nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2022‒11‒07
forty papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. How Does the Philippines Fare in Meeting the ASEAN Economic Community Vision 2025? By Quimba, Francis Mark A.; Rosellon, Maureen Ane D.; Carlos, Jean Clarisse T.
  2. The Effect of Economic Incentives, Financial Technology, and Financial Literacy on Millennials' Financial Planning during Covid 19 By Karina Harjanto
  3. Sustainable Value Chain Financing for Smallholder Agricultural Production in the Philippines By Ballesteros, Marife M.; Baje, Lora Kryz; Ancheta, Jenica; Bayudan-Dacuycuy, Connie
  4. Toward an Inclusive Social Insurance Coverage in the Philippines: Examining Gender Disparities By Tabuga, Aubrey D.; Cabaero Carlos C.
  5. Maslaha-Based Value-Added Statement By M. Nur A. Birton
  6. Enhancing the Public Policy Process for Family Farming through Grassroots Participation By Ruth Jazrel M. Bandong; Pedcris M. Orencio; Bernice Anne C. Darvin-De Torres
  7. Demand Analysis of Multiple Goods and Services in Vietnam By Vigani,Mauro; Dudu,Hasan
  8. The Impacts of Lockdown Policies on International Trade in the Philippines By Arenas,Guillermo Carlos; Majune,Socrates Kraido; Montfaucon,Angella Faith Lapukeni
  9. Attitudes toward teamwork: a study of Vietnamese university students By Nguyen, Gia Nhu; Do, Hauthikim
  10. Displacement and Social Empowerment : Evidence from Surveys of IDPs in Iraq, thePhilippines, and Uganda By Vinck,Patrick Thierry; O’Mealia,Thomas; Wei,Carol; al-Saiedi,Abdulrazzaq; Irwani,Muslih; Pham,Phuong Ngoc
  11. Regional Analysis of the Philippine Services Sector By Serafica, Ramonette B.; Vergara, Jean Colleen M.; Oren, Queen Cel A.
  12. FDI, Market Power, and Markups : Evidence from Vietnam By Yue Li; Kuo,Ryan Chia; Pinzon Latorre,Mauricio Alejandro; Albertson,Mark Peter
  13. Disentangling the Effects of Maternal Employment on Child Stunting in the Philippines By Go, Gerard L.; Laput, Joseph Glenn J.
  14. Automation and Manufacturing Performance in a Developing Country By Cali,Massimiliano; Presidente,Giorgio
  15. The Interplay of Regional and Ethnic Inequalities in Malaysian Poverty Dynamics By Rongen,Gerton; Binti Ali Ahmad,Zainab; Lanjouw,Peter F.; Simler,Kenneth
  16. Financial Sector Development in Brunei Darussalam: Depth, Access, and Efficiency: A Comparative Analysis By Biswa Nath Bhattacharyay; Madhurima Bhattacharyay
  17. Vietnam: Technical Assistance Report-National Accounts Statistics Mission By International Monetary Fund
  18. Cities in a Pandemic: Evidence from China By Badi H. Baltagi; Ying Deng; Jing Li; Zhenlin Yang
  19. Lost in Interpretation : Why Spouses Disagree on Who Makes Decisions By Liaqat,Sundas; Donald,Aletheia Amalia; Jarvis,Forest Brach; Perova,Elizaveta; Johnson,Hillary C.
  20. Linking Agrarian Reform Beneficiary Organizations (ARBOs) to Agriculture Value Chain: Lessons from Farmer Organizations in Selected Regions of the Philippines By Ballesteros, Marife M.; Ancheta, Jenica
  21. Thailand: 2022 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Thailand By International Monetary Fund
  22. Estimating the Economic and Distributional Impacts of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership By Estrades Pineyrua,Carmen; Maliszewska,Maryla; Osorio-Rodarte,Israel; Seara E Pereira,Maria Filipa
  23. Poverty Imputation in Contexts without Consumption Data : A Revisit with Further Refinements By Dang,Hai-Anh H.; Kilic,Talip; Carletto,Calogero; Abanokova,Kseniya
  24. Public Work Programs and Gender-Based Violence : Evidence from Lao PDR By Perova,Elizaveta; Johnson,Erik Caldwell; Mannava,Aneesh; Reynolds,Sarah Anne; Teman,Alana Hinda
  25. Inequality under COVID-19 : Taking Stock of High-Frequency Data for East Asia and the Pacific By Kim,Lydia Y.; Lugo,Maria Ana; Mason,Andrew D.; Uochi,Ikuko
  26. The Returns to Innovation in East Asia : The Role of the Business Environment and Firms' Characteristics By De Nicola,Francesca; Chen,Pinyi
  27. Dealing with Taiwan By Hilpert, Hanns Günther (Ed.); Sakaki, Alexandra (Ed.); Wacker, Gudrun (Ed.)
  28. The Effect of Social Media on Elections: Evidence from the United States By Thomas Fujiwara; Karsten Müller; Carlo Schwarz
  29. An Assessment of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in the Philippines: Supply-side Challenges and Ways Forward By Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; Uy, Jhanna
  30. Urban Agglomeration and Firm Innovation: Evidence from Developing Asia By Chen,Liming; Hasan,Rana; Jiang,Yi
  31. Non-Tariff Measures, Import Competition, and Exports By Cali,Massimiliano; Montfaucon,Angella Faith Lapukeni
  32. Individual Wealth and Time Use : Evidence from Cambodia By Hasanbasri,Ardina Roosiany,Kilic,Talip,Koolwal,Gayatri B.,Moylan,Heather G.
  33. Rural Physicians’ Experiences with Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management of Pediatric Tuberculosis Before and After Disasters in Bohol By Castillo-Carandang, Nina T.; Leining, Lauren M.; Mandalakas, Anna Maria; Murray, Kristy O.; Liao, Jo Anne Claire M.; Cabatos-Riña, Maureen Mae; Gatchalian, Salvacion R.
  34. Gain without Pain ? Non-Tariff Measures, Plants’ Productivity and Markups By Cali,Massimiliano; Le Moglie,Marco; Presidente,Giorgio
  35. Individual Wealth Inequality : Measurement and Evidence from Low- and Middle-Income Countries By Hasanbasri,Ardina Roosiany; Kilic,Talip; Koolwal,Gayatri B.; Moylan,Heather G.
  36. Technology and Resilience By Cirera,Xavier; Comin,Diego Adolfo; Vargas Da Cruz,Marcio Jose; Lee,Kyungmin; Torres Coronado,Jesica
  37. Governance Drivers of Rural Water Sustainability : Collaboration in Frontline Service Delivery By Thapa,Dikshya; Farid,Muhammad Noor; Prevost,Christophe
  38. What Have We Learned about the Effectiveness of Infrastructure Investment as a FiscalStimulus ? A Literature Review By Vagliasindi,Maria; Gorgulu,Nisan
  39. The midlife crisis By Giuntella, Osea; McManus, Sally; Mujcic, Redzo; Oswald, Andrew J; Powthavee, Nattavudh; Tohamy, Ahmed
  40. Boosting the Productivity of Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries through Parcelization of Collective Certificate of Land Ownership Awards By Galang, Ivory Myka R.

  1. By: Quimba, Francis Mark A.; Rosellon, Maureen Ane D.; Carlos, Jean Clarisse T.
    Abstract: To develop a cohesive, economically integrated, socially responsible, people-oriented, people-centered, and rules-based region, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Community was established in November 2015. It is composed of three pillars: the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community, and the ASEAN Political-Security Community. Each pillar corresponds to a blueprint and is a part of the general master plan ASEAN Community Vision 2025 with the theme ''ASEAN 2025: Forging Ahead Together''. This study focuses on the AEC Blueprint 2025 and its characteristics and elements. More than five years since its establishment, there is a need to assess the performance of the Philippines in the AEC key result areas. By comparing the baseline with the most recent data, this study found that the Philippines is in the middle of the pack (ranking from 4th to 6th) among ASEAN countries. In terms of AEC vision and goals, the country’s performance suggests that it is generally on track and progressing in the right direction.
    Keywords: ASEAN Economic Community; AEC; AEC Blueprint; ASEAN 2025
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Karina Harjanto (Universitas Multimedia Nusantara, Gading Serpong, 15810, Tangerang, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Maria Stefani Osesoga Author-2-Workplace-Name: Universitas Multimedia Nusantara, Gading Serpong, 15810, Tangerang, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Elisa Tjhoa Author-3-Workplace-Name: Universitas Multimedia Nusantara, Gading Serpong, 15810, Tangerang, Indonesia Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: " Objective - This study aims to obtain empirical evidence of the effect of economic incentives, financial technology, and financial literacy on financial planning. Methodology – The data used in this study came from a questionnaire with 113 millennial respondents who live throughout Indonesia. Questionnaires were distributed in 2020 to understand millennial financial planning and the factors influencing it during the Covid-19 pandemic. Findings – This research found that economic incentives did not affect financial planning, while financial literacy and financial planning had a positive and significant effect on financial planning. Novelty – This study is among the first to learn the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on millennials' finance. Type of Paper - Empirical"
    Keywords: Economic Incentive, Financial Literacy, Financial Planning, Financial Technology, Millennials
    JEL: D01 D14
    Date: 2022–09–30
  3. By: Ballesteros, Marife M.; Baje, Lora Kryz; Ancheta, Jenica; Bayudan-Dacuycuy, Connie
    Abstract: In recent years, the government has intensified its lending programs to help the country’s agricultural sector, particularly smallholders, in accessing retail lending. However, the lack of markets and low prices have had significant implications on the repayment capacity and credit rating of small farmers and fisherfolk in the Philippines. Indeed, lending programs are unlikely to become successful if financing and production are not viewed in the bigger context of value chain financing. This paper looks into the current financing ecosystem of farmers and fisherfolk and provides recommendations on how the existing value chain financing can be made more inclusive and sustainable.
    Keywords: small farmers and fisherfolk;agricultural value chain financing; smallholder agricultural production
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Tabuga, Aubrey D.; Cabaero Carlos C.
    Abstract: The Philippines, a country prone to natural calamities and vulnerable to economic fluctuations, has much to accomplish in improving workers’ access to social protection. A focus on women’s access to social protection programs is crucial because of their significantly lower labor force participation rate than men, and therefore, limited access to social protection. Using data from the Philippine Statistics Authority, this paper looks into the coverage of major social protection programs in the Philippines and examines the circumstances of different types of workers. The study also identifies the locations of individuals who have no access to social protection programs and belong to the bottom 30 percent of households in the country, as they represent those most in need of government intervention. Finally, it examines the social insurance aspect of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program to gain insights into how the country can improve coverage of social protection programs.
    Keywords: women;social protection; Philippines; labor force participation; social insurance
    Date: 2021
  5. By: M. Nur A. Birton (Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Mahfud Sholihin Author-2-Workplace-Name: Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Muhammad Muttaqin Author-3-Workplace-Name: Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: "Objective - This article aims to (1) examine three concepts of practical ethics originating from fiqh muamalah studies, namely al kharaj bi al dhaman, maslaha, and nafaqa, as substitutes for the more philosophical basis of Baydoun and Willett's (2000) Islamic ethics; and (2), apply the three concepts to improve the structure and content of Baydoun and Willett's (2000) value-added statement. Methodology/Technique - Maslaha-based VAS can improve VAS weaknesses in Baydoun and Willett's (2000) ICRs and be an alternative to the 1993 and 2010 AAOFI income statements. Findings - The use of the kharaj bi al dhaman, maslaha, and nafaqa concepts could direct the content and structure of financial reports from the ""secular"" one into sharia and humanistic. Novelty - The application of the concept of kharaj bi al dhaman substitutes for the matching concept; the idea of nafaqa substitutes for expenses; and the notion of maslaha makes the maslaha-based VAS more powerful, philosophical, conceptual, and practical than the VAS of Baydoun and Willett and the AAOIFI income statement Type of Paper - Review"
    Keywords: Al kharaj bi al dhaman, Islamic corporate reports, maslaha, nafaqa, value-added statement.
    JEL: M41 M42
    Date: 2022–09–30
  6. By: Ruth Jazrel M. Bandong; Pedcris M. Orencio; Bernice Anne C. Darvin-De Torres
    Abstract: To strengthen family farming in the Southeast Asian region effectively, it is necessary to understand where the initiatives are in terms of policy support and how family farmers participate in the integrated phases of the policy cycle (Howell et al. 2009). Therefore, this paper aims to provide insights on the importance of grassroots participation in public policymaking and assess various mechanisms and pathways towards an enabling environment that supports the development of family farming in SEA. This was done through analysis of information gathered from stakeholders who attended the Regional Policy Forum on Developing Public Policies for Family Farming: Reaching Out to the Grassroots through Participatory Policy Making. This regional forum was organized by the Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA) in partnership with the Asian Farmers’ Association for Sustainable Rural Development (AFA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and was held on 27 April 2021 via Zoom.
    Keywords: policy, grassroots, family farming, Southeast Asia
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Vigani,Mauro; Dudu,Hasan
    Abstract: In 1986 the Đổi Mới reform changed the economic and social policies in Vietnam, triggeringsteep economic growth and the shift from a low- to a middle-income economy. In parallel to the economic growth,Vietnam also experienced rapid social and demographic change, which resulted in modified consumption behavior.This paper estimates a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System, obtaining income and own- and cross-price elasticities for10 groups of goods and services that can contribute to the further economic development of Vietnam. To control forpotential bias generated by unobserved quality substitution and endogenous unit values, the analysis adopts aninstrumental variable method. The results show that household equipment, clothing and accessories,telecommunication, transport, and medical and health services are responsive to income changes, while food,foodstuffs, beverages and tobacco, education, and electricity are income inelastic. Moreover, the analysisdetects complementarity between education and the rest of the goods and services, and substitution between health careand household equipment, clothing, and telecommunication services. These results help in understanding recentsocioeconomic development patterns in Vietnam and provide updated evidence to support business decisions and economicpolicy planning.
    Keywords: Educational Sciences,Health Care Services Industry,Energy Policies & Economics,Energy Demand,Energy and Mining,Energy and Environment,Transport Services
    Date: 2021–10–12
  8. By: Arenas,Guillermo Carlos; Majune,Socrates Kraido; Montfaucon,Angella Faith Lapukeni
    Abstract: The Philippines was among the most infected countries in East Asia at the onset of the COVID-19outbreak. This study analyzes how international trade on various margins was affected by the country’s own lockdownpolicies and those of trading partners. Using a monthly series of product-by-country data for the period fromJanuary 2019 to December 2020 and an event study design, the paper shows that domestic lockdown measures did not affectinternational trade but external lockdowns affected both ex- ports and imports. The introduction of lockdown measures bytrading partners affected imports more than exports, leading to 7 and 56 percent monthly average drops in export andimport values, respectively. Restrictions on internal movements and international travel controls in partnercountries were responsible for the drop in exports. The slump in imports was because of workplace closure,stay-at-home requirements, restrictions on internal movement, and international travel controls by tradingpartners of the Philip- pines. Intermediate goods were the key driver of the drop in imports following foreignlockdowns, reflecting supply disruptions in backward global value chain participation. At the same time, exports ofintermediate goods were more resilient to the lockdown policies. Finally, both exports and imports were moreaffected at the extensive margin than the intensive margin, as lockdown measures hindered interactions among people, inturn reducing the potential of businesses to create new relationships and launch new products in foreign markets.Overall, diversified and geographically dispersed suppliers can help countries adjust better to future disruptions.
    Keywords: International Trade and Trade Rules,Transport Services,Trade and Services,Construction Industry
    Date: 2022–01–26
  9. By: Nguyen, Gia Nhu; Do, Hauthikim
    Abstract: Teamwork is one of the soft skills that are very interesting in employers. A better teamwork performance of employees could bring about a significant contribution to organizational performance. However, students’ perspectives on teamwork seem to neglect over the years. The study examines attitudes on teamwork among university students in the context of a transitional economy. The study represents one of the first pieces of research employing a formal scale development to measure the attitudes of university students toward teamwork. It also addresses factors that influence Vietnamese university students’ attitudes toward teamwork. Results offer deep insights into the relationships between university student attitudes towards teamwork and its predictors. We found that Vietnamese university students have a positive attitude toward teamwork. While environment facilities, teamwork evaluation, and collectivist culture positively affect teamwork attitudes, there is no significant relationship between teamwork and free-rider problems and perceptions of workload.
    Keywords: teamwork, working in teams, learning teams, university students, Vietnam
    JEL: M0
    Date: 2021–12–18
  10. By: Vinck,Patrick Thierry; O’Mealia,Thomas; Wei,Carol; al-Saiedi,Abdulrazzaq; Irwani,Muslih; Pham,Phuong Ngoc
    Abstract: Understanding the conditions under which displaced persons become actively engaged in socialand political life is critical to building durable solutions to displacement. To do so, this paper analyzes originalsurveys that sample IDPs and similarly at-risk but not displaced populations in Iraq (2019), the Philippines(2010), and Uganda (2007 and 2010). Variation in the type and degree of engagement across contexts suggest that therelationship between displacement and empowerment is mediated by contextual factors. To better understand themechanisms and grapple with the non-random nature of displacement, the analysis explores temporal variation inUganda, where the relationships change over time within the same case, and use matching models in the Philippines andIraq to explore whether differences in the displacement experience (urban v. rural, camp based versus non-camp-baseddisplacement) influence levels of engagement. Displacement experience is positively associated with some manifestationsof empowerment compared to control groups, but inconsistently across contexts. Finally, the paper exploresheterogeneity among IDPs within cases based on the context of their dis-placement, finding a consistent negativeassociation between camp-based displacement and perceptions of empowerment. The results have important implications forhumanitarian policy in contexts of forced displacement.
    Date: 2022–04–26
  11. By: Serafica, Ramonette B.; Vergara, Jean Colleen M.; Oren, Queen Cel A.
    Abstract: In the Philippines, the services sector accounts for 60 percent of gross domestic product and almost 57 percent of employment. Across regions and subsectors, however, the contribution of services varies. Using a simple shift-share technique, this study examines the patterns at the regional and subsector level and decomposes the changes into three factors: national share (growth effect), industry mix (sectoral effect), and regional shift (competitive effect). Focusing on changes in employment, the shift-share decomposition reveals that the overall growth of the economy from 2012 to 2018 had a positive impact in all sectors and regions. However, some industries showed negative sectoral effects, namely, accommodation and food service activities; arts, entertainment, and recreation; and education. Industry-specific factors in education services were quite strong that the economy's dynamism failed to offset the industry mix effect. It was the only sector that registered lower total employment during the period. In terms of the regional shift effects, 109 out of the total 204 regional service industries (53%) displayed locational disadvantages.
    Keywords: services; human capital development; Philippines; employment; regional distribution; shift-share analysis
    Date: 2021
  12. By: Yue Li; Kuo,Ryan Chia; Pinzon Latorre,Mauricio Alejandro; Albertson,Mark Peter
    Abstract: To date, the impact of foreign direct investment on market power and consumer welfare indeveloping countries has been relatively understudied. Utilizing a firm survey dataset from Vietnam, this paperfirst calculates firm-level markups for manufacturing firms and then analyzes the impact of foreign direct investmentand foreign ownership on firm markups. Overall, the findings show that increases in the presence of foreign firms in agiven industry are associated with decreases in markups in that industry, despite foreign firms individually charginghigher markups on average than their domestic competitors. The findings further show that while the markups of bothforeign- and domestic-owned private firms tend to decrease with greater foreign direct investment, state-ownedenterprises may be relatively insulated from foreign direct investment driven competitive pressures. These results arerobust to the inclusion or exclusion of potential outliers and the potential non-random selection of firms acquired byforeign investors.
    Date: 2022–04–06
  13. By: Go, Gerard L.; Laput, Joseph Glenn J.
    Abstract: This study analyzes the effects of maternal employment, along with mother’s education, civil status, and wealth, and the child’s age, sex, number of siblings, and regional dummy variable, on child stunting in the Philippines. It uses logit regression and data from the 8th National Nutrition Survey 2015 of the Department of Science and Technology-Food and Nutritional Research Institute. Interaction variables are mother’s years of schooling, work, civil status, and age. It supports the literature that maternal employment increases the likelihood of stunting among children. However, the results show a decrease in the likelihood of child stunting if employed mothers acquired a higher level of education. The probability of stunting increases with the number of children in the household and decreases with wealth.
    Keywords: child stunting; malnutrition;maternal employment
    Date: 2022
  14. By: Cali,Massimiliano; Presidente,Giorgio
    Abstract: This paper provides novel evidence on the economic impact of industrial automation in a large developing economy. It combines labor force survey and manufacturing plant-level data from Indonesia over 2008–15, when the country experienced a rapid increase in imports of robots. The findings show a positive impact of robots on various measures of plants’ performance and integration into global value chains. In contrast to existing evidence on advanced and emerging economies, these plant-level impacts result in an increase in manufacturing and services employment at the local level. Such employment effects are consistent with evidence of positive employment spillovers from downstream robot-adopting plants, which help extend the benefits of automation to non-adopting plants. The spillover effects may provide a rationale to incentivize manufacturing firms to adopt industrial robots. The results also suggest that the gains from automation are not equally shared: adoption of robots is associated with a reduction in the labor share in value added and an increase in skill wage premia.
    Keywords: Educational Sciences,Secondary Education,Labor Markets,Common Carriers Industry,Food&Beverage Industry,Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies,General Manufacturing,Construction Industry,Pulp&Paper Industry,Textiles, Apparel&Leather Industry,Plastics&Rubber Industry,Rural Labor Markets
    Date: 2021–05–10
  15. By: Rongen,Gerton; Binti Ali Ahmad,Zainab; Lanjouw,Peter F.; Simler,Kenneth
    Abstract: This study employs a synthetic panel approach based on nationally representative micro-level datato track poverty and income mobility in Malaysia in 2004–16. On aggregate, there were large reductions in chronic povertyand increases in persistent economic security, but those who remained poor in 2016 were increasingly likely to be poor ina structural sense. Further, the poverty and income dynamics differ notably across geographic dimensions. Suchdisparities are most striking when comparing affluent urban Peninsular Malaysia with poorer rural East Malaysia.Although there are important differences in welfare levels between the main ethnic groups in Malaysia, the mobilitytrends generally point in the same direction. While the findings show that there is still scope for povertyreduction through the reduction of interethnic inequalities,the study underscores the importance of taking regional inequalities into account to ensure a fairer distribution ofsocioeconomic opportunities for poor and vulnerable Malaysians. Hence, addressing chronic poverty is likely torequire additional attention to less developed geographic areas, as a complement to the current policies that arelargely ethnicity-based.
    Keywords: Inequality,Poverty Lines,Small Area Estimation Poverty Mapping,Poverty Assessment,Poverty Impact Evaluation,Poverty Monitoring & Analysis,Poverty Diagnostics,Educational Sciences,Employment and Unemployment
    Date: 2022–01–10
  16. By: Biswa Nath Bhattacharyay; Madhurima Bhattacharyay
    Abstract: Financial sector development plays an important role in promoting economic growth and welfare of the citizen of a country. On the other hand, financial sector instability or vulnerability, can adversely affect the economic growth and cause major disruptions in the country. This paper examines the financial sector development of Brunei Darussalam in terms of depth, access and efficiency during 2014-2018 based on 24 indicators. This paper starts with the examination of the role of the financial sector in the economic development and financial sector stability and reviews the major literature in this area. A discussion on the policies and strategies for the financial sector development and its regulator, Brunei Darussalam Central Bank (BDCB) and the structure of the financial sector of Brunei Darussalam are presented. Lastly, the paper discusses the major prospects and challenges faced by the banking sector as well as the recommendations. The analysis of the aforementioned indicators shows that the performance of Brunei Darussalam in terms of access to banks and financial inclusion had been, on an average, significantly better than its most peers among Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. In terms of depth and intermediation, the country, however, remained lower throughout the study period compared to its most ASEAN and GCC countries. The efficiency of banking sector, on an average, remained at a moderate level with most indicators lower compared to several ASEAN and GCC peers. There is a scope for further financial sector development through enhancing depth and efficiency of the banking sector and the development of efficient bond and stock markets. This could bring significant benefits for Brunei Darussalam including enhanced growth.
    Keywords: banking and financial sector development and indicators, economic growth, financial stability, financial depth, access and efficiency, Brunei Darussalam, ASEAN and GCC countries, fintech companies
    JEL: G20 D53 O16 E44 G21 G32
    Date: 2022
  17. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: At the request of the General Statistics Office (GSO) of Vietnam, a technical assistance mission helped with the preparation of the next rebase of national accounts. The current base year 2010 needs to be updated to incorporate recent structural changes. A work plan was established to compile a new national accounts benchmark for 2020 and publish rebased estimates in March 2023. The mission focused on a better incorporation of non-observed activities as well as the development of supply and use tables and input-output tables for the new benchmark. This mission was funded by the IMF’s Data for Decisions project with the overall goal of putting more and better data in the hands of decision-makers.
    Keywords: IMF's Statistics Department; World Bank staff; General Statistics office; instrumentalities of the TA recipient; volume estimate; Data collection; Agroindustries; Global
    Date: 2022–09–23
  18. By: Badi H. Baltagi (Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University, 426 Eggers Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244); Ying Deng (School of International Trade and Economics, University of International Business and Economics, No. 10 Huixin East Street, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029, China); Jing Li (School of Economics, Singapore Management University, 90 Stamford Road, Singapore 178903); Zhenlin Yang (School of Economics, Singapore Management University, 90 Stamford Road, Singapore 178903)
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of urban density, city government efficiency, and medical resources on COVID-19 infection and death outcomes in China. We adopt a simultaneous spatial dynamic panel data model to account for (i) the simultaneity of infection and death outcomes, (ii) the spatial pattern of the transmission, (iii) the inter-temporal dynamics of the disease, and (iv) the unobserved city- and time-specific effects. We find that, while population density increases the level of infections, government efficiency significantly mitigates the negative impact of urban density. We also find that the availability of medical resources improves public health outcomes conditional on lagged infections. Moreover, there exists significant heterogeneity at different phases of the epidemiological cycle.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Urban Density, Government Efficiency Cities
    JEL: R1 R5 I18
    Date: 2022–10
  19. By: Liaqat,Sundas; Donald,Aletheia Amalia; Jarvis,Forest Brach; Perova,Elizaveta; Johnson,Hillary C.
    Abstract: Across a wide variety of regions and contexts, surveys have found high rates of disagreementwithin couples on matters of household decision making. Using a unique data set from a spousal survey of 421agricultural households in the Philippines, this paper finds that 50.2 percent of couples disagree about who makes anygiven decision in the household. The paper systematically explores the empirical relevance of theoretical explanationsfrom the existing literature for this spousal disagreement. Spouses are no more likely to agree on specific decisionscompared with general decision making, are more likely to agree on the decision-making process, and are less likely toagree on decision making for activities in which both take part. Moreover, women are more likely to report that theirhusbands were involved in decision making when speaking with a female enumerator. The findings suggest thatintrahousehold disagreement is not driven by differing interpretations of which decisions count as “major,” or byasymmetric information. Although the paper finds evidence of enumerator effects, their magnitude is small and cannotexplain the observed rates of spousal disagreement over decision making. Rather, spousal disagreement appears tostem primarily from systematic gender differences in interpreting what it means to be a decision maker. The paperdiscusses the implications of the findings for the measurement of intrahousehold decision making in household surveys.
    Keywords: Gender and Development,Agricultural Economics,Educational Sciences,Food Security,Crops and Crop Management Systems,Climate Change and Agriculture
    Date: 2021–12–14
  20. By: Ballesteros, Marife M.; Ancheta, Jenica
    Abstract: This study evaluates the capacities of agrarian reform beneficiary organizations (ARBOs) to participate in value chains using data from three pilot areas in Mindanao of the Project Convergence on Value Chain Enhancement for Rural Growth and Empowerment project of the Department of Agrarian Reform. The study found low levels of organizational maturity and weak alliances among farmer organizations in the country. Thus, small farmers’ participation in higher value chains has been limited, with only members of matured organizations benefitting from value chain initiatives. To capacitate farmer organizations, the study recommends that the government pool its resources and efforts and develop strategic capacity-building interventions. Achieving organizational maturity requires farmer members to commit to their ARBO through equity participation. Alternative ownership rights structure may also be considered to encourage members—both commercial and subsistence farmers—to participate and invest in cooperatives. Another strategy is to enable farmer organizations to establish enterprises that will generate income for their members. Lastly, it is also important for organizations to strengthen social relations through regular meetings, collective activities, and patronage incentives to build trust among members.
    Keywords: value chain; agrarian reform; agriculture; agrarian reform beneficiary organization; ARBOs; farmer organization
    Date: 2021
  21. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Thailand’s economy is recovering from an unprecedented crisis emanating from multiple waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Ample policy space has allowed a swift and bold policy response and vaccine rollout has accelerated. However, the recovery is weak and uneven across sectors, with inflation rapidly rising driven by energy prices. Downside risks dominate the outlook, sharpening policy tradeoffs. The pandemic has also brought to the fore the urgency for Thailand to identify new growth drivers to reverse the pre-pandemic trend of declining productivity growth and meet the challenges of the post-pandemic world.
    Date: 2022–09–16
  22. By: Estrades Pineyrua,Carmen; Maliszewska,Maryla; Osorio-Rodarte,Israel; Seara E Pereira,Maria Filipa
    Abstract: This paper applies a top-down, macro-micro modeling framework that links a computablegeneral equilibrium model with the survey-based global income distribution dynamics model to assess the economicand distributional effects of the implementation of theRegional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). Reductions of tariffs and non-tariff measures,implementation of a rule of origin, together with productivity gains stemming from trade cost reductions canstrengthen regional trade and value chains among Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership members. The results ofthe analysis indicate that in an already deeply integrated region, tariff liberalization alone brings little benefit,with estimated real income gains of 0.21 percent relative to the baseline (without the RCEP) in 2035. With liberal rulesof origin, the gains in real income could double to 0.49 percent. The biggest benefits accrue when the productivitygains are considered, increasing real income by as much as 2.5 percent for the trade bloc. In this scenario, tradeamong RCEP members increases by 12.3 percent in 2035 relative to the baseline. The RCEP also has the potential tolift 27 million additional people to middle-class status by 2035. It will also boost wages, with faster gains in sectorsthat employ larger shares of women. The aggregate effects mask large variety of outcomes across countries, withVietnam expected to register the highest trade and income gains. Implementation of the RCEP help partially mitigatethe negative economic impacts of COVID-19 in the East Asia and the Pacific region.
    Keywords: International Trade and Trade Rules,Transport Services,Trade and Multilateral Issues,Rules of Origin,Trade Policy,Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies,Construction Industry,Common Carriers Industry,Food & Beverage Industry,General Manufacturing,Plastics & Rubber Industry,Pulp & Paper Industry,Textiles, Apparel & Leather Industry,Inequality
    Date: 2022–02–15
  23. By: Dang,Hai-Anh H.; Kilic,Talip; Carletto,Calogero; Abanokova,Kseniya
    Abstract: A key challenge with poverty measurement is that household consumption data are oftenunavailable or infrequently collected or may be incomparable over time. In a development project setting, it is seldomfeasible to collect full consumption data for estimating the poverty impacts. While survey-to-survey imputation is acost-effective approach to address these gaps, its effective use calls for a combination of both ex-ante design choicesand ex-post modeling efforts that are anchored in validated protocols. This paper refines various aspects of existingpoverty imputation models using 14 multi-topic household surveys conducted over the past decade in Ethiopia, Malawi,Nigeria, Tanzania, and Vietnam. The analysis reveals that including an additional predictor that captures householdutility consumption expenditures—as part of a basic imputation model with household-level demographic andemployment variables—provides poverty estimates that are not statistically significantly different from the true povertyrates. In many cases, these estimates even fall within one standard error of the true poverty rates. Adding geospatialvariables to the imputation model improves imputation accuracy on a cross-country basis. Bringing in additionalcommunity-level predictors (available from survey and census data in Vietnam) related to educational achievement,poverty, and asset wealth can further enhance accuracy. Yet, there is within-country spatial heterogeneity in modelperformance, with certain models performing well for either urban areas or rural areas only. The paper providesoperationally-relevant and cost-saving inputs into thedesign of future surveys implemented with a poverty imputation objective and suggests directions for future research.
    Keywords: Inequality,Educational Sciences,Health Care Services Industry,Demographics,Urban Housing,Urban Governance and Management,Municipal Management and Reform,Urban Housing and Land Settlements
    Date: 2021–11–05
  24. By: Perova,Elizaveta; Johnson,Erik Caldwell; Mannava,Aneesh; Reynolds,Sarah Anne; Teman,Alana Hinda
    Abstract: Public workfare programs targeted at women have the potential to empower them economically by providing jobs. However, the impact of public workfare programs on gender-based violence is theoretically ambiguous. They may contribute to its reduction through lowering financial stress or improving a woman’s bargaining position due to independent income. Yet, a woman’s higher income may also create incentives to use violence for extractive purposes; putting women in a position of provider at home and in male dominated sectors outside the home may create a backlash because these positions violate gender norms. Working outside the home could reduce exposure to an abusive spouse, but it may increase harassment or assault outside the household. This paper analyzes the impacts of a public workfare program in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, a lower-middle-income Asian country, where the government randomized implementation of a public workfare program targeted at rural women who received an average payment of US$550 over 18 months. The findings show that the program was successful in increasing female income, but it did not change women’s experience of gender-based violence: comparing program participants and control group women, there is no differences in self-reports of intimate partner violence (controlling behavior, emotional violence, or physical violence), violence from other members of the household, or violence from perpetrators outside the household. Some design aspects of this particular program may have resulted in the lack of impacts on gender-based violence. Changes in the design and implementation of public workfare programs are needed for them to work as a mechanism to reduce gender-based violence.
    Keywords: Gender and Development,Social Conflict and Violence,Access of Poor to Social Services,Economic Assistance,Services&Transfers to Poor,Disability,Social Cohesion
    Date: 2021–06–08
  25. By: Kim,Lydia Y.; Lugo,Maria Ana; Mason,Andrew D.; Uochi,Ikuko
    Abstract: While the distributional impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have been well-documented inhigh-income countries, studies in low- and middle-income countries have been relatively rare due to data limitations.This paper uses pre-pandemic household welfare data and high-frequency household phone survey data from sevenmiddle-income countries in East Asia and the Pacific, spanning May 2020 to May 2021, to analyze the distributionalimpacts of the pandemic and their implications for equitable recovery. The results indicate that employment impacts atthe extensive margin have been large and widespread across the welfare distribution during times of stringent mobilityrestrictions (low mobility). When mobility restrictions have been relaxed, however, employment impacts have been largeramong poorer workers who have found it more difficult to return to employment. Data on the loss of labor income alsosuggests that the pandemic has exacerbated existing inequalities. In addition to being more susceptible toemployment and income shocks, poorer households in East Asia and the Pacific are at higher risk of experiencing long-termscarring from the pandemic – due to rising food insecurity, increased debt, distress sale of assets, and fewerdistance/interactive learning opportunities for their children. Taken together, the findings indicate thatinequality has worsened during the pandemic, raising concerns about the prospects for an inclusive recovery inthe absence of appropriate policy measures.
    Keywords: Educational Sciences,Food Security,Employment and Unemployment,Labor Markets
    Date: 2021–11–22
  26. By: De Nicola,Francesca; Chen,Pinyi
    Abstract: The paper studies the relationship between innovation efforts, innovation outputs, andproductivity, using firm-level data from six East Asian countries. Firms are more likely to invest in innovationwhen they use technology licensed by a foreign company, are part of a large group, and have a more educated workforce.Investment in research and development can significantly boost both product and process innovation. Product innovation yields significant productivity gains. However,productivity gains from process innovation are not detectable in the sample.
    Keywords: Innovation,Educational Sciences,Labor Markets,Construction Industry,Plastics & Rubber Industry,General Manufacturing,Common Carriers Industry,Pulp & Paper Industry,Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies,Food & Beverage Industry,Textiles, Apparel & Leather Industry,Business Environment
    Date: 2022–02–01
  27. By: Hilpert, Hanns Günther (Ed.); Sakaki, Alexandra (Ed.); Wacker, Gudrun (Ed.)
    Abstract: The de facto politically independent Taiwan is coming under increasing pressure from the People's Republic of China (PRC) and its claim to reunification. In addition to militarily threatening gestures, Beijing is employing economic and political means as well as cyberattacks and disinformation campaigns. This threatens the stability and status quo in the Taiwan Strait. Taiwan is of immense importance to East Asia's geopolitical dynamics: geo-strategically as part of the first island chain that restricts the PRC's access to the Pacific, and economically-technologically as a leading manufacturer of semiconductors. In the global systemic conflict between liberal-democratic and authoritarian political systems, Taiwan holds a prominent position as a consolidated, pluralistic democracy and political counter-model to the authoritarian system of the PRC. It is in the interest of Germany and Europe that peace and stability in the Taiwan Strait are preserved, to make better use of Taiwan's economic and technological potential and to extend value-based support for its free and democratic society. Germany is committed to a one-China policy, which rules out any diplomatic recognition of Taiwan. Nevertheless, there is scope to expand and intensify relations below this threshold and thus counter China's policy of intimidating and isolating Taiwan. The Taiwan policies of the United States, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Australia, India as well as European partner countries show that there is room for pursuing closer relations with Taiwan while at the same time adhering to a one-China policy. Thus, options for action exist in foreign and security policy, trade and economic policy, as well as cultural policy.
    Keywords: Taiwan Strait,China,United States,Japan,Singapore,South Korea,Australia,India,East Asia,geopolitical dynamics,cyberattacks,one-China policy
    Date: 2022
  28. By: Thomas Fujiwara (Princeton University and NBER); Karsten Müller (National University of Singapore); Carlo Schwarz (Università Bocconi)
    Abstract: We study how social media affects election outcomes in the United States. We use variation in the number of Twitter users across counties induced by early adopters at the 2007 South by Southwest (SXSW) festival, a key event in Twitter’s rise to popularity. We show that this variation is unrelated to observable county characteristics and electoral outcomes before the launch of Twitter. Our results indicate that Twitter lowered the Republican vote share in the 2016 and 2020 presidential elections, but had limited effects on Congressional elections and previous presidential elections. Evidence from survey data, primary elections, and a text analysis of millions of tweets suggests that Twitter’s relatively liberal content may have persuaded voters with moderate views to vote against Donald Trump.
    Keywords: voting behavior, elections
    JEL: D72
    Date: 2022–09
  29. By: Ulep, Valerie Gilbert T.; Uy, Jhanna
    Abstract: The Philippine Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) has been in existence since 1976, providing Filipino children access to safe and effective vaccines to protect them from diseases like measles, diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough. EPI is one of the major programs of the Department of Health and has achieved many milestones. Mortality and morbidity due to vaccine-preventable diseases have declined precipitously over the years, saving the lives of many Filipino children. Moreover, polio and maternal and neonatal tetanus were eliminated in 2000 and 2017, respectively. Despite this progress, basic vaccine coverage hovered at only 70–80 percent in the last 30 years, and EPI has never achieved its target to fully immunize at least 95 percent of children. Hence, this study assesses the performance of EPI in the Philippines. Central to this assessment is the policy question: Why has the country struggled to maintain immunization coverage and repeatedly failed to achieve its national immunization target? While demand factors like vaccine confidence have contributed to the weak performance of the program, the sharp decline in immunization coverage in recent years is caused mainly by deep-seated supply-side system issues. In particular, leadership, planning, and supply chain problems led to recurring vaccine stockouts in the past decade.
    Keywords: Philippines;immunization;vaccine;supply-side;expanded program immunization
    Date: 2022
  30. By: Chen,Liming; Hasan,Rana; Jiang,Yi
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between urban agglomeration and firm innovation using a recently developed dataset that consistently measures city boundaries across Asia together with geo-referenced firm-level data. It finds that the spatial distribution of innovation by firms is highly concentrated within countries. Further, firms in larger cities have substantially higher propensities to introduce product and process innovations and undertake R&D activities, a result that holds for subgroups of countries and even when the largest cities are excluded from the analysis. Finally, the presence of high quality universities and highly ranked engineering departments in cities is positively associated with firm innovation, lending support to the idea that the accumulation of human capital locally is a key channel through which urban agglomeration affects innovation.
    Keywords: Innovation,Urban Governance and Management,Municipal Management and Reform,Common Carriers Industry,Food & Beverage Industry,General Manufacturing,Textiles, Apparel & Leather Industry,Pulp & Paper Industry,Construction Industry,Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies,Plastics & Rubber Industry,Skills Development and Labor Force Training,Railways Transport
    Date: 2021–11–24
  31. By: Cali,Massimiliano; Montfaucon,Angella Faith Lapukeni
    Abstract: The empirical evidence on the impact of import competition on economic performance relies mainlyon import tariff liberalization as the source of changes to competition. This paper extends this evidence by focusing onnon-tariff measures, an increasingly important trade policy tool globally. The analysis examines the competition effectof four specific non-tariff measures on the exporting activity of the universe of Indonesian firms. The focus ison measures that do not clearly address any negative externalities of imports—the supposed objective ofnon-tariff measures—and hence appear to be protectionist in nature. The results suggest that by restricting importcompetition, these measures reduce the survival of firms in export markets as well as the intensive and extensivemargins of their exports. Non-tariff measures have a more negative effect than import tariffs in most cases and theseresults are robust to various checks. The analysis provides suggestive evidence that markups are an important channelthrough which these effects are mediated.
    Keywords: International Trade and Trade Rules,Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies,Construction Industry,Plastics & Rubber Industry,Pulp & Paper Industry,Textiles, Apparel & Leather Industry,General Manufacturing,Food & Beverage Industry,Common Carriers Industry,Trade and Multilateral Issues,Trade Policy,Rules of Origin
    Date: 2021–10–08
  32. By: Hasanbasri,Ardina Roosiany,Kilic,Talip,Koolwal,Gayatri B.,Moylan,Heather G.
    Abstract: A better understanding of how individual wealth and time use are linked — across paid, unpaid, and leisure activities — is important for targeting widespread gender inequalities in time allocation, as well as in accessing economic opportunities. The lack of reliable, individual-level data on asset ownership across different subpopulations, however, has limited discussions of these issues in the literature. Using a unique nationally representative survey from Cambodia, this paper shows that individual wealth, as measured through self-reported ownership of physical and financial assets, is significantly associated with time allocation to different activities. The role of asset ownership in time use is also stronger, particularly among women, vis-à-vis the competing proxies for socioeconomic status. Ownership of financial accounts, motorized vehicles, and mobile phones — all of which can improve access to networks, markets, and services — is associated with less time in unpaid work, and in some cases greater time in paid work, specifically among women in off-farm jobs. There are also distinct gender differences in how men and women shift their time away from leisure and childcare, highlighting the importance of social norms in choices over time use. The analysis highlights the utility of integrated, intra-household, individual-disaggregated data collection on asset ownership, time use, and employment in lower-income contexts.
    Keywords: Gender and Development,Telecommunications Infrastructure,Wages, Compensation&Benefits,Food Security,Livestock and Animal Husbandry
    Date: 2021–08–31
  33. By: Castillo-Carandang, Nina T.; Leining, Lauren M.; Mandalakas, Anna Maria; Murray, Kristy O.; Liao, Jo Anne Claire M.; Cabatos-Riña, Maureen Mae; Gatchalian, Salvacion R.
    Abstract: This paper documents the experiences of rural physicians in managing pediatric tuberculosis (TB) cases before and after disasters in Bohol, Philippines. The participants are from the public and private healthcare systems in municipalities heavily affected and less affected by a 7.2-magnitude earthquake and the super typhoon that struck the province in 2013. The discussions centered on the burden, diagnosis, treatment, management, and referral of pediatric TB and how their circumstances changed before, during, and after the disasters. It found that the situation of pediatric TB in the area was almost unchanged. Both healthcare sectors still struggle with stockouts of diagnostic supplies and medications, which result in the disruption of TB diagnosis and treatment and loss to follow-up among patients. The disasters further exacerbated these longstanding challenges.
    Keywords: Pediatric tuberculosis;healthcare systems;healthcare management;Bohol, Philippines;TB burden
    Date: 2022
  34. By: Cali,Massimiliano; Le Moglie,Marco; Presidente,Giorgio
    Abstract: This paper studies how productivity and markups respond to non-tariff measures. The analysis uses a novel time-varying data set on all non-tariff measures applied to imported products by Indonesia. Price and quantity information is used to disentangle the impact of non-tariff measures on plants’ technical efficiency and markups. The findings show that on average, non-tariff measures generate fewer distortions than import tariffs do. However, while specific non-tariff measures increase the quality of the products on which they are applied, others act as barriers to trade similar to import tariffs. These results suggest that to gauge their impacts and guide policy making, non-tariff measures should not be bundled together in empirical analyses.
    Keywords: International Trade and Trade Rules,Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies,Construction Industry,Plastics&Rubber Industry,Pulp&Paper Industry,Textiles, Apparel&Leather Industry,General Manufacturing,Food&Beverage Industry,Common Carriers Industry,Trade and Multilateral Issues,Trade Policy,Rules of Origin
    Date: 2021–05–10
  35. By: Hasanbasri,Ardina Roosiany; Kilic,Talip; Koolwal,Gayatri B.; Moylan,Heather G.
    Abstract: The accumulation of personal wealth, stemming from ownership and control of assets, plays acritical role in advancing women’s and men’s economic opportunities. Yet, it is an understudied dimension ofinequality across the developing world. To study individual-level wealth inequality and gender differences inwealth, this paper leverages unique data from nationally representative, multi-topic household surveys that wereconducted in Cambodia, Ethiopia, Malawi, and Tanzania and that interviewed men and women in private regarding theirpersonal ownership and valuation of physical and financial assets. The analysis documents substantial genderinequalities in asset ownership and wealth, overall and for specific asset classes. Individual-level wealth inequalitymeasures are substantially higher vis-à-vis comparators based on per capita household consumption expenditures andper capita household wealth, and intrahousehold wealth inequality has a substantial role in explaining overallwealth inequality. While land is a key contributor to wealth inequality across countries, there is cross-countryheterogeneity in the relative contributions of asset classes. Self-reporting on asset ownership and valuation,the internationally-recommended best practice, is also shown to lead to higher inequality estimates compared to thebusiness-as-usual survey practice of interviewing a single, most-knowledgeable household member to identifyintrahousehold asset owners and values. The discussion expands on the implications of the findings for futuresurveys and methodological research.
    Date: 2022–03–29
  36. By: Cirera,Xavier; Comin,Diego Adolfo; Vargas Da Cruz,Marcio Jose; Lee,Kyungmin; Torres Coronado,Jesica
    Abstract: This paper estimates the impact of technology sophistication pre-COVID-19 on the performance offirms during the early stages of the pandemic. It exploits a unique data set covering firms from Brazil, Senegal, andVietnam, using a treatment effect mediation framework to decompose the results into direct and indirect effects.Increasing pre-pandemic technology sophistication by one standard deviation is associated with 3.8 percentage pointshigher sales. Both effects are positive, but the direct effect is about five times larger than the indirect effect.The total effect on sales is markedly nonlinear with significantly smaller estimates of the reduction in salesfor firms with more sophisticated pre-pandemic technology. The results are robust to different measures of digitalresponses and matching estimators.
    Keywords: Common Carriers Industry,Food & Beverage Industry,Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies,General Manufacturing,Textiles, Apparel & Leather Industry,Pulp & Paper Industry,Construction Industry,Plastics & Rubber Industry,Urban Transport,Financial Sector Policy,Food Security
    Date: 2022–03–01
  37. By: Thapa,Dikshya; Farid,Muhammad Noor; Prevost,Christophe
    Abstract: This paper contributes to a long-standing debate in development practice: Under whatconditions can externally established participatory groups engage in the collective management of services beyond thelife of a project Using 10 years of panel data on water point functionality from Indonesia’s rural water program,the Program for Community-Based Water Supply and Sanitation, the paper explores the determinants of subnational variationin infrastructure sustainability. It then investigates positive and negative deviance cases to answer why somecommunities have successfully engaged in system management despite being located in difficult conditions as perquantitative findings and vice versa. The findings show that differences in the implementation of communityparticipation, driven by local social relations between frontline service providers, that is, village authoritiesand water user groups, explain sustainable management. This initial condition of state-society relations influences howthe project is initiated, kicking off negative or positive reinforcing pathways, leading to community collective actionor exit. The paper concludes that the relationships between frontline government representatives and community actorsare an important and underexamined aspect of the ability of external projects to generate successful community-ledmanagement of public goods.
    Keywords: Hydrology,Small Private Water Supply Providers,Water Supply and Sanitation Economics,Town Water Supply and Sanitation,Water and Human Health,Water and Food Supply,Energy Policies & Economics,Regional Governance,Social Accountability,Local Government
    Date: 2021–10–07
  38. By: Vagliasindi,Maria; Gorgulu,Nisan
    Abstract: Since the Great Depression of the 1930s, and through the more recent Asian Crisis of 1997 andGreat Recession of 2008/09, governments have experimented with Keynesian style fiscal stimulus to support employmentand accelerate economic recovery. The effectiveness of these policies depends on the size of fiscal multipliers. A largebody of economic literature has estimated such multipliers, with gradually increasing precision, due to econometricimprovements and better ways to identify fiscal impulses. Overall, the largest multipliers are found to be associatedwith public investment, as opposed to other types of spending. Such public investment multipliers are typicallybelow one in the short run, but studies with multi-year horizons suggest that values higher than unity can beattained over time. The size of multipliers is sensitive to economic conditions. During recessions, and periods of highunemployment, transfer payments appear sometimes to offer higher multipliers than public investment. An importantexception is when fiscal and monetary policies are closely coordinated and interest rates approach zero, conditionsthat provide the strongest evidence for the efficacy of public investment multipliers. Other institutional factorsalso play a crucial role in determining the size of the public investment multiplier, in particular the country’s absorptive capacity, and the selection of high-qualityshovel ready projects. However, there is limited empirical evidence available on the magnitude of fiscal multipliers indeveloping country settings, or for infrastructure sectors or subsectors specifically. The few studies availablesuggest that certain types of green infrastructure (energy efficiency, solar energy, and so forth) may bring employmentbenefits in the short run, while innovative digital infrastructure may yield longer-run benefits for economicgrowth. The relevance of these findings to the current COVID-19 crisis is explored.
    Keywords: Labor Markets,Energy Demand,Energy and Mining,Energy and Environment,Transport Services,Fiscal & Monetary Policy,Public Finance Decentralization and Poverty Reduction,Public Sector Economics,Economic Adjustment and Lending,Macroeconomics and Economic Growth,Economic Policy, Institutions and Governance,Macro-Fiscal Policy
    Date: 2021–10–06
  39. By: Giuntella, Osea (Department of Economics, University of Pittsburgh); McManus, Sally (National Centre for Social Research, London); Mujcic, Redzo (Warwick Business School, University of Warwick); Oswald, Andrew J (Department of Economics, University of Warwick, and CAGE Centre, IZA Institute, Bonn,); Powthavee, Nattavudh (Department of Economics, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore & IZA Institute, Bonn); Tohamy, Ahmed (Nuffield College, Oxford University)
    Abstract: This paper documents a longitudinal crisis of midlife among the inhabitants of rich nations. Yet middle-aged citizens in our data sets are close to their peak earnings, have typically experienced little or no illness, reside in some of the safest countries in the world, and live in the most prosperous era in human history. This is paradoxical and troubling. The finding is consistent, however, with the prediction -- one little-known to economists -- of Elliott Jaques (1965). Our analysis does not rest on elementary cross-sectional analysis. Instead the paper uses panel and through-time data on, in total, approximately 500,000 individuals. It checks that the key results are not due to cohort effects. Nor do we rely on simple life-satisfaction measures. The paper shows that there are approximately quadratic hill-shaped patterns in data on midlife suicide, sleeping problems, alcohol dependence, concentration difficulties, memory problems, intense job strain, disabling headaches, suicidal feelings, and extreme depression. We believe the seriousness of this societal problem has not been grasped by the affluent world’s policy-makers. JEL Codes: I31 ; I14 ; I12
    Keywords: Mental health ; affluence ; suicide ; depression ; aging ; midlife crisis ; happiness.
    Date: 2022
  40. By: Galang, Ivory Myka R.
    Abstract: This paper identifies the benefits and problems in the subdivision of collective land titles in the Philippines. In particular, it discusses how the parcelization of collective Certificates of Land Ownership Awards (CCLOAs) can improve the agricultural performance of farmers. Baseline survey data from the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR)’s Project Convergence on Value Chain Enhancement for Rural Growth and Empowerment provide evidence favoring to accelerate the subdivision of CCLOAs. This study encourages the adoption of other rural development strategies, such as farm consolidation, aside from the parcelization of land titles. DAR must also adopt a modern cadaster and record system to improve the country’s agrarian justice delivery system and efficiently implement the parcelization program.
    Keywords: CCLOAs;agrarian reform beneficiaries;agriculture;Project ConVERGE
    Date: 2022

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