nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2022‒11‒14
63 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. COVID-19 Pandemic and the Health and Well-being of Vulnerable People in Vietnam By Dang, Hai-Anh H.; Do, Minh N. N.
  2. Productivity Loss and Misallocation of Resources in Southeast Asia By De Nicola,Francesca; Nguyen,Ha Minh; Loayza,Norman V.
  3. Philippine Journal of Development 2021, No. 1 By Various Authors
  4. Survival Analysis of Export Relationships of Philippine MSMEs By Manzano, George N.; Bautista, Mark Edison
  5. Towards Competitive Livestock, Poultry, and Dairy Industries: Consolidated Benchmarking Study By Briones, Roehlano M.; Espineli, Isabel B.
  6. School Infrastructure in the Philippines: Where Are We Now and Where Should We Be Heading? By Navarro, Adoracion M.
  7. A Review of Public Expenditures for Nutrition in National Government Agencies of the Philippines (2017-2019) By Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; Uy, Jhanna; Lechuga, Julienne
  8. Upgrading the ICT Regulatory Framework: Toward Accelerated and Inclusive Digital Connectivity By Serafica, Ramonette B.; Oren, Queen Cel A.
  9. Opportunities for the Philippines under RCEP: Trade in Services By Tullao, Tereso Jr. S.; Rivera, John Paolo R.
  10. The Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement, a Decade After: Evaluating the Impact on Philippine Trade By Quimba, Francis Mark A.; Barral, Mark Anthony A.; Mark Anthony A.
  11. Primary Health Care and Management of Noncommunicable Diseases in the Philippines By Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; Uy, Jhanna; Casas, Lyle Daryll D.
  12. Analyzing Trends in APEC Using Data Analytics By Quismorio, Brenda A.; Lagria, Raymond Freth A.
  13. "Determinant of Firm's Value: Empirical Evidence from Top 100 Listed Companies in Indonesia " By Rosita Suryaningsih
  14. COVID-19 Pandemic and the Health and Well-being of Vulnerable People in Vietnam By Dang, Hai-Anh; Do, Minh N.N.
  15. Fiscal Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Assessing Public Debt Sustainability in the Philippines By Corpus, John Paul; Diokno-Sicat, Charlotte Justine; Debuque-Gonzales, Margarita; Palomar, Robert Hector G.; Ruiz, Mark Gerald; Miral, Ramona Maria
  16. An Assessment of the Financial Sustainability and Performance of Philippine Water Districts By Velasco, Lawrence G.
  17. Participatory Governance Institutions for Social Housing in the Philippines: Do Local Housing Boards Matter? By Ballesteros, Marife M.; Ancheta, Jenica
  18. Exploring Policies and Initiatives for Online Workers in the Philippines By Serafica, Ramonette B.; Oren, Queen Cel A.
  19. Rainfall variability and internal migration: the importance of agriculture linkage and gender inequality By Luong, Tuan Anh; Nguyen, Manh-Hung; Khuong Truong, N.T.; Le, Kien
  20. Long-Term and Intergenerational Effects of Education : Evidence from School Construction in Indonesia By Akresh,Richard; Halim,Daniel Zefanya; Kleemans,Marieke
  21. Effect of typhoons on economic activities in Vietnam: Evidence using satellite imagery By Etienne ESPAGNE; Yen Boi HA; Kenneth HOUNGBEDJI; Thanh NGO-DUC
  22. To What Extent Has Philippine Agriculture Undergone Integration and Consolidation? State of Agri-enterprise Development in the Philippines By Inocencio, Arlene B.; Baulita, Alex; Inocencio, Albert Dale
  23. DigitALL for Her: Futurecasting Platform Work for Women in Rural Philippines By Peña, Paul John M.; Yao, Vince Eisen C.
  24. How Much Has People Empowerment Progressed among Small Farmers and Fisherfolk? State of People's Organizations in the Philippines By Songco, Danilo A.
  25. Is Food Supply Accessible, Affordable, and Stable? The State of Food Security in the Philippines By Galang, Ivory Myka R.
  26. Aspirations and Financial Decisions : Experimental Evidence from the Philippines By Mckenzie,David J.; Mohpal,Aakash; Yang,Dean
  27. Measuring Housing Affordability in the Philippines By Ballesteros, Marife M.; Ramos, Tatum P.; Ancheta, Jenica A.
  28. Long-Term Impacts of Short Exposure to Conditional Cash Transfers in Adolescence : Evidence from the Philippines By Dervisevic,Ervin; Perova,Elizaveta; Sahay,Abhilasha
  29. Actual and Potential Trade Agreements in the Asia-Pacific : Estimated Effects By Ferrantino,Michael Joseph; Maliszewska,Maryla; Taran,Svitlana
  30. The Philippine Local Water Sector: Institutional Issues in Supply Governance By Maddawin, Ricxie B.; Diokno-Sicat, Charlotte Justine; Castillo, Angel Faye G.; Velasco, Lawrence G.
  31. Vietnam: Technical Assistance Report-National Accounts Statistics Mission By International Monetary Fund
  32. Technology Within and Across Firms By Cirera,Xavier; Comin,Diego Adolfo; Vargas Da Cruz,Marcio Jose; Lee,Kyungmin
  33. Analyzing the Characteristics of International Migration in the Philippines Using the 2018 National Migration Survey By Tabuga, Aubrey D.; Vargas, Anna Rita P.; Baino, Madeleine Louise S.
  34. Strategies for Managing Household Water Demand in Carcar City, Cebu, Philippines By Bargayo, Serge Jude B.; Go, Gerard L.
  35. Economic Crises and Returns to University Education in Middle-Income Countries : Stylized Facts and COVID-19 Projections By Fasih,Tazeen; Patrinos,Harry Anthony; Shafiq,M. Najeeb
  36. Who Suffers the Most During the COVID-19 Pandemic? Evidence from Thailand By Sasiwimon Warunsiri Paweenawat; Lusi Liao
  37. Key workers in Malaysia during the pandemic By Lim, Lin Lean,
  38. How Modern is Philippine Agriculture and Fisheries? Synthesis Report By Briones, Roehlano M.
  39. Firm-Level Technology Adoption in Vietnam By Cirera,Xavier; Comin,Diego Adolfo; Vargas Da Cruz,Marcio Jose; Lee,Kyungmin; Soares Martins Neto,Antonio
  40. E-Commerce Adoption and Its Impact on the Performance of Women-led MSMEs in Metro Manila: An Ex-ante Study for RCEP By Bacasmas, Jill Angeli V.; Katigbak, Jovito Jose P.; Carlos, Jean Clarisse T.
  41. Social Media as a Recruitment and Data Collection Tool: Experimental Evidence on the Relative Effectiveness of Web Surveys and Chatbots By Beam, Emily A.
  42. Is Agriculture and Fisheries Ascending the Value-Added Ladder? The State of Agricultural Value Chains in the Philippines By Adriano, Lourdes S.; Adriano, Karlo Fermin S.
  43. The Financial Health of Select Philippine Hospitals and the Role of the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation as the National Strategic Purchaser of Health Services By Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; Nuevo, Christian Edward L.; Uy, Jhanna; Casas, Lyle Daryll D.
  44. Men- and Women-owned/led MSMEs and the COVID-19 Policy Responses By Quimba, Francis Mark A.; Reyes, Celia M.; Baje, Lora Kryz; Bayudan-Dacuycuy, Connie
  45. The Impact of Language of Instruction in Schools on Student Achievement: Evidence from Malaysia Using the Synthetic Control Method By Soh,Yew Chong; Del Carpio,Ximena Vanessa; Wang,Liang Choon
  46. Chinese Cotton: Textiles, Imports, and Xinjiang By Gale, Fred; Davis, Eric
  47. Trickle Down Tax Morale : A Cross Country Survey Experiment By Mellon,Jonathan; Peixoto,Tiago Carneiro; Sjoberg,Fredrik Matias; Gauri,Varun
  48. Philippine Journal of Development 2021, No. 2 By Various Authors
  49. COVID-19 MSME Policy Responses in the Philippines: How Goes the Gendered Quest? By Bayudan-Dacuycuy, Connie; Peña, Paul John
  50. Starting Small: Building a Macroeconometric Model of the Philippine Economy By Debuque-Gonzales, Margarita; Corpus, John Paul P.
  51. Domestic Benchmarking of the Philippine Livestock, Dairy, and Poultry Industries By Domingo, Sonny N.; Rosellon, Maureen Ane D.; Manejar, Arvie Joy A.; Lorenzo, Pauline Joy M.
  52. Modernizing Agriculture and Fisheries: Overview of Issues, Trends, and Policies By Briones, Roehlano M.
  53. Philippine Structural Transformation in the Context of Technological Change By Lanzona, Leonardo
  54. An Assessment of the Criteria Used in the Determination of Philippine LGU Fiscal Viability By Paqueo, Vicente B.; Diokno-Sicat, Charlotte Justine
  55. How Well Has Environmental and Social Protection Been Ensured for Small Farmers and Fisherfolk? Sustainable Development of Philippine Agriculture and Fisheries By Ebarvia, Maria Corazon M.
  56. The Salinization of Agricultural Hubs: Impacts and Adjustments to Intensifying Saltwater Intrusion in the Mekong Delta By Le, Hanh-My; Ludwig, Markus
  57. Market and State in Philippine Agricultural Policy By Briones, Roehlano M.
  58. Philippine Education: Situationer, Challenges, and Ways Forward By Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.; Paqueo, Vicente B.
  59. Which Financial Inclusion Indicators and Dimensions Matter for Income Inequality? A Bayesian Model Averaging Approach By Rogelio V. Mercado, Jr.; Victor Pontines
  60. Erste Konturen der philippinischen Außenpolitik unter Ferdinand Marcos jr.: Wie der Vater, so der Sohn By Heiduk, Felix; Wilms, Tom
  61. Thailand: Selected Issues By International Monetary Fund
  62. Innovation Begets Innovation and Concentration: the Case of Upstream Oil & Gas in the North Sea By Michele Fioretti; Alessandro Iaria; Aljoscha Janssen; Clément Mazet- Sonilhac; Robert K Perrons
  63. Elektrolyseure für die Wasserstoffrevolution: Herausforderungen, Abhängigkeiten und Lösungsansätze By Ansari, Dawud; Grinschgl, Julian; Pepe, Jacopo Maria

  1. By: Dang, Hai-Anh H.; Do, Minh N. N.
    Abstract: Despite a sizable population and modest status as a low middle-income country, Vietnam has recorded a low COVID-19 fatality rate that rivals those of richer countries with far larger spending on health. We offer an early review of the emerging literatures in public health and economics on the pandemic effects in Vietnam, with a specific focus on vulnerable population groups. Our review suggests that vulnerable workers were at more health risks than the general population. The pandemic reduced household income, increased the poverty rate, and worsened wage equality. It increased the proportion of below-minimum wage workers by 2.5 percentage points (i.e., 32 percent increase). While government policy responses were generally regarded as effective, the public support for these responses was essential for this success, particularly where there were stronger public participation in the political process. Our review also indicates the need for a social protection database to identify the poor and the informal workers to further enhance targeting efforts. Finally, we suggest future directions for research in the Vietnamese context.
    Keywords: COVID-19,health,vulnerable households,poverty,inequality,Vietnam
    Date: 2022
  2. By: De Nicola,Francesca; Nguyen,Ha Minh; Loayza,Norman V.
    Abstract: This paper examines within-sector resource misallocation in three Southeast Asian countries -- Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam. The methodology accounts for measurement error in revenues and costs. The firm-level evidence suggests that measurement error is substantial, resulting in an overestimation of misallocation by as much as 30 percent. Nevertheless, resource misallocation across firms within a sector remains large, albeit declining. The findings imply that there are considerable potential gains from efficient reallocation -- above 80 percent for Indonesia and around 20 to 30 percent for Malaysia and Vietnam. Private domestic firms and firms with higher productivity appear to face larger distortions that prevent them from expanding.
    Keywords: Food&Beverage Industry,Common Carriers Industry,Construction Industry,Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies,Plastics&Rubber Industry,Pulp&Paper Industry,Textiles, Apparel&Leather Industry,General Manufacturing,Industrial Economics,Economic Theory&Research,Economic Growth,International Trade and Trade Rules,Democratic Government,Public Sector Administrative and Civil Service Reform,De Facto Governments,State Owned Enterprise Reform,Economics and Finance of PublicInstitution Development,Public Sector Administrative&Civil Service Reform,Macroeconomic Management,Economic Forecasting,Governance Diagnostic Capacity Building
    Date: 2020–11–30
  3. By: Various Authors
    Abstract: This volume of the Philippine Journal of Development consists of articles on social housing, the Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement (JPEPA), export relationships of local enterprises, and water demand management. The first article examines the roles that local housing boards in the country’s highly urbanized cities play in bringing effective social housing services for the poor. Using the synthetic control method, the second article evaluates the effects of JPEPA on Philippine trade 10 years after it was signed by both countries. The third article analyzes the duration of Philippine micro, small, and medium enterprises’ export relationships with select countries, particularly its Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and Association of Southeast Asian Nations peers. The last article reviews water demand among households in Carcar City, Cebu, and recommends hard and soft mechanisms that can be adopted by the local government, water district, and individuals to better manage water consumption in the area.
    Keywords: micro; small; and medium enterprises; trade; MSMEs; Cebu; export; JPEPA;social housing; Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement; household water
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Manzano, George N.; Bautista, Mark Edison
    Abstract: This study examines the survivability of Philippine micro, small, and medium enterprises’ (MSMEs) exports to select countries within the frameworks of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Boracay Action Agenda to Globalize MSMEs and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Strategic Action Plan for SME Development. It documents the survival rate and duration of Philippine exported goods and shows that most export relationships of the Philippines are brief. It also finds that MSMEs, on average, account for a more significant number of the Philippines’ export relations than large establishments.
    Keywords: MSMEs; export;micro; small; and medium enterprises; survival analysis; Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Boracay Action Agenda to Globalize MSMEs; Association of Southeast Asian Nations Strategic Action Plan for SME Development
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Briones, Roehlano M.; Espineli, Isabel B.
    Abstract: This benchmarking study is undertaken to compare domestic performance of LPD industries in the Philippines, with other large LPD producers and consumers in Asia, namely China, Thailand, and Vietnam, supplemented with figures from major global players. In the case of swine, in the Philippines, unit cost of production of commercial farms is lower than in backyard farms owing to economies of scale. Cost per unit in commercial farms in the Philippines is among the highest of the countries studied, mostly due to higher cost of feed and grower stock. As with swine, economies of scale allow commercial broilers to reduce cost per kg of broiler. Cost per unit for commercial scale broiler farms is among the lowest in Philippines compared with China, Thailand, and Vietnam. High tariffs on corn imports is driving up the cost of livestock and poultry feed. Finally, Dairy cattle and buffalo milk at semi-commercial scale can be profitable, though the business case for backyard dairy needs to be strengthened. The Philippines has implemented a set of regulatory and support policies for the LPD industries, covering regulations, support programs, trade policies, Policy recommendations of the study are as follows: 1) Undertake a comprehensive review of trade policies affecting the value chain towards greater competitiveness of the LPD industries; 2) Earmark the collections from tariffs on pork and chicken imports to fund regulatory services and production support; 3) Invest in research and data collection as inputs to policy and program development; 4) improved delivery of technical assistance, regulatory services, and production support. 5) Reset the oversight system over the LPD industries in terms of regulatory compliance, zoning, imposition of grades and standards, food safety and animal welfare; 6) Focus on upgrading technology and business practices for backyard operators using a collaborative approach to extension. 7) Strengthen FOs to encompass most or all backyard operators to facilitate delivery of government assistance, technical and regulatory services, and realize gains from economies of scale and scope. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: agricultural benchmarking;value chain;competitiveness
    Date: 2022
  6. By: Navarro, Adoracion M.
    Abstract: This study assesses the adequacy of school infrastructure in the Philippine basic education sector and conducts benchmarking against developmental targets and other countries' performance. The study shows that with respect to classrooms, there had been progress in decongesting schools, but spatial inequality in classroom-student ratio exists and must be addressed. Spatial inequality is evident given the congested classrooms in some administrative regions. Moreover, additional classrooms are needed given that school buildings in certain remote areas do not meet quality and safety standards, enrolment is increasing, and existing classrooms deteriorate due to wear and tear and calamities. With respect to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities, the gaps are huge and become more visible when benchmarked against other countries. The Philippines is lagging behind most countries in the Eastern and South-Eastern Asia region in providing WASH facilities to schools, even when compared with neighboring countries that have lower per capita income. With respect to electricity access of schools, many countries in the Eastern and South-Eastern Asia region have already achieved universal access and yet the Philippines still struggles to complete the electrification of schools. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: human capital;school infrastructure; school buildings; WASH facilities; electricity access; ICT access
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; Uy, Jhanna; Lechuga, Julienne
    Abstract: Given the persistently high under-5 stunting prevalence in the Philippines, it is important to look at how the country has invested in nutrition interventions to inform priorities for future resource mobilization. Measuring and tracking nutrition financing are not only critical for transparency and accountability but also to improve resource mobilization and bolster advocacy activities. This review analyzes the level of public spending on nutrition of 19 national government agencies (NGAs) in the Philippines for 2017-2019 including an analysis of patterns of allocation across and within sectors. For this, we used the methodology of the Scaling Up for Nutrition (SUN) Movement to measure public spending on nutrition in select national government agencies (NGAs). Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: nutrition; Philippines; public expenditure review
    Date: 2022
  8. By: Serafica, Ramonette B.; Oren, Queen Cel A.
    Abstract: Across different metrics, the information and communications technology (ICT) performance of the Philippines remains subpar compared to ASEAN members and other countries at the same level of development. The quality of the country’s ICT regulatory environment, composed of regulatory authority, regulatory mandate, regulatory regime, and competition model, is significantly below what is considered international best practice. Consequently, this has impeded the use of various technological solutions available to bridge the gap in digital inequality. Although significant policy changes have recently been introduced, more reforms are needed to achieve inclusive and accelerated digital connectivity. Priorities include reforming the licensing regime, formulating a spectrum policy and plan, and reinventing the NTC to ensure regulatory independence. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: ICT;telecommunications;digital;regulation;broadband;information and communications technology
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Tullao, Tereso Jr. S.; Rivera, John Paolo R.
    Abstract: The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) is a forward-looking trade agreement between member economies of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and its free trade agreement (FTA) partners (AFPs) namely Australia, China, Japan, Korea, and New Zealand (i.e., non-ASEAN signatory economies). It presents an opportunity for participating economies to consolidate rules given overlapping sets of FTAs. Because of stalemates that developed between economies in World Trade Organization negotiations, more regional trading agreements (RTAs) have emerged. As RTAs define trade rules and commitments for all its signatories that are geared towards encouraging free movement of goods and services among member economies, it can deepen economic linkages. The RCEP is an alternative avenue for trade liberalization at the regional level, and a challenger to the Trans-Pacific Partnership in terms of coverage and degree of liberalization. Through RCEP, new opportunities for trade and investment may be harnessed. As a result, the enhanced partnership can contribute to human resource and infrastructure development—which are key to the economic growth and development of the Philippines. Hence, we investigate how the RCEP can deepen the contributions of trade in services in the Philippine economy through the commitments made and limitations imposed. We reviewed and assessed the specific commitments of AFPs joining the RCEP in terms of trade in services, particularly on market access and national treatment. We compared these commitments, evaluated their relevance to the needs of the Philippines, and determined the benefits that the Philippines can reap from RCEP. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: ASEAN; Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership; free trade agreements; market access; national treatment; trade in services
    Date: 2022
  10. By: Quimba, Francis Mark A.; Barral, Mark Anthony A.; Mark Anthony A.
    Abstract: The Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement (JPEPA), the first bilateral FTA that the Philippines entered into, aims to facilitate and promote free transborder flow of goods, services, capital, and people between the two countries. This paper explores the use of synthetic control method to understand the effects of JPEPA on Philippine exports. The results reveal that the Philippines benefited from the JPEPA as determined by the difference in the actual exports and the counterfactual exports.
    Keywords: JPEPA;Japan-Philippines Economic Partnership Agreement; Free Trade Agreement; transborder flow of goods; Philippine exports
    Date: 2021
  11. By: Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; Uy, Jhanna; Casas, Lyle Daryll D.
    Abstract: As the Philippines adopts major reforms under the Universal Health Care Act and embarks on an integrated and primary healthcare-oriented system, it is critical to assess its readiness to manage noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), the leading disease burden in the country. This study assesses the readiness of the primary healthcare system to handle NCDs, in the context of governance, financing, service delivery, human resources, and information and communications technology. It identifies challenges in the availability, quality, and equity of the health system, which hamper the provision of comprehensive and continuous healthcare services in local communities.
    Keywords: noncommunicable diseases; health systems; primary healthcare
    Date: 2021
  12. By: Quismorio, Brenda A.; Lagria, Raymond Freth A.
    Abstract: This paper shows that advanced analytics and traditional statistical techniques on available unstructured and structured data can be utilized to understand the themes put forward in APEC's yearly meetings and how member economies have supported these topics through the conduct of APEC projects. The application of text mining algorithms, such as topic modeling on the proceedings of APEC-level annual meetings, namely, APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting (AELM), APEC Annual Ministerial Meeting (AMM), and Senior Officials' Meeting (SOM), generated themes from the text which insight have been discussed. The topic models generated broad themes from AELM+AMM documents and more specific from SOM documents. These generated themes tended to be in the discussion for an average of three consecutive years. The theme observed to be in discussion in the longest (i.e., five consecutive years) was youth and globalization. These generated themes were found to be consistent with the actions APEC has pursued in the past years. Member economies support the policy directions of APEC Economic Leaders and Ministers by implementing projects that are beneficial to the Asia-Pacific region. The 5-Stage APEC Project Cycle ensures that only projects that are aligned to APEC policy directions are approved and encourages collaboration among member economies. A level of support score on weighted project attributes was formulated to rank the 50 topics that categorized the 2,144 APEC projects, which member economies carried out between 2006 and 2020. Based on this score, the top five topics were energy, human resources development, trade facilitation, small and medium enterprises, and standards. The support for energy came mostly from the United States, China, and Japan. Culture was the least supported topic with only one project by one proposing economy. The Philippines sponsored 74 APEC Projects on 26 topics: 12 (or 16%) were on small and medium enterprises (SME); 16 (or 21%) were self-funded, mostly on science and technology (4 projects); 13 (or 18%) were co-sponsored mostly with Chinese Taipei on SME. The Philippines attended all the annual APEC-level meetings and is one of the nine economies that have hosted an APEC year at least twice. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: text mining; topic modeling; APEC meetings; APEC topics; APEC projects
    Date: 2022
  13. By: Rosita Suryaningsih (Faculty of Business, Universitas Multimedia Nusantara Author-2-Name: Lydia Fransiska Imanuel Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Business, Universitas Multimedia Nusantara Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: " Objective - The study examines the influence of profitability, leverage, firm size, and the proportion of independent commissioners on a firm's value with dividend policy as a moderating variable of the top 100 listed companies in Indonesia. Methodology/Technique - The sample was selected using purposive sampling, which consists of publicly-traded non-finance companies listed on the Kompas 100 Index and preparing audited financial statements for the year ended December 31 using Rupiah as its reporting currency. The secondary data were analyzed with moderated regression analysis method. Findings - The result indicated that profitability, leverage, and proportion of independent commissioners significantly enhance firms' value and strengthen these conditions by dividend policy. This study also finds that company size does not influence the value of firms. Novelty - This study contributes to knowledge of a firm's value using dividend policy as a variable that moderates the effect of profitability, leverage, firm size, and proportion of independent commissioners toward the value of firms. The implication of this study could guide a company's corporate action to create a balanced return on the firm's value between existing and potential investors, giving a positively impacting Type of Paper - Empirical."
    Keywords: Corporate Governance, Payout Policy, Firm Size, Value of Firms, Financing Policy, Profitability.
    Date: 2022–09–30
  14. By: Dang, Hai-Anh (World Bank); Do, Minh N.N. (National Economics University Vietnam)
    Abstract: Despite a sizable population and modest status as a low middle-income country, Vietnam has recorded a low COVID-19 fatality rate that rivals those of richer countries with far larger spending on health. We offer an early review of the emerging literatures in public health and economics on the pandemic effects in Vietnam, with a specific focus on vulnerable population groups. Our review suggests that vulnerable workers were at more health risks than the general population. The pandemic reduced household income, increased the poverty rate, and worsened wage equality. It increased the proportion of below-minimum wage workers by 2.5 percentage points (i.e., 32 percent increase). While government policy responses were generally regarded as effective, the public support for these responses was essential for this success, particularly where there were stronger public participation in the political process. Our review also indicates the need for a social protection database to identify the poor and the informal workers to further enhance targeting efforts. Finally, we suggest future directions for research in the Vietnamese context.
    Keywords: COVID-19, health, vulnerable households, poverty, inequality, Vietnam
    JEL: E24 I1 I30 J21 O12
    Date: 2022–10
  15. By: Corpus, John Paul; Diokno-Sicat, Charlotte Justine; Debuque-Gonzales, Margarita; Palomar, Robert Hector G.; Ruiz, Mark Gerald; Miral, Ramona Maria
    Abstract: This paper examines whether the current level of debt in the country, given the national government’s fiscal policy and plans, remains on a sustainable path. By end-2021, a year after the peak of the public health and economic crisis brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, the country’s debt-to-GDP ratio had already climbed to 60.5 percent, over 20 percentage points above pre-pandemic levels and slightly above the government’s indicative cap. Several empirical exercises were performed in this paper to investigate the country’s fiscal solvency, namely by (1) providing a historical decomposition of public debt, (2) tracking the evolution of the debt-to-GDP ratio in the next half-decade through standard debt sustainability analysis (DSA), (3) computation of the fiscal gap to shed light on the fiscal adjustment needed to bring the country to more comfortable debt levels, and (4) estimation of fiscal reaction functions for the Philippines and developing ASEAN-5 economies to see how fiscal policy will likely respond to debt and other relevant macroeconomic conditions. Results suggest that the country’s debt position today is less worrisome than it had been during previous debt crises, and that the debt-to-GDP ratio will remain manageable despite peaking above 65 percent over the next couple of years. Given the need to spend to prevent possible scarring from the pandemic and give the economy time as well as room to recover from the pandemic crisis, it may not be feasible to immediately return to pre-COVID-19 debt ratios, based on fiscal gap computations. This underscores the need for a sound medium- to long-term fiscal consolidation plan to anchor sentiments. Fiscal reaction functions for the Philippines and similar economies in the region meanwhile indicate responsible fiscal policy that guarantees fiscal solvency. This presupposes however the absence of major fiscal policy reversals, especially of hard-won fiscal reforms since the mid-1980s. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: government debt;debt sustainability;fiscal gap;fiscal reaction function
    Date: 2022
  16. By: Velasco, Lawrence G.
    Abstract: This study evaluates the financial condition and performance of local water districts (LWDs) in the Philippines. National data show that their consolidated financial performance has improved in the past years. With the government’s aggressive spending program on water infrastructure, lower debt ratios are needed to prepare LWDs to achieve universal access to water supply and sanitation. However, the government’s spending plans are so ambitious that the current balance sheets of LWDs cannot sustain the planned investments financed through debt. This paper shows the significant disparity in water investments across the different regions, resulting in uneven water service coverage throughout the Philippines.
    Keywords: water supply and sanitation; water districts; water supply and sanitation investments
    Date: 2021
  17. By: Ballesteros, Marife M.; Ancheta, Jenica
    Abstract: This study documents the application of participatory governance for social housing in the Philippines through the local housing boards (LHBs), which are seen to have a crucial role in the adoption of inclusive social housing programs and policies. It shows that local government units (LGUs) vary in their implementation of the LHBs. For instance, the LHBs that serve only as clearinghouses for the eviction and demolition activities of some LGUs have a limited role as an institution for participatory governance. On the other hand, social housing policies and projects that cater to the poor are evident among LGUs with functioning LHBs.
    Keywords: land use; social housing; participatory governance;local housing board
    Date: 2021
  18. By: Serafica, Ramonette B.; Oren, Queen Cel A.
    Abstract: Digitalization has created new forms of work and work arrangements. While online work offers economic opportunities, it also raises issues in ensuring decent work. As such, the government is increasingly paying attention to the welfare of online workers and the challenges they face. To understand the policy environment shaping online work, this study examines existing and proposed laws in the Philippines and various initiatives relevant to online work using Heeks' overlapping domains of decent work as an organizing framework. It also discusses the issues surrounding platform work, particularly the vagueness of the employment status of online work, which complicate access to social protection and other benefits, as well as tax contribution. Recommendations are provided to help in the formulation of policies and programs that will benefit online workers. These include updating existing social protection programs to accommodate various types of online workers, collaboration between education and training institutions and public-private partnerships to equip online workers for employment, collection of data on the digital economy to guide government programs, and greater social dialogue between the government and stakeholders to improve working conditions of online workers. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: Online work; platform work; Decent Work; digital work
    Date: 2022
  19. By: Luong, Tuan Anh; Nguyen, Manh-Hung; Khuong Truong, N.T.; Le, Kien
    Abstract: This paper investigates the extent to which exposure to climate volatility can in-fluence individual migration decisions in Vietnam, based on the historical rainfall data from 70 weather stations in Vietnam and the Vietnam Access to Resources House-hold Survey. Utilizing the exogenous variation in the rainfall deviation from the local norms within an individual fixed-effects framework, we uncover the negative associa-tion between rainfall and the probability of individual migration. Individual migration probability drops by 7.5 percentage points when the amount of rainfall relative to the long-run local average doubles. This reduction could potentially be driven by individ-uals who work in the agricultural sector and are less likely to migrate as more rainfall could increase their agricultural incomes. Furthermore, our heterogeneity analyses sug-gest that rainfall shocks could perpetuate gender inequality in Vietnam since women cannot cope with climatic shocks through migration. Policy-makers could shift their focus on flood control and water management in affected areas, where people’s liveli-hoods depend on agriculture, to efficiently address issues related to climate-induced internal migration.
    JEL: Q26 Q54 O15
    Date: 2022–10–11
  20. By: Akresh,Richard; Halim,Daniel Zefanya; Kleemans,Marieke
    Abstract: This paper studies the long-term and intergenerational effects of the 1970s Indonesian school construction program, which was one of the largest ever conducted. Exploiting variation across birth cohorts and districts in the number of schools built suggests that education benefits for men and women persist 43 years after the program. Exposed men are more likely to be formal workers, work outside agriculture, and migrate. Men and women who were exposed to the program have better marriage market outcomes with spouses that are more educated, and households with exposed women have improved living standards and pay more government taxes. Mother’s program exposure, rather than father’s, leads to education benefits that are transmitted to the next generation, with the largest effects in upper secondary and tertiary education. Cost-benefit analyses show that school construction leads to higher government tax revenues and improved living standards that offset construction costs within 30-50 years.
    Keywords: Educational Sciences,Health Care Services Industry,Gender and Development,Labor Markets,Rural Labor Markets,Urban Housing,Urban Governance and Management,Municipal Management and Reform,Urban Housing and Land Settlements
    Date: 2021–03–02
  21. By: Etienne ESPAGNE; Yen Boi HA; Kenneth HOUNGBEDJI; Thanh NGO-DUC
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of typhoons on economic activities in Vietnam. During the period covered by our analysis, 1992-2013, we observed 63 typhoons affecting different locations of the country in different years with varying intensity. Using measures of the intensity of nightlight from satellite imagery as a proxy for the level of economic activity, we study how the nighttime light brightness varies across locations that were variably affected by the tropical cyclones. The results suggest that typhoons have on average dimmed nighttime luminosity of the places hit by 5 ± 5.8% or 8 ± 7.8% depending on the specifications we made.
    Keywords: Vietnam
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2022–10–13
  22. By: Inocencio, Arlene B.; Baulita, Alex; Inocencio, Albert Dale
    Abstract: This study is part of an overall assessment of the Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA or Republic Act 8435). It aims to evaluate the accomplishments of AFMA, assess the prospects toward completing its objectives, and frame policy recommendations accordingly. Specifically, it looks into AFMA Objective 4: "To encourage horizontal and vertical integration, consolidation, and expansion of agriculture and fisheries activities, group functions and other services through the organization of cooperatives, farmers and fisherfolk’s associations, corporations, nucleus estates, and consolidated farms and to enable these entities to benefit from economies of scale, afford them a stronger negotiating position, pursue more focused, efficient and appropriate research and development efforts, and enable them to hire professional managers" (Section 3.d). Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: consolidation; livestock;horizontal and vertical integration; market concentration; agriculture crops; fishery
    Date: 2022
  23. By: Peña, Paul John M.; Yao, Vince Eisen C.
    Abstract: The global megatrend of the rise of digital platforms has increased labor opportunities for both men and women. Developing countries such as the Philippines have the potential to capitalize on this expansion, but opportunities may be limited where fundamental access issues exist. Gender norms and care work also play a role in determining access to opportunities and explaining alleged wage disparities. This study investigates the vision on digital jobs for the Philippines, the challenges faced, the key policy issues about digital jobs, and how the future of digital jobs looks like from the frontier of current practice and lived experiences of those specializing in online freelancing in rural areas of the Philippines. With gender and development in the countryside as the main interest of this study, we distill insights and identify key themes from a series of qualitative data collection sessions using a critical narrative approach, as well as a trendspotting and futurecasting approach to understanding the frontier. According to the literature, early adopters of online freelancing in the countryside face significant challenges in terms of access to skills, motivation, material, and usage, as well as other fundamental barriers that limit opportunities, despite ongoing programs to support the expansion of the ICT industry beyond Metro Manila and key urban cities. Policy recommendations are developed with the goal of leveling the playing field for women interested or engaged in platform work in the countryside. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: platform work;freelancing;gender and development;countryside development;ICT
    Date: 2022
  24. By: Songco, Danilo A.
    Abstract: This paper attempts to quantify government's performance in empowering small farmers and fishers following the provisions of the Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA) or Republic Act 8435. It establishes four dimensions of empowerment that may be used to measure empowerment and presents evidence of how government has performed under each of these dimensions. It concludes that government has been on track in following AFMA’s prescriptions for small farmers and fisherfolk empowerment. However, its efforts are coming too little, too late, although there are strong indications that such effort can be upscaled and can still achieve the empowerment objectives of AFMA if the government can undertake certain short-term and long-term policy measures. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: economic well-being;empowerment of small farmers and fishers; access to public resources; organizing capability; voice in policymaking; F2C2 program; management capability of agri coops; interagency collaboration; SFF empowerment; commercialization of small farms; agricultural cooperatives law; developing the youth in agriculture
    Date: 2022
  25. By: Galang, Ivory Myka R.
    Abstract: Based on The Economist’s 2021 Global Food Security Index (GFSI), the Philippines ranked 64th out of 113 countries in terms of its four dimensions of food security. After the World War II ended, the world still had to contend with population explosion, hunger, and poverty. The Philippines, just like other countries in the world, was actively searching for solutions through the conduct of research and the implementation of various agricultural programs and nutrition programs aimed at increasing food production and fighting the widespread malnutrition, especially among Filipino children. Since the term food security was officially defined and become popular in the late 1990s, it has been included in government laws, policies, and programs, such as the Agriculture and Fishery Modernization Act of 1997. This paper aims to evaluate the progress of AFMA implementation to date and assess prospects toward completing its Food Security objective. Using various indicators for the four dimensions of food security, namely, food availability, food accessibility, food utilization, and stability, the paper found that food security goal is yet to be achieved. Even the country’s performance in achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2: Zero Hunger reflects that there have been some improvements, but significant and major challenges remain to be addressed. However, it is worth noting that the Department of Agriculture and other government agencies, which are tasked to develop the agriculture sector and ensure food security and nutrition, have made significant strides toward this goal, albeit falling short. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: food security;food;AFMA;hunger;nutrition;food systems;food availability;self-sufficiency;food utilization;food accessibility;food affordability
    Date: 2022
  26. By: Mckenzie,David J.; Mohpal,Aakash; Yang,Dean
    Abstract: A randomized experiment among poor entrepreneurs tested the impact of exogenously inducing higher financial aspirations. In theory, raising aspirations could have positive effects by inducing higher effort, but could also reduce effort if unmet aspirations lead to frustration. Treatment resulted in more ambitious savings goals, but nearly all individuals fell far short of reaching these goals. Two years later, treated individuals had not saved more, and actually had lower borrowing and business investments. Treatment also reduced belief in the amount of control over one’s life. Setting aspirations too high can lead to frustration, leading individuals to reduce their economic investments.
    Keywords: Educational Sciences,Inequality,Rural Microfinance and SMEs,Microfinance,Financial Sector Policy,Financial Literacy
    Date: 2021–03–17
  27. By: Ballesteros, Marife M.; Ramos, Tatum P.; Ancheta, Jenica A.
    Abstract: Understanding housing affordability is key to addressing the housing problem. This study evaluates housing affordability in the Philippines using conventional approaches. It compares Residual Income Method estimates with those from the 30 percent of income standard that is commonly used as a measure of housing affordability in the country. The authors note that the 30 percent of income standard overestimates housing affordability among the poor and underestimates among those in the upper income levels relative to the Residual Income Method. In other words, the poor and low-income households are not able to afford housing priced at 30% of their income, while the middle income to rich are able to afford housing priced at more than 30% of their income. The study also shows that the structure of family (i.e., size and presence of children) affects housing affordability. A comparison of household affordability levels with the available housing supply in the formal market shows that a typical household in the Philippines experiences housing stress due to inadequate affordable housing specifically near places of work or livelihood and the low capacity to qualify for mortgage financing. This situation tends to worsen over time as the growth of residential prices surpasses the growth of incomes. Given the housing affordability problem in the country, the government must undertake reforms to prevent speculative increases in land and residential prices and to reexamine the role of the public sector in the delivery of affordable housing. The former would involve adopting a standard valuation of land and real estate properties; the effective implementation of idle land tax by all LGUs and regulation on borrowings such as financial ceilings on household debt to income ratio and other anti-speculative measures. On the other hand, government provision of affordable housing would require an overhaul of the housing subsidy programs and creation of a public housing fund to finance direct subsidies to households, public sector construction of affordable housing (for rent or ownership); and housing support in times of disaster. At the town or city level, Community Development Funds (CDFs) anchored to municipal councils should be established to support housing projects arising from urban renewal or upgrading or other urbanization challenges. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: housing;affordable housing;shelter poverty;urbanization;cities
    Date: 2022
  28. By: Dervisevic,Ervin; Perova,Elizaveta; Sahay,Abhilasha
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the long-term impacts of the national conditional cash transfer program in the Philippines on beneficiaries who were exposed to it during a relatively short but potentially critical period of transitioning from adolescence to adulthood. The paper estimates the impacts of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program on men and women who were enrolled in the program for up to 1.5 years when they were between ages 12.5 and 14 and are currently in their early twenties. The analysis finds evidence of impacts on marriage and fertility for women: participation in the program is associated with delay in marriage and the first birth of approximately one year and six months, respectively. No impacts are found on educational or labor market outcomes or proxies for economic welfare. Further, there is no strong and consistent evidence of changes in empowerment or gender norms.
    Keywords: Gender and Development,Access of Poor to Social Services,Economic Assistance,Services&Transfers to Poor,Disability,Educational Sciences,Rural Labor Markets,Labor Markets,Health Care Services Industry
    Date: 2021–04–09
  29. By: Ferrantino,Michael Joseph; Maliszewska,Maryla; Taran,Svitlana
    Abstract: This paper assesses and compares the economic impacts of four actual and potential free trade agreements in the Asia-Pacific Region: the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership, the original Trans Pacific Partnership, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, and the Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific. Free trade areas with a larger scale and wider membership are expected to produce higher aggregate gains in increased gross domestic product and trade flows. U.S. withdrawal from the original Trans-Pacific Partnership reduced estimated gross domestic product gains for the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership countries by about half. For countries belonging to the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership and also negotiating the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, the potential gains from an agreement with China and the Republic of Korea are substantial, but not as large as if the United States were to rejoin the original Trans-Pacific Partnership. On a sectoral basis, significant structural shifts are observed for food processing, wearing apparel, textiles, and transport equipment.
    Keywords: International Trade and Trade Rules,Transport Services,Food Security,Construction Industry,Trade and Multilateral Issues,Trade Policy,Rules of Origin
    Date: 2020–12–14
  30. By: Maddawin, Ricxie B.; Diokno-Sicat, Charlotte Justine; Castillo, Angel Faye G.; Velasco, Lawrence G.
    Abstract: This paper presents the current water access in the Philippines and reviews the mandates of the two main water regulatory bodies: the Local Water Utilities Administration and the National Water Resources Board. Identifying various overlaps and ambiguities, this study highlights the need to streamline the unclear economic and technical regulations in managing the sector. In addition, it proposes to improve investment coordination to ensure strategic investments and efficient use of limited financing. There should also be a consolidated database of water service providers, as well as key performance indicators and other data, to better monitor the investments in the water sector.
    Keywords: water infrastructure; water tariff; water district;local water supply; investment coordination
    Date: 2021
  31. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: At the request of the General Statistics Office (GSO) of Vietnam, a technical assistance mission helped with the measurement of the non-observed economy in national accounts. This was part of a series of missions to support the compilation of a new national accounts benchmark for 2020 and publish rebased estimates in March 2023. This mission was funded by the IMF’s Data for Decisions project with the overall goal of putting more and better data in the hands of decision-makers.
    Keywords: IMF's Statistics Department; benchmark year; World Bank staff; SNA department; instrumentalities of the TA recipient; General Statistics office; COVID-19; Data collection
    Date: 2022–09–23
  32. By: Cirera,Xavier; Comin,Diego Adolfo; Vargas Da Cruz,Marcio Jose; Lee,Kyungmin
    Abstract: This study collects data on the sophistication of technologies used at the business function level for a representative sample of firms in Vietnam, Senegal, and the Brazilian state of Ceara. The analysis finds a large variance in technology sophistication across the business functions of a firm. The within-firm variance in technology sophistication is greater than the variance in sophistication across firms, which in turn is greater than the variance in sophistication across regions or countries. The paper documents a stable cross-firm relationship between technology at the business function and firm levels, which it calls the technology curve. Significant heterogeneity is uncovered in the slopes of the technology curves across business functions, a finding that is consistent with non-homotheticities in firm-level technology aggregators. Firm productivity is positively associated with the within-firm variance and the average level of technology sophistication. Development accounting exercises show that cross-firm variation in technology accounts for one-third of cross-firm differences in productivity and one-fifth of the agricultural versus non-agricultural gap in cross-country differences in firm productivity.
    Keywords: Food Security,Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies,General Manufacturing,Textiles, Apparel&Leather Industry,Pulp&Paper Industry,Food&Beverage Industry,Common Carriers Industry,Construction Industry,Plastics&Rubber Industry,Information Technology,Health Service Management and Delivery,Health Care Services Industry,Transport Services
    Date: 2020–11–16
  33. By: Tabuga, Aubrey D.; Vargas, Anna Rita P.; Baino, Madeleine Louise S.
    Abstract: In spite of the significant contribution of international migration to the Philippine economy, there has not been any government survey that can provide a nationally representative information on such phenomenon until 2018 with the conduct of the National Migration Survey (NMS) by the Philippine Statistics Authority. The 2018 NMS provides a reliable dataset that can be used to characterize migration phenomenon including international migration. This study took advantage of the presence of such data and examined the characteristics of international migration behavior of Filipinos for purposes of developing stylized facts and putting forward policy insights for improving migration-related and other development policies. The results show that Filipinos have a greater tendency for international migration when compared to the global average. Filipino international migrants move when at their prime ages. Some subnational regions like Ilocos Region, ARMM, Cagayan Valley, and NCR have a greater tendency or capacity for sending international migrants than others. Compared to the general population, international migrants are relatively more educated. International migration by Filipinos is mainly driven by economic reasons. Many Overseas Filipino Workers, particularly women, engaged in elementary occupations (61% of total). Majority of migrants leave children behind, many of whom are minors. Nearly half of first-time migrants did not have a job prior to movement. Not all of the migrants used work visas in entering their destination. Some used tourist visas while others did not need visas. An interesting finding is that majority of tourist visa holders who stayed at their destination for at least 3 months eventually changed their visas to work visas while at their destination. In terms of recruitment, although the most common way was through private recruitment agencies (59%), a non-negligible 34.2 percent were directly hired by their overseas employers. Surprisingly, despite the need for written contracts, some (12.6% of the total) still risk going abroad to work without a written contract. Having a written contract seems to be more prevalent among those who have achieved relatively higher educational attainment than those with lower attainment. There is also a greater tendency of not getting a written contract among those who were directly hired by the employer, those who did not need a visa to enter the destination, and those who went abroad using tourist visas. In terms of reintegration, a non-negligible proportion (35%) of all returning migrants find it difficult to find jobs in the country upon return. Given these findings, it is important to create relevant policies and interventions that can reduce potential negative impacts of migration and risks. It is important to effectively raise awareness and educate prospective migrants on the work conditions on-site (for the sizable portion of migrant workers who are young, less educated, and may not have adequate pre-migration experience and preparation) as well as the importance of having written, clear contracts prior to international migration. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: international migration; Philippine migration; Migration policy; OFW; migration behavior
    Date: 2021
  34. By: Bargayo, Serge Jude B.; Go, Gerard L.
    Abstract: This study aims to analyze water demand among households in Carcar City, an urban city in southern Cebu that experienced an unparalleled population and economic growth after its cityhood in 2007. This situation put pressure on the Carcar Water District (CWD), the major water provider in the city, to expand its service capacity. Policy implications for water demand management are drawn from the findings of this study. Hard and soft mechanisms that can be jointly undertaken by the water district and the local government unit are recommended to better manage water demand in Carcar City.
    Keywords: household water; water demand; water demand management; Carcar City; Cebu
    Date: 2021
  35. By: Fasih,Tazeen; Patrinos,Harry Anthony; Shafiq,M. Najeeb
    Abstract: This paper documents stylized facts on rates of returns to education during economic crises. It shows from three middle-income countries -- Indonesia, Pakistan, and South Africa -- that the rate of return to university education (versus secondary education) has increased during economic crises. Based on this stylized fact, the paper projects that the returns for university graduates may increase by at least one-quarter to one-third during the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Keywords: Educational Sciences,Economic Growth,Industrial Economics,Economic Theory&Research,Labor Markets,Secondary Education
    Date: 2020–11–09
  36. By: Sasiwimon Warunsiri Paweenawat; Lusi Liao
    Abstract: This study investigates Thailand’s recent labor market disruption induced by the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that the impact varied across demographic groups. Workers that are the most adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic are (1) in high-risk sectors, (2) less-educated, (3) youth worker, and (4) parents. Our empirical results show that the unemployment rate is positively related to sectorial risk levels and marital status: married and public sector employees are less likely to be unemployed. Further, less occupational flexibility decreases wages, and this effect is stronger for women. Parenthood negatively affects wages, and its effect is larger for women.
    Keywords: COVID-19; Labor market; Demographics; Thailand
    JEL: J21 J24 J16 J12
    Date: 2022–10
  37. By: Lim, Lin Lean,
    Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Malaysian government prioritized health and economic stimulus packages for the sectors considered “key” for the economy and gave little recognition to the workers making contributions to the functioning of daily lives. The paper documents the impacts on key workers in healthcare, food and beverages, transportation and delivery, security and cleaning services. For these key workers, the nature of their jobs, labour force status and personal characteristics exposed them to greater job stressors and demands and exacerbated their vulnerabilities. While the fluidity of the coronavirus situation and the dynamic socio-political context of the country imply that change is on-going, the suggestions for recognizing, valuing, protecting and empowering key workers are necessary for helping the country to build back better.
    Keywords: service worker, medical care, beverage service, care worker, economic recession, COVID-19
    Date: 2022
  38. By: Briones, Roehlano M.
    Abstract: The agriculture and fisheries (AF) sector has been expanding over time, albeit within the overall context of structural change in the Philippine economy. However, based on progress made in other similarly situated economies, growth and productivity trends have not been “on track.” While considerable progress has been made over the past quarter century in terms of growth of household income and reduction among agriculture and fisheries households, the recent pandemic will likely have reversed some of the gains. Dimensions of food security that are on track are food availability, although improvements in hunger incidence and food utilization measures lag behind other Southeast Asian countries. The state of ecosystems and natural resource base for AF is arguably worse today than in the late 1990s. To address these modernization gaps, the following strategies are recommended: Expenditure programs based on distortionary subsidies should be terminated to give way to funding projects under a modern agri-food industrial policy. Expenditure programs should support strategic interventions under a modern industrial policy for the agri-food system. This industrial policy should apply the area-based, bottom-up planning synthesized in the Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Plan in determining strategic interventions to meet the needs of farmers and rural enterprises along the value chain. To address sustainability, an ecosystem approach to sustainable development of agriculture and fisheries should be adopted. Management of the AFMP should be results-based, with progress monitored by a program benefit monitoring and evaluation system. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: agricultural modernization;market-orientation;industrial policy;farmer welfare;food security;sustainable development;value chains
    Date: 2022
  39. By: Cirera,Xavier; Comin,Diego Adolfo; Vargas Da Cruz,Marcio Jose; Lee,Kyungmin; Soares Martins Neto,Antonio
    Abstract: This paper describes the results of a new firm survey to measure technology use and adoptionimplemented prior to the COVID-19 pandemic in Vietnam. It analyzes the use and adoption of technology among Vietnamesefirms and identifies some of the key barriers to adoption and diffusion. The analysis offers new and importantstylized facts on firm-level use of technologies. First, although access to the internet is almost universal inVietnam, firms had low digital readiness to face the COVID-19 pandemic; and the share of establishments withtheir own website, social media, and cloud computing is still small. Second, the use of Industry 4.0 technologies isincipient. Third, the technology gap with the use of frontier technologies in some general business functions,such as quality control, production planning, sales, and sourcing and procurement, is large. Fourth, themanufacturing sector faces the largest technological gap, larger than services and agricultural firms. The analysis ofthe main barriers and drivers to technology adoption and use shows the importance of good management quality fortechnology adoption, and that there is a technology premium associated with exporting activities. Finally, the analysisalso shows that firms are largely unaware of the available public policy support for technology upgrading.
    Keywords: Energy Policies & Economics,Construction Industry,Common Carriers Industry,Food & Beverage Industry,Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies,General Manufacturing,Plastics & Rubber Industry,Textiles, Apparel & Leather Industry,Pulp & Paper Industry,Food Security,Electric Power
    Date: 2021–03–08
  40. By: Bacasmas, Jill Angeli V.; Katigbak, Jovito Jose P.; Carlos, Jean Clarisse T.
    Abstract: This ex-ante study analyzes the impacts of e-commerce adoption on the performance of women-led micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in Metro Manila, their awareness and perceptions of government efforts towards internationalization, and their readiness to engage in cross-border e-commerce through the Regional Comprehensive Partnership Agreement (RCEP). Findings validate the observation that the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated e-commerce adoption and this has substantially enhanced the performance of women-led MSMEs in terms of sales growth, customer base, customer satisfaction, and process enhancement. The data further highlight that there is a low level of awareness on both existing government programs for women-led MSMEs, and on RCEP and its chapters on e-commerce and MSMEs. However, certain provisions within the chapters appeal to women-led MSMEs, such as "information on trade and investment-related laws and regulations for export-oriented MSMEs" and "acceptance of electronic transaction documents in online cross-border transactions". Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: RCEP; e-commerce;MSMEs; cross-border trade; WoMSMEs; regional comprehensive economic partnership agreement; women-led businesses
    Date: 2022
  41. By: Beam, Emily A. (University of Vermont)
    Abstract: Online technologies enable lower-cost, rapid data collection, but concerns about access and data quality impede their use in global research. I conduct a randomized experiment in the Philippines to test the effectiveness of web-form and chatbot surveys of K–12 teachers recruited through social media and compare their effectiveness with phone surveys of teachers recruited from a pre-existing frame. Chatbot surveys yield higher response rates and higher-quality data than web-form surveys in terms of missed question and item differentiation. The results suggest that chatbot responses match CATI responses on multiple dimensions of quality. Relative to CATI, online methods also yield higher rates or information disclosure on potentially sensitive topics, revealing substantially higher levels of distress among teachers. I show that social-media-based recruitment can be an attractive alternative for targeted sampling and that online surveys can be implemented effectively at a fraction of the cost of phone surveys.
    Keywords: remote surveys, survey experiments, chatbots, social media, remote education
    JEL: C81 C83 C93 O15 I21
    Date: 2022–09
  42. By: Adriano, Lourdes S.; Adriano, Karlo Fermin S.
    Abstract: The Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA) was passed and implemented a quarter of a century ago. AFMA comprised a suite of policy, institutional, and investment measures that envisaged the transformation of the agriculture and fisheries sectors, from a resource-based to a technology-based industry. One aspect of the modernization process that the AFMA is aiming at and which is the focus of this study is the development of agro-based value chains that move up the value-added ladder ascendancy. This is done by examining AFMA and the agri-food value chain development and ascendancy in the value-added ladder from the lens of the agri-food systems approach and theory of change. In addition to this, value chain case studies of selected agricultural commodities were conducted. Unfortunately, the impact of AFMA on the modernization of the agri-food value chain systems more than twenty years after its enactment is mute. There are several factors why AFMA’s role to the ascendancy in the value-added ladder of the agri-food is limited: its narrow view of value-added ladder ascendancy, its focus was mainly on just one segment of agro-based value chains, its rice self-sufficiency position impeded the growth of other agro-based value chains, and its beneficiaries were mainly for small-scale farmers and fisherfolk. There are five worthwhile areas of AFMA intervention that need expanding for enhanced value-added ladder ascendancy. These are the market-determined credit facilities and the food safety and quality standards. The first expands the credit outreach to the often-disadvantaged rural producers while serving as a vehicle or catalyst for strengthening the links between primary agriculture production, and the backward and forward links to the final consumer markets. The second deals with developing competitive agri-based commodities and products that are consumer safe and are of an internationally acceptable quality which can facilitate the modernization of traditional retail markets. The third is the promotion of clustering of small farmers into formal groups which can facilitate the efficient coordination, transfer, and adoption of government interventions or programs. The fourth is the inclusion of ICT market-related advancements given the new normal. Finally, the fifth entails the transition of AFMA from a supply- or commodity-driven approach to the adoption of a holistic food system framework. Finally, there is equally a need for policy measures that go beyond the present AFMA jurisdiction. Germane reforms are on the: Comprehensive Agrarian Reform and the need to phase it out and ensure a freer land market, more novel public-private partnerships that bring in the largely numerous micro and small and medium enterprises that dominate the midstream and downstream segments of the value chains, the need to overhaul the DA’s “banner programs” away from rice to diversified farming systems and value chains, and the need to move DA’s budget away from the provision of private goods to public goods. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: agri-food value chains;AFMA;upsteam and downstream segments;food systems;theory of change;forward and backward linkages
    Date: 2022
  43. By: Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; Nuevo, Christian Edward L.; Uy, Jhanna; Casas, Lyle Daryll D.
    Abstract: Health care providers such as hospitals and primary health care facilities form an integral part of any health system. Providers must have both financial sustainability, such that they are able to continuously deliver health care services without bankruptcy, and sufficient profits to maintain and improve the quality of their services. In this context, the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth) is envisioned to be the national purchaser of health services that can support both inpatient and primary health care providers in the country while providing financial risk protection for Filipinos. In this paper, we (1) described the financial health of select public and private hospitals in the Philippines, and (2) examined PhilHealth’s current position in relation to its envisioned role as national strategic purchaser for Universal Health Care (UHC). On the financial health of select Philippine hospitals, we found that the size of public and private hospitals in our sample has been growing steadily from 2015 to 2020, with public hospitals turning to government capital investment programs and private hospitals using debt and profits from patients to expand assets. Private hospitals showed decent profitability margins, but they may easily fall into financial distress if their cash flows are disrupted such as from their inability to collect on receivables from health insurance payments. Meanwhile, prior to any government subsidies, public hospitals faced continuous negative profitability margins, signaling that they continuously operate on financial deficits. Ultimately, their heavy reliance on subsidies indicates that public facilities are not self-sufficient and may be chronically underfunded. Limited budgets seem to be channeled towards essential expenses, like personnel services, to keep operations going. Compared with the expectations of UHC for the institution, PhilHealth is still far from functioning effectively as the country’s envisioned national purchaser. In gathering monopsonistic power, PhilHealth has unimpressive purchasing and leveraging power to shape health care provider network (HCPN) behavior and drive UHC goals. PhilHealth's contribution to the country's total health expenditure continues to be stunted, and reliance on household out-of-pocket (OOP) spending is still prominent. Moreover, PhilHealth’s contribution in financing LGU health services, for both hospital and primary health care, was weak compared to consolidated expenditures from LGU themselves. PhilHealth benefit payouts on inpatient claims also significantly overwhelm payments for PHC and outpatient care. The poor coverage of PhilHealth for PHC and outpatient care manifests in its paltry support to HCPN public financing for PHC. PhilHealth has not been able to facilitate equity in financing and access to care: Hospital-leaning payment patterns of PhilHealth is that claim payments are siphoned towards geographic locations and the private sector which have a larger share of total hospitals. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: health financing; PhilHealth; universal health care; equity; primary health care; hospitals; financial health
    Date: 2021
  44. By: Quimba, Francis Mark A.; Reyes, Celia M.; Baje, Lora Kryz; Bayudan-Dacuycuy, Connie
    Abstract: Using a gender lens, this paper takes stock of economic relief measures that aim to foster the resilience of micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) to COVID-19. It does so by analyzing results from an online survey of MSMEs and by coming up with a definition of women-owned/led MSMEs (WMSMEs). The paper notes that a larger percentage of WMSMEs (1) find the lack of working capital, disruptions in the production/supply chain/business networks, a decline in domestic demand, and the lack of finances for digitization to be major obstacles; (2) find the lack of collateral/guarantee, high interest rates, and high repayment risks due to market uncertainties to be key challenges in accessing finance; (3) find the increasing cost of inputs, changing business strategies to offer alternative products and services, and reduced opportunities to meet new clients to be key general challenges; (4) have applied and received government support for training on digitization and online selling; programs related to business advisory, business/product development, marketing, financial literacy training, and mentoring/coaching programs; support to adopt digital technologies; and market access programs; and (5) find the support for digitization and the technical assistance to be substantially useful. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: women-owned MSME; women-led MSME; men-owned MSME; men-led MSME; COVID-19 MSME policy responses
    Date: 2022
  45. By: Soh,Yew Chong; Del Carpio,Ximena Vanessa; Wang,Liang Choon
    Abstract: This paper employs the synthetic control method to examine the impact of using a non-native language as the medium of instruction in schools on a student’s learning. Exploiting an unanticipated policy change in Malaysia and using data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Studies, the results show that changing the medium of instruction negatively influenced eighth graders’ achievement in mathematics and science. The differential performance, by year and gender, suggests that using a non-native language throughout a student’s schooling may have greater negative impact on the student’s learning than switching the language of instruction in the middle of the student’s schooling does. This paper sheds light on the various manners in which a language policy can adversely affect a student’s learning outcomes. It also highlights how the transition in switching the language of instruction in schools can be implemented more effectively to mitigate its adverse effects.
    Keywords: Education For All,Education for Development (superceded),Educational Populations,Educational Policy and Planning - Language of Instruction,Educational Institutions&Facilities,Effective Schools and Teachers,Educational Sciences,Gender and Development
    Date: 2021–01–20
  46. By: Gale, Fred; Davis, Eric
    Abstract: China is the world’s largest textile manufacturer and cotton consumer, but changes in China’s economy are reshaping the geography of its cotton-textile sector. Nearly all of China’s cotton is produced in the country’s Xinjiang Region, while textile manufacturers, the main consumers of cotton, are concentrated in coastal and central regions where cotton production has fallen dramatically. These geographic changes are a factor influencing global trade in cotton and textiles. While China’s imports of cotton are projected to gradually increase over the next decade, China’s dominant position in the cotton market appears to be weakening, with U.S. cotton exports shifting to other Asian countries.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022–08
  47. By: Mellon,Jonathan; Peixoto,Tiago Carneiro; Sjoberg,Fredrik Matias; Gauri,Varun
    Abstract: Studies have encouraged pro-social behavior by experimentally manipulating people's views of what others like them tend to do (descriptive norms). These studies positively change behaviors, including charitable giving, littering, organ donation, and tax compliance. This paper argues that these results may be explained by a tendency to reciprocate positive actions and avoid being taken advantage of. The descriptive norm account predicts that positively describing the behavior of ordinary people will be most effective at increasing citizens’ willingness to pay taxes, and messages describing the behavior of other groups should be less effective. However, reciprocity theory suggests that highlighting pro-social behavior by groups believed not to contribute their fair share, such as rich people, should be effective because it will reduce the subject's perception that they are being taken advantage of when they pay taxes. These theories are tested in an online experiment in Kenya, Australia, the United States, the Philippines, and South Africa. The findings show that the descriptive norms treatment is ineffective, while the rich people treatment significantly increases tax morale, supporting reciprocity theory. The findings suggest that tax agencies may increase tax compliance by visibly tackling tax avoidance among groups believed to avoid taxes, such as rich citizens.
    Keywords: Public Finance Decentralization and Poverty Reduction,Public Sector Economics,Tax Administration,Tax Law,Employment and Unemployment,Gender and Development
    Date: 2021–01–13
  48. By: Various Authors
    Abstract: This issue of the Philippine Journal of Development contains articles on the Performance-Based Bonus (PBB), the Philippine water sector, local water districts, and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). The first article evaluates the PBB and shows its effects on the productivity of government employees. The second paper reviews the mandates of primary regulatory bodies responsible for local water services in the Philippines. The third article examines the financial conditions of water districts and their role in attaining the country’s water supply and sanitation goals. The last article looks at the readiness of the Philippine primary healthcare system in managing and treating NCDs.
    Keywords: performance-based bonus; Philippine water sector; local water districts; primary healthcare
    Date: 2021
  49. By: Bayudan-Dacuycuy, Connie; Peña, Paul John
    Abstract: Drawing on the experiences of entrepreneurs during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, this study explores the gendered impacts of policy responses designed primarily to provide relief and support for business continuity while the economy was on hold. It explores the themes of their lived experiences and how policy responses catered to their immediate needs as entrepreneurs and assesses how and whether its impacts are gendered while considering the process of policy design, implementation, and monitoring during an emergency. As needs at the onset of the pandemic were universal and under pressure to deliver relief efforts in an emergency, policies did not explicitly bear a gender lens from design to implementation. The effects of the pandemic on businesses were not gendered, although the lived experiences of women entrepreneurs reveal areas where more gendered support is needed. The paper also explores the lack of consensus among players in the entrepreneurial ecosystem on how women entrepreneurship is defined and investigates how this affects the monitoring and evaluation of policy responses for micro, small, and medium enterprises. The paper also looks into tech startups and provides recommendations moving forward. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: women;MSME; COVID-19 policy responses
    Date: 2022
  50. By: Debuque-Gonzales, Margarita; Corpus, John Paul P.
    Abstract: This study presents a small macroeconometric model of the Philippines. The model covers the basic parts of the economy—namely, private consumption and investment, international trade, employment, prices, and basic monetary sectors. Behavioral equations are estimated in error-correction form (using ARDL methodology) on quarterly data from 2002 to 2017. The model’s validity is evaluated through various simulation exercises. It generates satisfactory in-sample and out-of-sample predictions for GDP growth, CPI inflation, and employment rate but is less successful in tracking the movement of domestic interest rates. The model also shows plausible responses to exogenous shocks emanating from government consumption, world oil prices, and global GDP. Briefly, a government spending shock elicits increases in investment and imports, a shock to world oil prices generates faster inflation, while a global recession is transmitted to the domestic economy mainly through lower exports and investment. The next steps needed to extend the model beyond improving the existing blocks include developing the supply side, incorporating expectations, and adding fiscal and financial blocks. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: macroeconometric model;Philippine economy;forecast;simulation
    Date: 2022
  51. By: Domingo, Sonny N.; Rosellon, Maureen Ane D.; Manejar, Arvie Joy A.; Lorenzo, Pauline Joy M.
    Abstract: Production of livestock, poultry, and dairy are private sector-led industries contributing a third of the agricultural sector’s output, despite relative neglect in terms of government support. The dual outbreak of African Swine Fever in 2019 and COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 has renewed government's attention to these industries, with benchmarking of domestic performance against those of global players seen as key for designing immediate and long-term interventions. Production volume and value, inventory, and consumption of swine and poultry decreased in 2019. Dairy maintained its increasing production, but locally-consumed milk is almost entirely imported. The bulk of local production in these industries is largely sourced from backyard operations, despite the cost advantage of commercial-size operations owing to economies of scale. Recovery from the pandemic is an opportunity to transform the industries by a process of consolidation under farmer organizations. These organizations shall serve as the main conduit for capacity augmentation, technology transfer, and delivery of regulatory and other services. This setup promotes resilience to shocks, competitiveness against foreign-produced meat and milk, and the strengthening of local institutions while sustaining the role of the private sector in the long-term development of the industries. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: livestock;poultry;dairy;African Swine Fever;agriculture;food security
    Date: 2022
  52. By: Briones, Roehlano M.
    Abstract: This paper offers an overview toward assessing the implementation of the Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA) or Republic Act 8435, the country's landmark legislation on the sustainable and equitable development of its agriculture and fisheries. The study presents a Theory of Change implicit in the AFMA, and reviews the Philippines' agricultural development trends, within an overall economic context of structural change. It concludes with a synthesis of past AFMA program reviews. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: agricultural development; modernization; inclusive growth; smallholders; structural change; technical progress
    Date: 2022
  53. By: Lanzona, Leonardo
    Abstract: One aspiration of the Agricultural Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA) is the promotion of industry dispersal and rural industrialization. This involves a policy of structural transformation, which attempts to transition the economy from a low productivity sector, such as agriculture, to a high productivity sector, such as industry. This study shows that despite the efforts of AFMA, this process has not been accomplished. Previous literature has attributed this failure to many factors, including policy failure and lack of investments. However, the paper argues that the role of technological change has not been given considerable attention. Empirical analysis demonstrates that policy formulation and capital accumulation are not sufficient in achieving structural transformation. Even if the correct policies are implemented and adequate investments are available, the sustainable transition from agriculture to industrialization will require the adoption of appropriate technology that utilizes local resources, including labor. To do this, the government must set up not only an environment for research and development and extension but also provide incentives in the form of transfers to the private sector to invest in technology. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: structural transformation; technology transfer; employment ; urbanization; knowledge spillover
    Date: 2022
  54. By: Paqueo, Vicente B.; Diokno-Sicat, Charlotte Justine
    Abstract: This study examines the fiscal implications of the current criteria of establishing the fiscal viability of local governments in the Philippines. Since the passing of the Local Government Code (LGC) of 1991 thirty years ago, the criteria used to create/convert a local government unit (LGU), i.e., regular local income, population, and land area, has remained the same with the exception of the income requirement of cities. As a result of the current distribution of intergovernmental fiscal transfers, both across different levels of and within a level of local government (a portion of the intergovernmental fiscal transfer of an LGU is dependent on the number of same-level LGUs), there exists the incentive for lower-level LGUs to want to level up to get a larger share of transfers. From 2001 to present, there were 68 new cities (46.9%), 25 new municipalities (1.7%), and 107 new barangays (0.3%) created. A possible effect is the creation of LGUs that are unable to fulfill mandates and deliver devolved functions and services. The evidence supports this with fiscal trends showing that provinces and municipalities effectively finance only almost a third of current expenditures while the stipulated requirements for provinces and municipalities cover only about 11% and 1% of total current operating expenditures, respectively. In public sector literature, this issue is part of the literature in determining the optimal size of government which is basically dependent on the balance between welfare gains from bringing accountability and the provision of local goods and services closer to the citizens versus the cost advantages from serving a larger population at a higher level of government. The practical result has been the over-creation or fragmentation of LGUs in federal and decentralized countries. Some countries such as Canada and France have resorted to giving incentives to local governments that consolidate/amalgamate to improve the efficiency in delivering goods and services. Other solutions have been to create inter-LGU arrangements or special bodies to coordinate goods and services that cross boundaries but still have limited geographic coverage. This study tests the impact of current fiscal viability indicators and explores other governance and political economy variables on local revenues and expenditures. Using unique cross-section data from a survey of municipal development planning practices, the results show that population, land area, poverty incidence, and LGU income classification are robust estimators for local revenues. Among the governance indicators used, such as the presence of an updated schedule of market value (SMV) and the number of years in office of the mayor, receiving the Seal of Good Local Governance (SGLG) award is the only significant one. For local government expenditures, population, land area, LGU income as well as the presence of the SGLG and an updated SMV are all significant. These results seem to suggest that the current criteria are still relevant, but the rest of the paper argues that minimum LGU income must be increased for provinces and municipalities, and, perhaps, impose an LGU income requirement for barangays. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: fiscal sustainability; devolved basic services; internal revenue allotments; national tax allotments
    Date: 2021
  55. By: Ebarvia, Maria Corazon M.
    Abstract: Transforming Philippine agriculture and fisheries (AF) into a dynamic, high-growth sector is essential to poverty reduction, food security, and inclusive economic prosperity. However, unsustainable AF practices have impacts on the environment and climate, and at the same time, ecosystem degradation and climate change impact the productivity and sustainability of the AF sector, with disastrous consequences on food security, income, and livelihoods, especially of small-scale farmers and fishers. Agriculture and fisheries rely on natural capital and are both providers and consumers of ecosystem services, and at the same time pose a threat to nature. This report describes the range of pressures affecting the state of the AF sector, and the response measures being undertaken. Integrating environmental sustainability and climate resilience in AF development and modernization plans has emerged as a necessity in policy and practice. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: sustainable development; climate change; agroecosystems; ecosystem services; soil; aquaculture; IUU fishing
    Date: 2022
  56. By: Le, Hanh-My; Ludwig, Markus
    JEL: Q01 Q12 Q15 Q16 Q54 Q55
    Date: 2022
  57. By: Briones, Roehlano M.
    Abstract: This paper aims to evaluate the country's agricultural modernization strategy under the lens of the market-driven approach. The early post-War period of economic policy relates to solving the food problem solution for low-income countries, which minimizes farmer welfare and emphasizes benefits to the wealthier, nonfarming class. This prevailed until the 1970s when the interest of the farming class began to be reasserted. By the 1990s, the main issue was the disparity problems, which considers as almost equally weighty, the interests of poor farmers, as well as that of nonagricultural consumers. In the 1990s, the nation enacted numerous market reforms to address the anti-market policies of the early 1990s. However, progress in implementing market reform for agriculture was largely moribund until 2019, with the enactment of the Rice Tariffication Act (Republic Act 11203). Despite the reforms already enforced, further measures should be implemented, namely, (i) producer support for agriculture should move away from market price support in favor of expenditure support; (ii) expenditure support programs should themselves be oriented away from commodity-specific toward support for public goods and general services, such as extension, regulatory, and market assistance services; (iii) expenditure programs should require careful design along with functional tasks, performance indicators, and M&E systems; (iv) design, performance indicators, M&E systems, and appropriate strategies, should be put together in the AFMP and structured around SAFDZs; and (v) sustained political will behind the market approach must be present to adopt it more consistently in agricultural policy. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: agriculture; expenditure programs; producer support; dirigism; market reform; market price support
    Date: 2022
  58. By: Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.; Paqueo, Vicente B.
    Abstract: While the Philippine education system is in the middle of profound changes with the passage of Republic Act 10533 or the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, the country was rudely awakened by the poor results in its maiden participation in the 2018 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), which tested 15-year-old students. This result was confirmed further by 2019 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) results, which tested grade four students. Everyone's question is: What happened to the Philippine education sector? This paper describes the three education subsectors as answers to three questions: (a) Where does each of the subsectors in terms of their primary outcomes? (b) What are the primary reasons why the subsectors are currently in that state? (c) What are the recommendations on the ways forward? This report draws mainly from research done by the authors at the Institute and occasionally those by other authors. The assessment shows that the country still has high attendance rates at all levels compared to countries of similar development states. It is, however, facing the challenge of low quality on the average even if it also produces high-quality graduates, many of whom have been working in global labor markets for decades now. Another problem is that education outcomes reflect students' socioeconomic status rather than equalizing. Finally, the pandemic, which forced the country to remote learning mode largely unprepared like many countries, introduced another set of challenges in addition to its pre-pandemic problems. The country needs to learn from these experiences, rely more on data, and build rigorously validated evidence on what works for our educational system using our experience as educational outcomes are highly context-sensitive. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: education;Philippines;Basic Education;TVET;Higher Education
    Date: 2022
  59. By: Rogelio V. Mercado, Jr. (South East Asian Central Banks (SEACEN) Research and Training Centre); Victor Pontines (South East Asian Central Banks (SEACEN) Research and Training Centre)
    Abstract: This paper employs Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and uses posterior inclusion probability (PIP) values to evaluate which financial inclusion indicators, dimensions, and other determinants of income inequality should be considered in an empirical specification assessing the relationship between financial inclusion and income inequality, given model uncertainty. The results show that for the low-income country group, financial access and usage indicators and dimensions are the most relevant indicators. Unfortunately, nowhere in our baseline results and in almost all our sensitivity tests do we find PIP values higher than our set threshold value for any of our financial depth indicators and dimension. These results suggest that theoretical models linking financial inclusion nd income inequality could well focus on the role of financial access and usage by providing theoretical foundations on the mechanics as to how these two dimensions of financial inclusion impact income inequality.
    Keywords: Bayesian model averaging, financial inclusion, income inequality, Bayesian inference
    JEL: C11 C52 O15 O16
    Date: 2022–10
  60. By: Heiduk, Felix; Wilms, Tom
    Abstract: Ferdinand (genannt "Bongbong") Marcos junior gewann am 9. Mai mit einem Erdrutschsieg die Präsidentschaftswahlen der Philippinen und wurde am 30. Juni offiziell vereidigt. Während des Wahlkampfs war der Sohn des 1986 gestürzten philippinischen Diktators Ferdinand Marcos senior in außen- und sicherheitspolitischen Fragen äußerst vage geblieben. Einige Beobachter spekulierten zunächst über eine Fortführung der unter Amtsvorgänger Rodrigo Duterte vollzogenen außenpolitischen Hinwendung zur Volksrepublik China. Mittlerweile zeigt sich jedoch bereits ein deutlich nuancierteres Bild der zu erwartenden Außenpolitik unter Marcos jr. Der neugewählte Präsident dürfte in stärkerem Maße als sein Vorgänger eine Balance im Verhältnis zu China und den USA suchen. Er tritt damit in die außenpolitischen Fußstapfen seines Vaters. Ein solcher Kurs könnte Deutschland und der EU neue Kooperationsmöglichkeiten eröffnen - sofern die Zusammenarbeit den in erster Linie innenpolitisch motivierten Zielsetzungen der neuen Marcos-Regierung entspricht.
    Keywords: Philippinen,China,USA,Ferdinand Marcos,Bongbong,Imelda Marcos,Rodrigo Duterte,Sara Duterte,Jose Faustino jr.,Enrique Manalo,Südchinesisches Meer,United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea,UNCLOS
    Date: 2022
  61. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Selected Issues
    Date: 2022–09–16
  62. By: Michele Fioretti (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Alessandro Iaria (University of Bristol [Bristol]); Aljoscha Janssen (SIS - Singapore Management University); Clément Mazet- Sonilhac (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Robert K Perrons (QUT - Queensland University of Technology [Brisbane])
    Abstract: We investigate the effect of technology adoption on competition by leveraging a unique dataset on production, costs, and asset characteristics for North Sea upstream oil & gas companies. Relying on heterogeneity in the geological suitability of fields and a landmark decision of the Norwegian Supreme Court that increased the returns of capital investment in Norway relative to the UK, we show that technology adoption increases market concentration. Firms with prior technology-specific know-how specialize more in fields suitable for the same technology but also invest more in high-risk-high-return fields (e.g., ultra-deep recovery), diversifying their technology portfolio and ultimately gaining larger shares of the North Sea market. Our analyses illustrate how technology adoption can lead to market concentration both directly through specialization and indirectly via experimentation.
    Keywords: Market structure,Competition,Specialization,Experimentation,Upstream oil and gas markets,North Sea,Innovation,Adoption
    Date: 2022–05–24
  63. By: Ansari, Dawud; Grinschgl, Julian; Pepe, Jacopo Maria
    Abstract: Angesichts der Gaskrise und der russischen Invasion der Ukraine ist der Markthochlauf von Wasserstoff noch dringlicher geworden für die europäische und die deutsche Energiepolitik. Die ehrgeizigen Ziele für grünen Wasserstoff stellen die Europäische Union (EU) und die junge Wasserstoffökonomie allerdings vor enorme Probleme. Abgesehen vom Strombedarf fehlen vor allem Produktionskapazitäten für Elektrolyseure. Die anvisierte Produktionsskalierung von Elektrolyseuren ist kaum zu schaffen, außerdem steht sie im Konflikt zu Importbestrebungen und zementiert neue Abhängigkeiten von Lieferanten wichtiger Rohstoffe und kritischer Komponenten. Während eine Entkoppelung von Russlands Rohstofflieferungen zumindest möglich ist, führt an China kein Weg vorbei, will die EU ihre Ziele erreichen. Nebst erleichterten Regularien, einem aktiven Rohstoffmanagement und neuen Partnerschaften sollte Europa auch die einseitige Beschränkung auf grünen Wasserstoff überdenken.
    Keywords: Europäische Union,EU,Deutschland,Energiepolitik,Energiewende,Energieversorgung,erneuerbare Energien,Wasserstoff,grüner Wasserstoff,blauer Wasserstoff,Wasserstoffproduktion,Elektrolyse,AEL,PEM-Elektrolyseure,Produktion von Elektrolyseuren,Regulierung,Technologien,Technologieführerschaft,Rohstoffe,Lieferketten,Metalle,Nickel,Platin,Iridium,PGM,Abhängigkeiten,Importabhängigkeit,Russland,China,Südafrika,Indonesien,Philippinen,Australien,Japan,USA,Vereinigtes Königreich,Großbritannien
    Date: 2022

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