebut membuat masyarakat Indonesia menjadi cukup khawatir dan kebingungan dalam menghadapi dan menyiapkan strategi di tahun depan ini. adanya isu resesi ini juga dapat mempengaruhi pada usaha bisnis dalam industry kecantikan, yang saat ini sangat digemari oleh masyarakat Indonesia.
    Date: 2022–12–12
  10. By: Saraswati, Maudi Aulia
    Abstract: Resesi dalam ekonomi makro resesi adalah terjadinya kondisi suatu negara ketika produk domestik bruto (GDP) atau nilai pasar semua barang dan jasa yang diproduksi oleh suatu negara mengalami penurunan selama bertahun?tahun dengan kata lain, resesi adalah kondisi di mana kondisi perekonomian suatu negara tidak mengalami pertumbuhan selama lebih dari enam bulan semua aktivitas seperti produksi, konsumsi, investasi, dan ketersediaan lapangan kerja angkanya menurun secara signifikan.
    Date: 2022–12–13
  11. By: Juhro, Solikin M.; Anglingkusumo, Reza
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of unconventional monetary policy (UMP) in the US after the global financial crisis (GFC), represented by the expansion and contraction of the US Federal Reserve balance sheet, on capital inflows to SEACEN economies. The empirical results from panel data analysis of nine countries, namely Hong Kong SAR, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, People Republic of China, and the Republic of Korea, since 2004 to 2018 point to the importance of portfolio inflows in transmitting the spill-over effects of the UMP / QE in core AEs, particularly in the US, on the SEACEN economies in the sample. The findings imply that SEACEN’s real economy and financial system are prone to elevated risks that accompany global portfolio rebalancing, thus lead to a strong merit in strengthening the cooperation framework within SEACEN, as a platform for regional sharing of policy experiences in dealing with capital flow volatility.
    Keywords: Capital inflows; unconventional monetary policy; monetary policy trilemma
    JEL: E58
    Date: 2021
  12. By: Arkam, Fadel
    Abstract: Krisis keuangan yang terjadi diberbagai belahan dunia termasuk Indonesia pada tahun 1998 semakin menyadarkan akan pentingnya stabilitas sistem keuangan. Sebagaimana diketahui bahwa negara Indonesia sedang dilanda krisis ekonomi yang berlangsung sejak beberapa tahun yang lalu. Tingginya tingkat krisis yang dialami Indonesia ini diindikasikan dengan laju inflasi yang cukup tinggi. Sebagai dampak atas inflasi, terjadi penurunan tabungan, berkurangnya investasi, semakin banyak modal yang dilarikan ke luar negeri, serta terhambatnya pertumbuhan ekonomi.
    Date: 2022–12–23
  13. By: sinlae, megi
    Abstract: Tarian te'o Renda berasal dari Rote. Tarian ini biasanya ditarikan untuk menyambut tamu/pejabat dan pada kegiatan-kegiatan suka cita di kalangan masyarakat serta dilakukan secara berkelompok maupun massal. Lagu Te’o Renda, biasanya dinyanyikan oleh para pencinta musik sasandu dengan syair yang menggambarkan wujud ucapan syukur kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Pengasih dan para leluhur atas hasil panen yang mereka peroleh.
    Date: 2022–12–22
  14. By: istiqomah, Bunga sahila hizbul
    Abstract: Islam memiliki kebijakan moneter tersendiri yang berbeda dengan system ekonomi lainnya. Pada aspek tujuan islam tidak hanya menekankan equilibrium antara permintaan dan penawaran uang akan tetapi juga mengupayakan terjadinya pemerataan dengan prinsip keadilan dan persaudaraan, sehingga tercipta distribusi kekayaan dan pendapatan secara adil pula.
    Date: 2022–12–20
  15. By: Quimba, Francis Mark A.; Andrada, Abigail E.; Moreno, Neil Irwin S.
    Abstract: The Philippines has adopted free trade agreements (FTAs) as a major component of its trade policy in the last two decades. As it continues to pursue trade liberalization by joining these agreements, taking a closer look at the extent of FTA utilization in the country is important. This study attempted to reveal stylized facts on the trends of Philippine FTA utilization. Using the universe of trade transactions data, FTA utilization trends were observed both from the export and import perspectives. Throughout the 2010s, FTA utilization among exporters has been low; in contrast, utilization in imports has been expanding. The calculated utilization rates also revealed that Philippine imports have considerably utilized FTAs, except for imports from Japan, South Korea, and Singapore. The study also identified key determinants of FTA use among Philippine manufacturing firms, using a micro data set that merged the trade transactions data with the firm survey/census data. Results of the regression analysis suggest the significance of acquiring sufficient productivity levels, as well as knowledge and experience on international trade activities, in firm FTA use. It was also notable that foreign ownership was a positive determinant of FTA use in exports while exhibiting negative estimates on FTA import use. The state of competition at the industry level could negatively affect a firm’s decision to use FTAs, while larger preferential tariff margins could persuade firms to trade under FTA schemes. With regard to the Philippine FTA policy, the findings of this study highlight the need to focus on stimulating FTA use among Philippine firms. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: FTA utilization;self-selection;matched data;firm knowledge;free trade agreement
    Date: 2022
  16. By: T, Andi Marhuni
    Abstract: Stabilitas Sistem Keuangan Sistem Keuangan merupakan sistem yang saling berkaitan dan memiliki peran penting dalam perekonomian. Peraturan Bank Indonesia dan Pengawasan Makroprudensial menjelaskan bahwa Stabilitas Sistem Keuangan adalah suatu kondisi yang memungkinkan sistem keuangan nasional berfungsi secara efektif dan efisien serta mampu bertahan terhadap kerentanan internal dan eksternal sehingga alokasi sumber pendanaan atau pembiayaan dapat berkontribusi pada pertumbuhan dan stabilitas perekonomian nasional.
    Date: 2022–12–18
  17. By: T, Andi Marhuni
    Abstract: Dalam sistem ekonomiislam, selain mempertimbangkan sasarn kebijakan, perumusan dan penentuan isntrumen moneter tentu harus mempertimbangkan strategi sesuai dengan prinsip dan aturan islam. Hal ini dapat dijelaskan sebagai berikut ( uddin & halim, 2015 ). Tidak ada interest bearing assets didalam perekonomian. 1) Peluang long trem sama degan peluang short therm financing. 2) Pembagian rate offprofit ( keuntungan berdasarkan atas profit sharing ratio. 3) Tidakada penimbunan uang ( hoarding )
    Date: 2022–12–18
  18. By: Tuano, Philip Arnold P.; Alvarez, Julian Thomas B.; Pascua, Gerald Gracius Y.; Lanzona, Leonardo A.; Castillo, Rolly Czar Joseph T.; Lubangco, Cymon Kayle
    Abstract: This study aims to determine the potential impact of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) on the Philippines using a CGE-microsimulation model. From the standard Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) Database, the paper first considers the impact of CPTPPP on the Gross Domestic Product, sectoral exports and imports, and welfare in terms of incomes or consumption. After looking at the aggregate market-level reactions, the study then measures the adjustments at the worker level and determines how the exposure to trade with a particular region, such as the CPTPP, affected these adjustments. The results of the empirical analysis indicate the benefits and costs of joining the CPTPP. The benefits are: (a) shifts toward unskilled labor employment relative to other inputs; (b) increases in employment, both skilled and unskilled; (c) increases in returns for primary factors, particularly labor; and (d) increased employment in NCR, Central Luzon, but also in Western Mindanao and BARMM. The costs, however, are (a) lower GDP (as higher value-added industries decline); (b) greater trade deficits (due to accessibility of more imports); and (c) lower consumption surplus given more countries in the bloc but higher surplus if the bloc is limited to original members (trade diversion due to the participation). Participation in CPTPP is expected to result in losers and winners, which in this case, are labor-intensive industries. The losses, however, can be mitigated through government support by moving these industries toward the favored ones. Apart from taking advantage of the abundant unskilled labor resources in the country and reducing wage inequality between skilled and unskilled workers, participation in CPTPP also indicates export diversification. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: free trade agreements;computable general equilibrium;trade;employment;factor returns
    Date: 2022
  19. By: Nathanael, Marvelous
    Abstract: Inflasi di semua negara mengalami kenaikan yang signifikan, dimana biasanya hanya pada kisaran 1% kini bisa sampai 8 bahkan lebih dari 10%, apalagi yang paling ditakutkan bagi orang – orang adalah naiknya bunga KPR sehingga mereka terpaksa menjual rumah mereka karena tidak mampu membayarnya. Oleh sebab itu, di Indonesia bank sentral dan fiscal harus beriringan rukun tanpa intervensi kewenangan BI. Yang terpenting sekarang adalah bukan rem uang beredar, melainkan penyelesaian dari kenaikan barang dan jasa.
    Date: 2022–12–13
  20. By: Domingo, Sonny N.; Diokno-Sicat, Charlotte Justine; Saquing, Mary Pauline V.; Abrigo, Michael R.M.; Ocbina, John Joseph S.; Bernardo, Perla U.S.
    Abstract: The Public Management Development Program (PMDP), the National Government Career Executive Service Development Program, was revitalized in 2012 through Republic Act 10155 or the General Appropriations Act of 2012. The Program is the government’s response to professionalize the bureaucracy and the call for ethical, honest, and effective public governance. The Development Academy of the Philippines acts as the implementing agency of the PMDP. Currently, it offers four courses: the Middle Managers Class, the Senior Executives Class, the Phronetic Leadership Class, and the Local Government Executives and Managers Course. The results of the outcome evaluation of the PMDP, which used both qualitative (surveys and key informant interviews) and quantitative (quasi-experimental statistical matching and difference-in-difference) methods, show positive indications of improvement in the CES competencies of the PMDP graduates, as well as their individual and organizational impact and phronetic leadership traits. However, there is less convincing evidence regarding their networking and innovation skills. The quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the scholars' individual competencies and organizational contributions led to favorable outcomes due to the Program, despite areas for improvement in the PMDP's implementation being noted. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: Public Management Development Program;bureaucracy;outcome evaluation;CESB competencies;Phronetic leadership;average treatment effect;difference-in-difference
    Date: 2022
  21. By: Cuong Viet Nguyen (International School, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Viet Nam; and Mekong Development Research Institute, Hanoi, Viet Nam); Finn Tarp (University of Copenhagen, Denmark)
    Abstract: We study the impact of a national cash transfer program in Vietnam on labor supply using large household surveys and a regression-discontinuity design based on discontinuity in age eligibility. We do not find evidence of a disincentive effect of the cash transfer on labor supply for adults aged 15-64. More importantly, we find robust evidence that the transfer program causes the adults to move from self-employed non-farm work to wage-paying jobs. A likely mechanism is that the transfer program reduces the labor force participation of older people, and they help housework and childcare for younger adults to have wage-paying jobs.
    Keywords: Cash transfer, social security, employment, labor market participation, Vietnam
    JEL: J22 N35 H55
    Date: 2023–01–04
  22. By: Ksanthih, Alundia
    Abstract: Kegiatan ekonomi memiliki peran penting dalam memengaruhi faktor kesejahteraan suatu masyarakat pada wilayah. Melalui roda ekonomi, perusahaan dapat diuntungkan dengan meningkatnya permintaan oleh konsumen dan konsumen diuntungkan karena dapat memenuhi kebutuhannya. Akan tetapi, dalam perjalanannya ekonomi selalu mengalami perubahan yang tidak dapat terus-menerus stagnan dalam waktu yang sangat lama. Belakangan kalimat “resesi” menjadi topik hangat yang kerap diperbincangkan. Topik tersebut menjadi hantu yang terus membayang-bayangi kehidupan kita yang konon akan mengancam kehidupan di awal tahun 2023. Bicara mengenai resesi, merupakan kondisi kemerosotan yang terjadi ketika produk domestik bruto (GDP) menurun atau ketika pertumbuhan ekonomi riil bernilai negatif selama dua kuartal atau lebih dalam satu tahun.
    Date: 2022–12–18
  23. By: Arkam, Fadel
    Abstract: Sistem keuangan merupakan suatu hal yang sangat penting dan memiliki peran yang prinsipil dalam perekonomian dan kehidupan. Sistem keuangan sendiri merupakan tatanan perekonomian dalam suatu negara yang berperan dan melakukan aktivitas dalam berbagai jasa keuangan yang dilakukan oleh lembaga keuangan, yang memiliki tugas dan fungsi utama adalah menyalurkan dana. Penyaluran dana ini diperoleh dari pihak- pihak yang memiliki surplus keuangan kepada pihak-pihak yang membutuhkan atau yang mengalami defisit keuangan. Oleh sebab itu, suatu perekonomian harus memiliki kestabilan sistem keuangan dalam pengalihan dana tersebut agar berjalan dengan baik sehingga perekonomian dapat tumbuh dan meningkatkan standar kehidupan, karena dengan tidak stabilnya sistem keuangan akan berdampak pada menurunnya perekonomian bahkan dapat menyebabkan terjadinya krisis. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan adanya lembaga keuangan yang berperan sebagai lembaga intermediasi keuangan dan menjalankan sistem keuangan.
    Date: 2022–12–23
  24. By: , Muhajir
    Abstract: Stabilitas Kebijakan moneter dalam Islam berbijak pada prinsip-prinsip dasar ekonomi Islam kekuasaan tertinggi adalah milik Allah dan Allah-lah pemilik yang absolut, manusia merupakan pemimpin (kholifah) di bumi, tetapi bukan pemilik yang sebenarnya, semua yang dimiliki dan didapatkan oleh manusia adalah karena seizin Allah, dan oleh karena itu saudara-saudaranya yang kurang beruntung memiliki hak atas sebagian kekayaan yang dimiliki saudara-saudaranya yang lebih beruntung, kekayaan tidak boleh ditumpuk terus atau ditimbun, kekayaan harus diputar, menghilangkan jurang perbedaaan antara individu dalam perekonomian, dapat menghapus konflik antar golongan, dan menetapkan kewajiban yang sifatnya wajib dan sukarela bagi semua individu, termasuk bagi anggota masyarakat yang miskin.
    Date: 2022–09–13
  25. By: Huong, Pham Thu
    Abstract: Vietnam continuously liberalizes the financial market as a requirement for its accession to the World Trade Organization in 2007. This paper discusses the foreign investors’ expectation and their experience when penetrating into Vietnam’s market. The role of the foreign entrants is also assessed. By synthesizing and analyzing relevant research and reports, several important insights are discovered. Firstly, the presence of foreign investors and banks improves market competition, efficiency, and stability. Wholly and partly foreign-owned banks provide the spillover effects in management quality, in the introduction of world standard banking products and services, and in the application of information technology. Secondly, by looking into the foreign owned banks, it is found that the banks’ foreign investors are not likely to play an influential role in managing the banks they invested in. The motive of the investors to control the invested companies leads to their decision of holdings withdrawing.
    Date: 2022–11–29
  26. By: Arkam, Fadel
    Abstract: Islam memiliki kebijakan moneter tersendiri yang berbeda dengan sistem ekonomi lainnya. Pada aspek tujuan Islam tidak hanya menekankan equilibrium antara permintaan dan penawaran uang akan tetapi juga mengupayakan terjadinya pemerataan dengan prinsip keadilan dan persaudaraan, sehingga tercipta distribusi kekayaan dan pendapatan secara adil pula. Kebijakan moneter atau politik moneter merupakan politik negara dalam menentukan peraturan-peraturan dan tindakantindakan dalam lapangan keuangan negara. Secara lebih khusus kebijakan moneter mempunyai pengertian sebagai tindakan makro pemerintah melalui bank sentral dengan cara mempengarui penciptaan uang. Dengan mempengaruhi proses penciptaan uang, pemerintah bisa mempengaruhi jumlah uang beredar, yang selanjutnya pemerintah bisa mempengaruhi pengeluaran investasi, kemudian mempengaruhi permintaan agregeat dan akhirnya tingkat harga sehingga tercipta kondisi ekonomi sebagaimana yang dikehendaki.
    Date: 2022–12–23
  27. By: Ballesteros, Marife M.; Ancheta, Jenica A.
    Abstract: This study examines the public-private-producers partnership (4Ps) model for agriculture value chain development implemented through Project ConVERGE of the Department of Agrarian reform. The model adopted a cluster approach whereby farmer groups are organized into clusters to coordinate their production methods to produce good uniform products and other business activities. The interventions or assistance from government agencies and the private sector are coordinated through the Project Management Office of ConVERGE at the central, regional, and provincial levels. The study notes that the 4Ps is a form of a facilitator-driven agriculture value chain that is a suitable strategy given the level of agriculture development in the country. The 4Ps value chain interventions have addressed some of the constraints small farmers face to participate in the value chain. Farmer cooperatives that received the interventions on farm equipment and processing facilities reported increased production, expansion of production area, improved mobility, and less dependence on traders. However, markets remain limited, and the cooperatives still lack the volume and quality of production that major buyers, including exporters, require. The key challenges include the lack of adequate extension services, including organizational training; inadequate capital and credit access of farmer cooperatives; limited subsidy for infrastructure development and other value chain interventions; weak cooperatives or farmers organizations; and poor geographic conditions. Government plays a major role in addressing these challenges. It needs a coordinated plan among partner agencies for extension and capacity building. Given bureaucratic problems and other institutional constraints, there is also a need to have a good selection of private sector partners both as service providers and financing partners. Market access can be improved through links with financial institutions and agro-input dealers and through the development of brands and certifications. In the case of farmer organizations, they need to strengthen their savings and insurance programs to enhance credit access and hedge against climate shocks. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: agriculture;public-private partnership;agribusiness;supply chain;agrarian reform
    Date: 2022
  28. By: Arya Gaduh; Menno Pradhan; Jan Priebe; Dewi Susanti
    Abstract: Social accountability offers a viable alternative to top-down supervision of service delivery in remote areas when travel cost renders the latter ineffective. However, this bottom-up approach may not be effective when the community has weak authority relative to the service provider. This paper investigates whether giving communities authority over teacher performance pay improves the effectiveness of social accountability in Indonesia’s remote schools. We tested incentive contracts based on either camera-verified teacher presence or community ratings of teacher performance. Social accountability had the strongest and most persistent impact on student learning when combined with the former. The results indicate that when the principal (community) has weak authority vis-à-vis the agent (regular teachers), increasing that authority using an incomplete but verifiable contract works better than using a more comprehensive but subjective one.
    JEL: H52 I21 I25 I28 O15
    Date: 2022–12
  29. By: Noland, Marcus
    Abstract: For the last quarter century, Asia has been seeking greater autonomy within the existing international monetary system. While the region has had the resources to go its own way, intraregional rivalries, and a reluctance to damage ties to the US and the International Monetary Fund, have put a damper on regional initiatives. Now the ascendency of China offers a path toward greater regional autonomy in monetary affairs. Asia, led by China, has been playing a two-track strategy pushing for greater influence within the existing global institutions, while developing its own parallel institutions such as the Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization, the Belt and Road Initiative, and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. Use of the Chinese renminbi will likely grow as a trade invoicing currency but expanded use of the renminbi as a reserve currency is more uncertain. It is possible that the dollar-centered international financial system could evolve into a multipolar system with multiple currencies playing key roles.
    Keywords: international monetary system; Asia; China; renminbi
    JEL: F33 F53 N25
    Date: 2022–12–01
  30. By: Abzis, M. Labib 'Ulumuddin
    Abstract: Social change is an interaction that occurs between individuals, between groups, or individuals with groups that will result in a change in both the system and social order based on achieving the same goals. That is what often happens in a society, especially in a rural or urban community. While the Home industry is a house that produces a craft or goods or can also be called a small company. The position of clothing industry is now categorized into the middle strata, which results in being looked down upon by some people who think that the clothing industry cannot prosper its people. Even though considering the population in Indonesia is quite a lot. The impact of the increasing population, the unemployment rate is increasing. However, with the existence of convection home industry activities in Tembok Kidul Village, it can create jobs for unemployed people both from within and outside the village. In this study, the research method used was the descriptive qualitative method because with a qualitative descriptive approach this study emphasized its analysis of deductive and inductive inference processes and analysis of socio-economic changes in the convection home industry in Tembok Kidul village. While the theory used in this research is Darwin's theory of evolution.
    Date: 2022–12–13
  31. By: Maya, Bintang Avida Gusti
    Abstract: Resesi 2023 mungkin akan berdampak di seluruh negara di dunia yang disebabkan oleh banyak faktor seperti adanya inflasi yang meningkat drastis sebagai dampak dari konflik Rusia-Ukraina. Peningkatan inflasi tersebut diikuti oleh kebijakan moneter bank sentral di Eropa serta Amerika dengan dinaikkannya nilai suku bunga yang juga berdampak bada seluruh bank sentral di dunia, salah satunya adalah Indonesia. Resesi dalam perpektif makro ekonomi merupakan dampak dari inflasi yang melibatkan unsur ekonomi seperti penurunan daya beli masyarakat, pendapatan nasional yang turun, sempitnya kesempatan kerja, serta meningkatnya laju inflasi. Sebuah negara dapat dikatakan akan mengalami resesi ketika banyak ditemukannya PHK pada perusahaan, lapangan kerja yang menyempit, kenaikan bahan pokok pangan, dan jumlah permintaan melebihi penawaran.
    Date: 2022–12–12
  32. By: , Arys
    Abstract: The capital market is a financial market for long-term funds. The Islamic Capital Market is all activities in the capital market that do not conflict with Islamic principles. The Indonesian Islamic capital market is part of the Islamic financial industry which is regulated by the Financial Services Authority (OJK), particularly the Islamic capital market directorate. This article describes the history of the capital market, risks and investment strategies in the capital market.
    Date: 2022–12–19
  33. By: Ambroziak, Łukasz; Szczepaniak, Iwona; Pawlak, Karolina
    Abstract: The aim of the article is to describe Polish agri-food exports to countries that are members of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) and to assess the possibilities of developing exports of Polish food producers to the markets of these countries. The study was conducted, among others, with the use of a synthetic perspective index based on the data from Statistics Poland and the WITSComtrade database. The study shows that RCEP countries have a relatively low share in Polish agrifood exports (2.7% in 2021) and the trade is characterized by a permanently negative balance of food turnover. In the context of the growth prospects for Polish exports, it is difficult to speak of the same product groups in all markets. On the contrary, the choice of a given market determines which products can be regarded as prospective in Polish exports to this market. The products include not only processed, but also agricultural and low-processed ones. There is a risk that the agreement, which has been in force since the beginning of 2022, will cause the diversion effect, consisting in reducing the trade of RCEP countries with non-RCEP countries. This may make it necessary to adapt the trade strategy implemented on the Asian market by EU countries, including Poland, to the new conditions.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022–12–22
  34. By: Stefan Pollinger (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper studies how to optimally combine contact tracing and social distancing to halt the transmission of a new infectious disease. It finds that the crucial tradeoff is between the intensity of the cost from control measures and health outcomes and the time the population needs to endure them. The optimum is a simple function of observables, which eases its implementation. Sufficiently stringent social distancing ensures consistently decreasing case numbers, such that contact tracing can gradually take over the control of the disease. The total cost of suppression depends critically on the efficiency of contact tracing since it determines how fast the policymaker can relax economic restrictions. A calibration to the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy and Singapore illustrates the theoretical results.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Suppression strategies, Contact tracing, Zero COVID
    Date: 2022–10–28
  35. By: Siar, Sheila V.; Lorenzo, Pauline Joy M.
    Abstract: Local government units (LGUs) are at the forefront of the Philippine government’s COVID-19 pandemic response. One of their most important functions is crisis and risk communication to ease public fear, mitigate the damage caused by the pandemic, and promote the adoption of health and safety protocols to control the spread of COVID-19. However, only a few studies on local governments’ COVID-19 experience are present, and an in-depth study of the crisis and risk communication of Philippine LGUs has not been done yet. To fill this gap, this study investigated the communication strategies used by LGUs to inform, educate, and connect with the public during the pandemic, particularly in 2020–2021. It employed a mixed method approach consisting of desk review and cursory audit of national plans and policies on COVID-19, key informant interviews with representatives of the selected LGUs (Pasay, Manila, Caloocan, and Navotas), and social media search and content analysis of the COVID-19-related messages on the LGUs’ official Facebook pages. Results showed the use of traditional and modern communication channels in crisis and risk communication. Modern channels such as social media, virtual meetings and groups, and online messaging platforms were largely used and proved to be useful given mobility restrictions and the need for social distancing. Nevertheless, traditional channels remained an important communication strategy of the LGUs, particularly face-to-face communication whenever possible, printed IEC materials, and interpersonal channels on the ground, like barangay officials and health personnel. The effective and efficient conduct of the LGUs’ communication functions during the pandemic was affected by many challenges, such as the late receipt of official memos on new policies and guidelines from the national government, the fast-changing guidelines, inadequate training in science, risk, and crisis communication, insufficient resources, risk of COVID-19 to personal health, and discrepancies in the COVID-19 case reports. Found in all four LGUs was the absence of a communication plan and monitoring and evaluation system, which hindered them from systematically implementing their communication interventions, monitoring progress vis-à-vis objectives, and evaluating the effectiveness of their communication strategies. Also, while social media has been widely used, the LGUs failed to maximize its potential to correct fake news and increase their responsiveness to the public. Only 45 of the 6, 787 COVID-19-related posts on the LGUs’ Facebook pages, or less than 1 percent, were posts intended to correct false information. Only one of the three LGUs responded extensively to public comments on its Facebook page. The analysis of the LGUs’ messages on Facebook also revealed a need to improve the clarity of their social media posts, which can be achieved by using the local language more, explaining and simplifying technical terms, and using more visual communication. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: COVID-19;crisis and risk communication;social media;pandemic response
    Date: 2022
  36. By: Fatika, Putri
    Abstract: Resesi ekonomi global berpotensi akan melanda seluruh dunia pada 2023. Sebuah kondisi di mana perekonomian negara memburuk. Hal ini ditandai semakin menurunnya Produk Domestik Bruto (PDB) dan meningkatnya angka pengangguran. Resesi ini dipicu karena adanya pengetatan moneter oleh banyak bank sentral, serta dampak berlarut-larut dari perang Ukraina dan Rusia, hingga kebijakan zero Covid-19 yang belum semua negara mampu melaksanakannya membuat kondisi ekonomi global masih belum stabil dan kokoh. Resesi ekonomi juga menjadi salah satu tantangan dan ancaman terbesar bagi seorang pengusaha. Terutama dalam mempertahankan kelangsungan bisnisnya.
    Date: 2022–12–12
  37. By: Serafica, Ramonette B.; Oren, Queen Cel A.
    Abstract: The size of the digital sector is significant and comprises various activities, processes, and industries. The interdependence of different markets within and across segments of the digital value chain implies that barriers to entry and expansion in one industry can have far-reaching effects on the growth of the rest of the digital sector and the economy, more widely. Ensuring robust competition across the digital value chain is therefore of paramount importance. Internet connectivity is the most critical element of the value chain as it links the various participants in the digital sector to the final users or consumers. It is also the segment that has the highest barriers to entry. Although natural barriers exist, regulatory and strategic barriers further constrain competition. Thus, access regulations will need to be strengthened and enforced. An open access framework and increased transparency will facilitate the growth of broadband. Adapting M&A guidelines, effective cross-sectoral regulatory cooperation, and investment in training will also reduce barriers to entry and expansion. Partnerships between the private and public sectors will also be necessary to reduce the digital divide in the country significantly. The telecommunications industry has been dominated by two vertically integrated firms, which are also expanding their service portfolios to other segments. While vertical integration along the digital value chain could create efficiencies, significant market power could enable anticompetitive conduct and limit innovation. In the digital age, competitive pressures must be built into the entire value chain by lowering barriers to entry and expansion, removing bottlenecks to innovation, and reducing switching costs. Further analysis of particular segments or specific bottlenecks and anti-competitive practices will be useful in crafting appropriate regulatory approaches. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: ICT;telecommunications;digital;internet;value chain;competition
    Date: 2022
  38. By: Linton, O. B.; Tang, H.; Wu, J.;
    Abstract: Most stock markets are open for 6-8 hours per trading day. The Asian, European and American stock markets are separated in time by time-zone differences. We propose a statistical dynamic factor model for a large number of daily returns across multiple time zones. Our model has a common global factor as well as continental factors. Under a mild fixed-signs assumption, our model is identified and has a structural interpretation. We propose several estimators of the model: the maximum likelihood estimator-one day (MLE-one day), the quasi-maximum likelihood estimator (QMLE), an improved estimator from QMLE (QMLE-md), the QMLEres (similar to MLE-one day), and a Bayesian estimator (Gibbs sampling). We establish consistency, the rates of convergence and the asymptotic distributions of the QMLE and the QMLE-md. We next provide a heuristic procedure for conducting inference for the MLE-one day and the QMLE-res. Monte Carlo simulations reveal that the MLE-one day, the QMLE-res and the QMLE-md work well. We then apply our model to two real data sets: (1) equity portfolio returns from Japan, Europe and the US; (2) MSCI equity indices of 41 developed and emerging markets. Some new insights about linkages among different markets are drawn.
    Keywords: Daily Global Stock Market Returns, Expectation Maximization Algorithm, Minimum Distance, Quasi Maximum Likelihood, Structural Dynamic Factor Model, Time-Zone Differences
    JEL: C55 C58 G15
    Date: 2022–06–15
  39. By: Michele Fioretti (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Alessandro Iaria (University of Bristol [Bristol]); Aljoscha Janssen (SIS - Singapore Management University); Robert K Perrons (QUT - Queensland University of Technology [Brisbane]); Clément Mazet-Sonilhac (Centre de recherche de la Banque de France - Banque de France, ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We investigate the effect of technology adoption on competition by leveraging a unique dataset on production, costs, and asset characteristics for North Sea upstream oil & gas companies. Relying on heterogeneity in the geological suitability of fields and a landmark decision of the Norwegian Supreme Court that increased the returns of capital investment in Norway relative to the UK, we show that technology adoption increases market concentration. Firms with prior technology-specific know-how specialize more in fields suitable for the same technology but also invest more in high-risk-high-return fields (e.g., ultra-deep recovery), diversifying their technology portfolio and ultimately gaining larger shares of the North Sea market. Our analyses illustrate how technology adoption can lead to market concentration both directly through specialization and indirectly via experimentation.
    Keywords: Market structure, Competition, Specialization, Experimentation, Upstream oil and gas markets, North Sea, Innovation, Adoption
    Date: 2022–05–24
  40. By: Mualif, Akmal
    Abstract: Pencegahan tindakan Korupsi merupakan hal yang harus dilakukan sesegera mungkin, dimulai dari jalur masuk yaitu Kolusi. Sepanjang ini tindak kolusi termasuk dalam klasifikasi pelanggaran etika, sedikit menyentuh bagian dari pelanggaran norma Hukum, hal ini di akibatkan karena praktik kolusi dapat dilaksanakan di saat masih dalam proses masa menjadi pejabat. Hal inilah yang kemudian memberikan peluang bagi pelaku kolusi dengan menghandalkan ke tidak terjangkauannya oleh norma hukum yang telah diatur. Di dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metode analisis kualitatif yang dilakukan melalui observasi, studi literatur, dan wawancara. Hasil dari penelitian ini bisa menggambarkan korupsi dengan cara kolusi hanya di klasifikasikan dalam pelanggaran Etika, kasus tindakan kolusi banyak terjadi dalam saat proses menujunya terpilihnya pejabat, yaitu di saat waktu sebelum pemilihan. Terjadinya titik temu dari kepentingan diantara para calon pejabat publik dengan menggunakan kekuatan dari modal.
    Date: 2022–11–30
  41. By: Ozili, Peterson K
    Abstract: This paper analyzes global interest in internet information about decentralized finance (DeFi), embedded finance (EmFi), open finance (OpFi), ocean finance (OcFi) and sustainable finance (SuFi) and the relationship among them. The findings reveal that global interest in internet information about embedded finance (EmFi) was more popular in Asian and European countries. Global web search for internet information about OcFi decreased during the financial crisis while global web search for internet information about OpFi and EmFi increased during financial crisis years. Global web search for internet information about DeFi, SuFi and EmFi increased during the pandemic years. There is a significant positive correlation between global interest in decentralized finance, embedded finance, ocean finance and sustainable finance information. Also, there is a significant negative correlation between global interest in embedded finance information and global interest in open finance information. The regression coefficient matrix shows that global interest in information about open finance, embedded finance, ocean finance, decentralized finance and sustainable finance are significantly related.
    Keywords: information technology, internet, decentralized finance, open finance, embedded finance, ocean finance, sustainable finance.
    JEL: G00 G21 Q56
    Date: 2023
  42. By: putri, Aulia ananda
    Abstract: Penyelarasan prinsip-prinsip konvensional dengan prinsip Islam, atau bahkan yang sifatnya transformasi, harus mampu mengakar tidak hanya pada masyarakat secara individu namun juga masyarakat secara umum dan diikuti juga dengan transformasi dari sisi institusional. Institusi dan otoritas moneter diharapkan mampu menciptakan regulasi dan kerangka untuk penerapan nilai- nilai Islam secara menyeluruh dalam praktik sistem moneter. Masyarakat dan institusi memiliki peran masing-masing yang saling mendukung demi terciptanya iklim kondusif dan praktis dalam rangka pengaplikasian sistem moneter yang sesuai dengan prinsip Islam. Institusi harus merumuskan aturan-aturan yang mendukung agar pelaksanaannya tetap berada di jalur nilai-nilai Islam
    Date: 2022–12–13
    Abstract: Sekolah merupakan lembaga pendidikan yang berintegritas antara komponen. Salah satu komponen terpenting dalam lembaga pendidikan adalah tenaga administrasi. Administrasi adalah suatu perencanaan, pengawasan, pengarahan atau pengorganisasian yang menciptakan kerjasama dan dilakukan oleh banyak pihak untuk mencapai tujuan yang diinginkan. Oleh karena itu, administrasi pendidikan merupakan pameran perencanaan kegiatan yang dapat menciptakan kerjasama antara semua pihak yang terkait dengan dunia pendidikan dalam proses pembelajaran untuk mencapai tujuan pendidikan. Pada dasarnya administrasi pendidikan adalah ilmu tentang penyelenggara pendidikan disekolah atau lembaga Pendidikan, sehingga dalam proses belajar mengajar sangat penting untuk mencapai tujuan Pendidikan. Oleh karena itu, sumber daya manusia dalam hal ini tenaga administrasi merupakan bagian penting dari sekolah. Wilayah kerja administrasi pendidikan meliputi perencanaan, pelaksanaan dan kepengawasan. Dengan bidang garapan yakni Sumber Daya Manusia (SDM), Sumber Belajar, dan Sumber Fasilitas dan Dana, sehingga terlihat apa yang sedang dikerjakan dalam konteks adminitrasi pendidikan dalam upaya untuk mencapai tujuan pendidikan secara produktif baik untuk perorangan maupun lembaga.
    Date: 2022–12–13
  44. By: istiqomah, Bunga sahila hizbul; R, Nurul Zahra Zahirah; Yaqin, Ainul
    Abstract: Bisnis merupakan kegiatan usaha yang dijalani seseorang baik dibidang perdagangan (niaga), perindustrian ataupun kegiatan usaha. Dalam bisnis memerlukan beberapa tahapan seperti perencanaan (planning) ataupun forcasting (peramalan). Dan dalam bisnis juga membutuhkan komunikasi yang baik antara atasan dengan bawahan (vertikal) ataupun bawahan dengan sesamanya (horizontal). Sebab komunikasi merupakan faktor utama tercapainya suatu planning akan bisnis yang dijalani baik dalam pencapaian visi dan misi perusahaan tersebut. Komunikasi dapat dilakukan secara langsung maupun tidak langsung.Dimana komunikasi langsung biasanya berupa intruksi maupun perintah.Namun bentuk komunikasi itu sendiri dapat berupa verbal maupun nonverbal.Dan hasil yang dikirimkan dan diterima dari komunikasi tersebut biasa disebut pesan.Pesan bisnis itu sendiri ada yang tertulis maupun lisan. Namun dalam penyusunan pesan bisnis membutuhkan pengorganisasian yang baik. Dimana pengorganisasian yang baik dalam pesan bisnis mampu membantu audience memahami pesan, membantu audience menerima pesan dengan mudah, menghemat waktu audience, mempermudah pekerjaan komunikator. Namun penyusunan pesan yang telalu panjang dan kompleks dapat menggunakan outline. Outline adalah penyampaian pesan dengan cara garis besar, bagan ataupun skema. Dan pengorganisasian pesan melalui outline berbeda dengan pesan biasa.
    Date: 2022–12–12
  45. By: , Khoirunnisya
    Abstract: Perananan Administrasi Pendidikan Perananan Administrasi Pendidikan Meliputi : Perencanaan, Pengorganisasian, Koordinasi, dan Komunikasi dalam Pendidikan.
    Date: 2022–12–14

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