nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2022‒05‒30
forty-one papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Does Fertility Matter for Middle Aged and Older Adults’ Risk Attitudes? By Ho, Christine; Teerawichitchainan, Bussarawan; Tan, Joanne; Tan, Eugene Rui Le
  2. Sejarah perkembangan daerah di Indonesia By Syafitri, Yuliyani
  3. The impact of employer branding on job application intention: Evidence from business undergraduates in Vietnam By Nguyen, Minh Tuan; Huynh, Cong Minh
  4. Perkembangan dan Peranan Bank Syariah Di Indonesia By , Muhajir
  5. Government pandemic policies associated with Vaccine Fund and Vaccine Diplomacy in response to COVID-19: A critical study of the Vietnamese experience By Khuc, Quy Van; Pham, Phu; Nguyen, Hien; Nguyen, Thuy; Tran, Phuong-Mai
  6. Makalah Gambaran Umum Perbankan Syariah Di Indonesia By , Nurhayati
  7. Analysis of Changes in Comparative Advantages of the Manufacturing in Vietnam and Comparison with China By Mai, Nhat Chi
  9. Disaster Exposure in Childhood and Adult Noncognitive Skill: Evidence from the Philippines By Bulaon, June Patrick; Shoji, Masahiro
  10. Manajemen Koperasi By Azizah, Fithri
  11. Analisis Rasio Profitabilitas Untuk Mengukur Kinerja PT. Bank Perkreditan Rakyat Jorong Kampung Tangah Pariaman By Putra, Yosep Eka; Zuwyta, Deby
  12. MANAJEMEN KOPERASI By Halim, Ismail
  13. Domains for Well Behaved Monotonic Social Choice Functions By Ramos, Paulo
  14. Public Spending and Government Performance in Europe and Asia: Tigers Today and in the Future By Ludger Schuknecht
  15. Malaysia: 2022 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Malaysia By International Monetary Fund
  16. West Bank and Gaza: Report to the Ad Hoc Liaison Committee By International Monetary Fund
  17. Incomplete Catching Up: Income among Manchurian, Yi and Han People in Rural China from 2002 to 2018 By Gustafsson, Björn Anders; Zhang, Yudan
  18. High Performance Export Portfolio: Design Growth-Enhancing Export Structure with Machine Learning By Ms. Natasha X Che; Xuege Zhang
  19. The Future of Electric Vehicles in Asia By Alicia Garcia-Herrero
  20. MANAJEMEN KOPERASI By khasanah, uswatun
  21. Stimulating innovation and creating new markets – The potential of circular public procurement By Joel Ntsonde; Franck Aggeri
  22. BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE: Developments, Economic and Strategic Implications By Ashwani Bishnoi; Pravakar Sahoo
  23. The Role of Caregiver Time Preferences, Child Behavioral Problems and Community Risks on Parenting Style By Ahmad Shabir Faizi; Weerachart Kilenthong
  24. The trade/GDP ratio as a measure of openness By Michael Bleaney; Mo Tian
  25. The Ascent of Geopolitics: Scientometric Analysis and Ramifications of Geopolitical Risk By Ahmet Faruk Aysan; Ali Polat; Hasan Tekin; Ahmet Tunalı
  28. Specific Factors Model When Countries Have Different Technologies: Why Inefficient Industry is Better Than no Industry at All By Spirin, Victor
  29. Determinants of Remittance Outflows: The Case of Saudi Arabia By Muhammad Javid; Fakhri Hasanov
  30. Quality of Public Service at Bara Permai Health Center, Palopo City By Kamal, kasmad; Kamal, kasmad
  31. The race to save banana By Kernot, Irene
  32. Fuzzy Expert System for Stock Portfolio Selection: An Application to Bombay Stock Exchange By Gour Sundar Mitra Thakur; Rupak Bhattacharyyab; Seema Sarkar
  34. Impact of foreign direct investment on inequality in emerging economies: Does the Kuznets curve hypothesis exist? By , Le Thanh Tung
  35. Kingdom of the Netherlands-Curaçao and Sint Maarten: Technical Assistance Report-Implementation of Risk-Based Supervision By International Monetary Fund
  36. Unpacking the nexus in a changing world – the relationship between biosecurity, trade, health and environment By Hinder, Nicola
  37. Resume Analisis Pendapatan Nasional dalam Islam By Akbar, Muh.
  38. A Neural Network Approach to the Environmental Kuznets Curve By Mikkel Bennedsen; Eric Hillebrand; Sebastian Jensen
  39. Big data analytics application in multi-criteria decision making: the case of eWallet adoption By Babak Naysary; Mehdi Malekzadeh; Ruth Tacneng; Amine Tarazi
  40. Manajemen Koperasi By Akbar, Muh.

  1. By: Ho, Christine (Singapore Management University); Teerawichitchainan, Bussarawan (National University of Singapore); Tan, Joanne (Singapore Management University); Tan, Eugene Rui Le (National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: Given that risk attitudes influence many decisions, it is important to understand the factors that shape such attitudes in late adulthood, when individuals face important risky decisions. While research finds that parenthood tends to correlate with lower risk tolerance in western countries, there is a lacuna on whether such associations persist in late adulthood, and are applicable to the Asian context, where children are conventionally considered a linchpin of old age support. Data for middle aged and older individuals come from the nationwide Singapore Life Panel (N = 6,740). Multivariate statistical analyses are employed to estimate the associations between willingness to take risks (in the general, financial, and health domains) with parenthood status and the number of children. We control for potential confounders and employ a two-stage least squares approach to mitigate potential selection issues. Older mothers tend to be less risk tolerant than older childless women across the three risk domains. Conversely, mothers with more children tend to be more risk tolerant compared to mothers with fewer children. There is no evidence that older men’s risk attitudes vary with parenthood status and family size.
    Date: 2022–03–01
  2. By: Syafitri, Yuliyani
    Abstract: Sejarah Pemerintahan Daerah di Republik Indonesia tidaklah berusia pendek. Lebih dari setengah abad lembaga pemerintah lokal ini telah mengisi perjalanan bangsa. Dari waktu ke waktu pemerintahan daerah telah mengalami perubahan bentuknya. Setidaknya ada tujuh tahapan hingga bentuk pemerintahan daerah seperti sekarang ini (2009). Pembagian tahapan ini didasarkan pada masa berlakunya Undang-Undang yang mengatur pemerintahan lokal secara umum. Tiap-tiap periode pemerintahan daerah memiliki bentuk dan susunan yang berbeda-beda berdasarkan aturan umum yang ditetapkan melalui undang-undang. Patut juga dicatat bahwa konstitusi yang digunakan juga turut memengaruhi corak dari undang-undang yang mengatur pemerintahan daerah. Dalam artikel ini tidak semua hal yang ada pada pemerintahan daerah dikemukakan. Dalam artikel ini hanya akan dibahas mengenai susunan daerah otonom dan pemegang kekuasaan pemerintahan daerah di bidang legislatif dan eksekutif serta beberapa kejadian yang khas untuk masing-masing periode pemerintahan daerah.
    Date: 2022–04–09
  3. By: Nguyen, Minh Tuan; Huynh, Cong Minh
    Abstract: This study aims to figure out the impact of employer branding perception on job application intention of business undergraduates in three main provinces of Southeast Vietnam, including Binh Duong, Dong Nai, and Ho Chi Minh City. The result shows that Task Attractiveness, Payment Attractiveness, and Working Atmosphere positively affect business undergraduates’ job application intention. However, our findings also show that the participants do not put a lot of attention on the Work-life Comfort factor and the Career Opportunities factor.
    Keywords: Employer Branding, Working Atmosphere, Career Opportunities, Work-life Comfort, Task Attractiveness, Payment Attractiveness, Intention to Apply
    JEL: M12 M51 M54 O15
    Date: 2022–05–01
  4. By: , Muhajir
    Abstract: Perbankan di Indonesia kini makin diramaikan dengan adanya bank syariah, yang menawarkan produk keuangan dan investasi dengan cara yang berbeda dibanding bank konvensional yang sudah lama ada. Bahkan bank-bank konvensional di Indonesia kini ikutan tren dengan mendirikan institusi syariah atau unit usaha syariah sendiri Lahirnya bank syariah tersebut merupakan cikal bakal dari terbentuknya Lembaga Keuangan Syariah (LKS) di Indonesia pada tahun 1980-an. Indonesia yang merupakan salah satu negara berkembang senantiasa melakukan berbagai aktivitas ekonomi untuk mendukung keberlanjutan pembangunan nasional secara kontinu. Di mana membangun kawasan keuangan berbasis syariah yang kuat dan terintegrasi maka diperlukan adanya kerja sama di antara pihak-pihak yang terkait. Dan yang menjadi syarat terpenting adanya integrasi keuangan syariah adalah terjadinya harmonisasi regulasi di antara Negara yang bersangkutan.
    Date: 2022–03–31
  5. By: Khuc, Quy Van; Pham, Phu; Nguyen, Hien; Nguyen, Thuy; Tran, Phuong-Mai
    Abstract: Vaccination, governmental policies, vaccine fund, Vietnam
    Date: 2022–02–01
  6. By: , Nurhayati
    Abstract: Bank syariah adalah bank yang beroperasi sesuai dengan prinsip-prinsip syariah Islam yaitu mengikuti ketentuan-ketentuan syariah Islam khususnya yang menyangkat tata cara bermuamalat secara Islam. Secara khusus peranan Bank Syari’ah secara nyata dapat terwujud dalam aspek?aspek berikut: “Menjadi perekat nasioanlisme baru, artinya bank syariah dapat menjadi fasilitator aktif bagi terbentuknya jaringan usaha ekonomi kerakyatan. Di samping itu, bank syariah perlu mencontoh keberhasilan sarekat dagang islam, kemudian di tarik keberhasilannya untuk masa kini (nasionalis, demokratis, religius, ekonomi).”
    Date: 2022–04–10
  7. By: Mai, Nhat Chi
    Abstract: With the process of Vietnam's reform and opening up, Vietnam's economy has made remarkable achievements. Vietnam's manufacturing industry, taking advantage of the new liberal policies, has also achieved rapid development. Sufficient and cheap labor force, advantageous geographical location, preferential foreign investment policies, and friendly international trade environment with the technological upgrading of manufacturing industry are all the advantages of Vietnam in attracting manufacturing industry. However, there are structural difficulties in the Vietnam's economy. Vietnam's economy is highly dependent on foreign trade and foreign investment, and its trade commodities are mainly assembly and processing with low added value. Compared with China, Vietnam also has obvious disadvantages in the scale of domestic market and supply chain. To some extent, Vietnam's manufacturing industry is integrated into China's supply chain network.
    Date: 2021–12–11
  8. By: , Muhajir
    Abstract: Koperasi berasal dari bahasa Latin "coopere", yang dalam bahasa Inggris disebut cooperation. Co berarti bersama dan operation berarti bekerja, jadi cooperation berarti bekerja sama. Koperasi syariah adalah koperasi yang menjalankan usaha di bidang simpan pinjam dana dan pembiayaan yang berpinsip syariah. UKM (Usaha Kecil dan Menengah) atau ada pula yang menyebutnya UMKM (Usaha Mikro, Kecil, dan Menengah) adalah aktivitas usaha yang dilakukan oleh perorangan atau badan usaha milik perorangan. Perbedaannya dengan usaha besar dapat dilihat dari jumlah kekayaan bersih pelaku usaha dan hasil penjualan tahunan. Azas-azas koperasi di Indonesia pada umumnya ada 2 yaitu azas kekeluargaan dan azas gotong royong
    Date: 2022–03–18
  9. By: Bulaon, June Patrick; Shoji, Masahiro
    Abstract: The relevance of non-cognitive skill to individuals’ socio-economic outcomes has become a crucial point of interest. The literature suggests that those who possess growth mindsets—the belief that intelligence and ability can be developed—are more likely to succeed academically and respond better to adversity and social exclusion. However, how these beliefs or mindsets are formed are scarcely explored. Exploiting exogenous variations in the timing and path of tropical cyclones in the Philippines, this study examines the persistent effects of experiencing natural disasters in childhood on adult growth mindset. Results reveal that exposure to more tropical cyclones during in utero and infancy leads adults to believe that intelligence and ability are fixed and cannot be developed. We also provide evidence that this effect is mediated by poor childhood nutrition and health. Such findings point to the significance of prioritizing infant and maternal care in disaster and climate policy.
    Keywords: implicit theories of intelligence; growth mindset; fetal origins hypothesis; tropical cyclones; climate change
    JEL: I25 J24 O15
    Date: 2022–04
  10. By: Azizah, Fithri
    Abstract: Dalam usaha pemulihan krisis ekonomi Indonesia dewasa ini, sesungguhnya koperasi mendapatkan peluang untuk tampil lebih eksis. Krisis ekonomi yang diawali dengan krisis nilai tukar dan kemudian membawa krisis hutang luar negeri, telah membuka mata semua pemerhati ekonomi. Seperti yang kita ketahui, bahwa koperasi bukanlah badan usaha yang berupa kumpulan modal. Koperasi adalah badan usaha yang unik karena dimiliki oleh banyak individu. Koperasi merupakan kumpulan dari individu-individu yang memiliki kesamaan visi, misi, dan didasari oleh jiwa kerja sama untuk mencapai suatu tujuan tertentu. Dalam operasinya, kebijakan-kebijakan yang diambil dalam koperasi dilakukan secara demokratis demi kepentingan untuk mencapai tujuan dan keinginan bersama. Pada dasarnya, pengelolaan koperasi yang profesional adalah didasari oleh kemampuan pengurus atau manajemen koperasi untuk menjalankan keputusan dan kebijakan yang sudah dibuat secara demokratis dalam Rapat Anggota Koperasi dan ditunjang oleh pengawasan yang kontinu atas realisasi dan implementasi kebijakan-kebijakan tersebut.
    Date: 2022–04–09
  11. By: Putra, Yosep Eka; Zuwyta, Deby
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of profitability ratios at PT. Bank Perkreditan Rakyat Jorong Kampung Tangah Pariaman. Data analysis is done by calculating using the formula Return On Assets (ROA), Return On Equity (ROE), Operating Costs and Operating Income (BOPO), Net Profit Margin (NPM). The results showed that the average ROA was 3.006%, the average ROE was 25.108%, the average BOPO was 3.006%, the average NPM was 15.418%. This means that the value has reached the standard set by Bank Indonesia, this shows the financial performance of PT. The Jorong Rural Bank, Kampung Tangah Pariaman, is good because the bank is able to generate profits and profits.
    Date: 2022–03–16
  12. By: Halim, Ismail
    Abstract: Dilihat dari era globalisasi sekarang masyarakat berusaha untuk terus meningkatkan kemampuannya dalam rangka mencapai tujuan yang hendak dicapai, dengan menggunakan waktu yang seefektif dan seefisien mungkin dan dengan biaya yang relatif murah. Koperasi merupakan badan usaha dalam rangka membangun ekonomi rakyat berdasarkan asas kekeluargaan. Pertumbuhan koperasi relatif mengalami kemunduran yang mana salah satu penyebabnya adalah konsep pengembangan strategi dalam koperasi untuk dapat merespon persaingan dan pasar yang terus berkembang dengan cepat. Perkembangan yang cenderung liberalisme membuat koperasi semakin sulit untuk tumbuh lebih maju dalam persaingannya. Permasalahannya yang penting adalah dimana koperasi yang didirikan benar-benar dibutuhkan dan dapat memberikan pelayanan kepada para anggota dan masyarakat sekitar, dan menjadikan hidup anggota menjadi lebih baik. Dengan demikian dalam memajukan koperasi, diperlukannya kerja sama atas semua unsur-unsur koperasi dengan sesuai fungsi-fungsi dari unsur-unsur tersebut. Manajemen secara umum adalah suatu proses yang terdiri dari rangkaian kegiatan, seperti perencanaan, pengorganisasian, penggerakan dan pengendalian atau pengawasan, yang dilakukan untuk menetukan dan mencapai tujuan yang telah ditetapkan melalui pemanfaatan sumberdaya manusia dan sumberdaya lainnya. Secara umum struktur dan tatanan manajemen koperasi Indonesia dapat dirunut berdasarkan perangkat organisasi koperasi, yaitu: rapat Anggota, pengurus, pengawas, pengelola (Manajer).
    Date: 2022–04–09
  13. By: Ramos, Paulo (Singapore Management University)
    Abstract: We present here a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for an MDConnected Domain to support a Well Behaved Monotonic Social Choice Function. We require the domain to have a minimal number of preferences in which a pair of alternatives flips their relation, and these reversals must occurr in accordance to a tree graph. While this condition cannot be summarized by a set of restrictions on individual preferences, we provide two alternative characterizations that can, one that is necessary and another that is sufficient.
    Date: 2022–02–01
  14. By: Ludger Schuknecht
    Abstract: In this study, I will look at the spending role of government and the outcomes of government activity in Europe and Asia. Public spending and performance patterns differ hugely across countries. Asian “tigers” and some advanced countries show low public spending coupled with strong performance indicators. Central and Eastern European “tiger” countries are also catching up strongly while featuring leaner and productive governments. Most advanced European Union (EU) countries feature higher spending with divergent performance. Several of the remaining European and Asian emerging economies have the potential to become the economic “tigers” of the future.
    Date: 2022
  15. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Malaysia’s economy is showing signs of a gradual yet steady recovery thanks to the authorities’ impressive vaccine rollout, swift and coordinated implementation of multi-pronged support measures. The recovery nevertheless remains uneven and the output gap sizeable, with significant downside risks. Going forward, the authorities should calibrate macroeconomic policies to the pace of the recovery, while preserving policy space given pandemic-related uncertainties, and simultaneously accelerate structural reforms.
    Keywords: inflation expectation; transitory inflation pricing; staff statement; authorities project headline inflation; Ukraine-Russia conflict; COVID-19; Anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT); Tax refunds; Global
    Date: 2022–04–28
  16. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This IMF report to the AHLC is the first since September 2018. Following limited engagement over the past three years, policy discussions have intensified in recent months. These discussions have focused mainly on establishing a medium term macro-fiscal framework, including the broad outlines of a reform scenario.
    Keywords: B. PA policy; reform scenario; spending reform; policy discussion; IMF report; Arrears; Pension spending; Middle East and Central Asia
    Date: 2022–05–02
  17. By: Gustafsson, Björn Anders (University of Gothenburg); Zhang, Yudan (Beijing Normal University)
    Abstract: Household income per capita among the rural Yi, Manchurian ethnic minority groups and the Han majority is studied using data from the China Household Income Project 2002, 2013 and 2018. The disparity in total per capita income between the Yi and Han populations narrowed, while the average income among the Manchurian population remained relatively similar to that among the Han population. Decomposing total income into sources shows that the rapid increase in agricultural income among the Yi was a main reason why the disparity in income compared to the two other ethnic groups narrowed. Nevertheless, it is true that the reliance on agricultural income among the Yi became less extreme as wage employment and migration increased. The Manchurian group and the Han group also experienced rapid increases in wages and self-employment income. The aggregated value of transfers from the public sector was similar for all three ethnic groups.
    Keywords: Manchurian, income, Han, ethnic minorities, China, Yi
    JEL: H31 J15 P36
    Date: 2022–04
  18. By: Ms. Natasha X Che; Xuege Zhang
    Abstract: This paper studies the relationship between export structure and growth performance. We design an export recommendation system using a collaborative filtering algorithm based on countries' revealed comparative advantages. The system is used to produce export portfolio recommendations covering over 190 economies and over 30 years. We find that economies with their export structure more aligned with the recommended export structure achieve better growth performance, in terms of both higher GDP growth rate and lower growth volatility. These findings demonstrate that export structure matters for obtaining high and stable growth. Our recommendation system can serve as a practical tool for policymakers seeking actionable insights on their countries’ export potential and diversification strategies that may be complex and hard to quantify.
    Keywords: export diversification, comparative advantage, machine learning, collaborative filtering, economic growth, international trade; export structure; export portfolio recommendation; export recommendation system; performance export portfolio; export potential; Exports; Comparative advantage; Export diversification; Human capital; Total factor productivity; Global; East Asia
    Date: 2022–04–29
  19. By: Alicia Garcia-Herrero (Chief Economist for Asia Pacific at Natixis; Institute for Emerging Market Studies, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: Why so much attention is being paid to electric vehicles (EVs) in the green transition? The main reason is that the technology already exists to help governments reduce emissions as at reasonable costs. By pushing the shift towards EVs, governments can buy time to develop the technology to reduce emissions in other sectors at a reasonable cost. A second reason is that the EV sector offers a great industrial opportunity, not only for those who have traditionally produced cars but also for newcomers. Who is leading the race? The EU and China are so far leading but in different ways. The EU was the first to encourage the demand for sustainable cars, and to a lesser extent to produce them. China encourages productions with subsidies and is expected to benefit from the huge potential demands Alicia Garcia Herrero Adjunct Professor for Science and Technology at HKUST Senior Research Fellow at BRUEGEL The Future of Electric Vehicles in Asia from Asia. China also leads in battery components and controls the supply of related raw materials. The more batteries become a bottleneck to production, the more China can lead the race. Can the EV industry become another geopolitical battlefield? Components for EV batteries could easily become another geopolitical standoff and, possibly, a new bottleneck in the global supply chain. Countries that have benefited from Europe's leadership position in the automotive sector need to get their act together by starting production and ensuring the supply of their components. As for Asia ex-China, it is time to think of stepping up production of EVs and batteries to avoid excessive reliance on Chinese exports.
    Date: 2022–05
  20. By: khasanah, uswatun
    Abstract: Koperasi adalah salah satu pilar perekonomian yang telah terbukti menjadi penyokong perekonomian nasional. Namun demikian kebanyakan koperasi masih kurang optimal dikelola sehingga tidak mampu berkembang dengan baik. Perbedaan pengelolaan yang paling umum antara koperasi dengan institusi keuangan lainnya adalah penerapan teknologi informasi untuk mendukung administrasi keuangan. Namun kekurangoptimalan pengelolaan tersebut tidak hanya terbatas pada hal tersebut namun juga meliputi kurangbaiknya penerapan prinsip-prinsip manajemen secara umum. Hal ini tentu mengakibatkan pengembangan koperasi tidak dapat dicapai secara optimal. Hal ini sangat kontradiktif dengan siginifikansi peran koperasi terutama untuk pemberdayaan masyarakat dengan kemampuan ekonomi menengah kebawah.
    Date: 2022–04–09
  21. By: Joel Ntsonde (EPF-Ecole d’Ingénieurs Sceaux, CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Franck Aggeri (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Public procurement has been studied by numerous researchers and is considered to be an effective instrument for leading public and private actors to implement more sustainable practices. For researchers, public procurement can be leveraged to develop innovative practices oriented towards sustainability and create new markets for eco-friendly products. However, there is still a paucity of empirical evidence on the mechanisms by which public procurement can effectively stimulate sustainable innovation and foster the development of greener markets in relation to circular economy. To shed light on the emerging issue of circular public procurement, we use a qualitative method relying on an empirical case relating to a public tender in Denmark. Our research shows that public procurement can be studied as a design activity and clarifies the mechanisms by which public procurement can stimulate sustainable innovation in organizations, creating opportunities for collective innovative practices. Furthermore, we shed light on the process through which circular public procurement can create green markets, defining the qualities of the goods to be exchanged.
    Date: 2021–07
  22. By: Ashwani Bishnoi; Pravakar Sahoo (Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi)
    Abstract: China’s flagship project Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) launched in 2013 is meant to reshape global networks of transport infrastructure further integrating China with Asia, Europe and Africa having significant implications on trade, investment and economic and political ties of China vis-à-vis with other countries. The paper also highlights the economic as well as strategic implications of BRI on India. Overall, there has been significant increase in Chinese outward investment during the post-BRI period and most of the outward investment has been directed towards countries which are participating in BRI. Though the objectives of the projects undertaken in different countries varies, the overall objective is to develop transportation, logistics and communications which would reduce trade and transaction cost for China’s trade, give more market access to Chinese markets and ensure stable supply of energy and other resources. There is strong possibility of trade diversion due to BRI affecting competing countries like India.
    Date: 2020–12
  23. By: Ahmad Shabir Faizi; Weerachart Kilenthong
    Abstract: This paper investigates the socioeconomic determinants of parenting style in the context of a developing country using early childhood panel data from rural Thailand. Our key findings are that more patient caregivers tend to be more authoritative than authoritarian, caregivers are more likely to be authoritative than authoritarian when they observed more behavioral problems from their children, and caregivers exhibit more authoritarian than authoritative parenting if they perceived the community to be more dangerous. We also find that families with less resources, proxied by wealth, marital status and parental absence, are more likely to be authoritarian.
    Keywords: Parenting style; Time preferences; Child behavioral problems; Community risk factors; Developing country
    JEL: D91 J24 O15
    Date: 2022–05
  24. By: Michael Bleaney; Mo Tian
    Abstract: The ratio of trade to GDP is often used as a summary measure of a country’s openness to the rest of the world. It is well known that the trade/GDP ratio is affected by relatively time-invariant factors, such as country size and remoteness from trading partners, that can largely be controlled for in cross-country panels by using country fixed effects. It is shown here that there are also other important, time-varying influences on the trade/GDP ratio that have been little investigated, such as the prices of commodity exports and imports, the real effective exchange rate and the ratio of investment to GDP. These factors are shown to be significant, and not only in the short run, and need to be taken into account in estimating the long-run effects of transport costs or trade policy on the trade/GDP ratio.
    Keywords: trade openness; real exchange rate; commodity prices; investment
    Date: 2022
  25. By: Ahmet Faruk Aysan (HBKU - Hamad Bin Khalifa University); Ali Polat; Hasan Tekin; Ahmet Tunalı
    Abstract: In recent years, geopolitical risk (GPR) has been a crucial factor in investment decisions and stock markets. Therefore, we explore the research on the GPR by employing bibliometric and scientometric analytical techniques. We find 366 scientific contributions in December 2021 from the Scopus database by searching "Geopolitical risk" in abstracts, keywords, and titles. Our findings show that GPR research has gained momentum in the last three years. Specifically, the journal Defence and Peace Economics has one of the highest numbers of research and citation on GPR. Authors in Asia also dominate the GPR literature. Overall, this study contributes to the literature by presenting the existing research that may give new insights for prospective studies in GPR.
    Keywords: G12,Scopus JEL codes: C22,Geopolitical risk,Defence and peace economics,Bibliometric analysis,G18,G41
    Date: 2022–04–12
  26. By: , Dahlia
    Abstract: dalam menghadapi ekonomi pasar dimana persaingan pasar sangat ketat akan menyebabkan UKM semakin tidak berdaya. Dalam ketidak berdayaan ekonomi seperti ini kekuatan-kekuatan ekonomi seperti usaha besar akan menguasai UKM baik dalam pemasaran hasil produksi maupun dalam penyediaan sarana-sarana produksi. Hal ini menyebabkan usaha-usaha kecil dan menengah harus bergabung dalam suatu wadah (organisasi), dengan saling membantu dan bekerja sama tidak saja untuk menghadapi oligopolies dan monopolis, tetapi juga untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berproduksi dan memasarkan hasil produksinya. Organisasi tersebut dinamakan koperasi. Koperasi merupakan salah satu pendorong pertumbuhan ekonomi yang berbasis ekonomi kerakyatan. Koperasi mempunyai peranan yang sangat penting bagi semua.
    Date: 2022–04–01
  27. By: putri, Aulia ananda
    Abstract: Dalam dunia perbankan saat ini, telah dikenal bank syariah. Secara fungsi, bank syariah memiliki peran yang sama dengan bank konvensional, yaitu menghimpun dan menyalurkan dana masyarakat. Namun, satu hal yang membedakan adalah prinsip syariah Islam, demokrasi ekonomi, dan prinsip kehati-hatian yang menjadi pedoman untuk sistem operasi dari bank syariah itu sendiri. Di luar tugas utama sebagai lembaga yang bertanggung jawab atas penghimpunan dan penyaluran dana masyarakat, bank syariah juga memiliki tujuan untuk menunjang pelaksanaan pembangunan nasional untuk mendukung peningkatan keadilan, kebersamaan, dan pemerataan kesejahteraan di kalangan masyarakat.
    Date: 2022–04–01
  28. By: Spirin, Victor
    Abstract: One of the main questions of specific factors theory is whether it is possible to achieve a redistribution of gains from trade such that everybody in both trading countries win. This theory explicitly assumes that the trading partners possess identical technologies, and the difference in the amount of goods produced is solely due to the differences in factor endowments. In effect, opening to trade between two countries with different factor endowments is an optimization problem that redistributes labor between the types of goods produced given the available capital. In this optimization problem both trade participants benefit from free trade, and it is possible to make everybody win. But if the two countries possess different technologies, the result is quite the opposite. The optimization problem leads to the destruction of capital in the country with less efficient technology. While the main conclusions of the theory – the owners of export-oriented factor of production win and capital-abundant country will export capital-intensive goods and vice versa – will hold, the country with less efficient pre-trade technology will lose the technology altogether, and the total output of that country will fall as a result of free trade.
    Keywords: Free trade, Specific factors model, Vanek-Reinert effect, International economics.
    JEL: F11 F63
    Date: 2022–05–02
  29. By: Muhammad Javid; Fakhri Hasanov (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: International labor migration has played a key role in the development of both advanced and developing countries. Many developing countries in Asia have relied on labor migration, mainly to the oil-rich Gulf region, to reduce both unemployment and poverty (Naseem 2007). Mansoor and Quillin (2006) explain that poverty, unemployment and low wages in developing countries are the main drivers of migration from these countries. Higher wages and the potential for improved standards of living and professional development in resource-rich countries are pull factors for migration.
    Keywords: Agent Based modeling, Analytics, Applied Research, Autometrics
    Date: 2022–05–22
  30. By: Kamal, kasmad; Kamal, kasmad
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of public services at the Bara Permai Health Center, Palopo City. To achieve this goal, qualitative methods are used with descriptive data elaboration. A data collection technique is carried out by observation, interviews and documentation using qualitative descriptive analysis techniques. The results of the research show that in terms of (1) Tangible Dimensions, the assessment of the quality of public services at the Bara Health Center in the tangible dimension shows that the quality of service is still low. This is caused by the inconvenience of the service place. The discomfort is caused by a fan that is still lacking. (2) Dimension of Reliability, the results of quality measurements carried out on the dimension of reliability show that the quality of service is good. This is due to the skill of employees in using service tools such as using computers. (3) Dimensions of Responsiveness, the assessment of service quality at the Bara Permai Health Center in the dimension of responsiveness shows that the officers in providing services have responded to all service users. The officers have also provided fast, precise, and careful service. (4) Dimension of Assurance, the assessment of service quality at Bara Permai Health Center in the dimension of assurance shows that officers in providing services have provided guarantees on time, cost and legality in services. (5) Dimensions of Empathy the assessment of service quality at the Bara Permai Health Center, the dimensions of empathy indicate that the quality of service is good. This is due to the friendliness of employees in serving the community, namely the empathetic attitude of service officers shown by giving smiles, greetings and greetings to the community when doing services.
    Date: 2022–03–01
  31. By: Kernot, Irene
    Abstract: Fusarium wilt of banana caused by the soil borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense was first recorded in Australia in 1874, but its spread to Panama in 1890 was the start of the first global epidemic. The disease affected a susceptible variety dominant at the time, Gros Michel. By the 1950s Gros Michel was replaced by a variety resistant to the disease: the Cavendish banana. A silver bullet solution was rapidly adopted around the world. Then in 1967 symptoms of Fusarium wilt appeared on Cavendish in Taiwan. Tropical Race 4, the race that affects Cavendish in any environment, was named in the 1990s. In 2019 it appeared in Colombia, establishing it in every banana-growing region globally. This is a race the disease is winning in turtle-like fashion. Despite this, banana remains an important export and also provides nutrition and livelihood benefits to growers and communities around the tropics. What can we learn from our biosecurity responses to races 1 and 4 to provide a competitive advantage against any future race? Both technical and behavioural strategies are necessary, to be prepared for inevitable change. Solutions must offer hope to growers and smallholders that production can be maintained despite the presence of the disease as the return to business as usual becomes a distant dream.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2021
  32. By: Gour Sundar Mitra Thakur (Mondal); Rupak Bhattacharyyab (Mondal); Seema Sarkar (Mondal)
    Abstract: Selection of proper stocks, before allocating investment ratios, is always a crucial task for the investors. Presence of many influencing factors in stock performance have motivated researchers to adopt various Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to make this challenging task easier. In this paper a novel fuzzy expert system model is proposed to evaluate and rank the stocks under Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). Dempster-Shafer (DS) evidence theory is used for the first time to automatically generate the consequents of the fuzzy rule base to reduce the effort in knowledge base development of the expert system. Later a portfolio optimization model is constructed where the objective function is considered as the ratio of the difference of fuzzy portfolio return and the risk free return to the weighted mean semi-variance of the assets that has been used. The model is solved by applying Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm by giving preference to the top ranked stocks. The performance of the model proved to be satisfactory for short-term investment period when compared with the recent performance of the stocks.
    Date: 2022–04
  33. By: , Dahlia
    Abstract: Koperasi adalah suatu perkumpulan atau organisasi ekonomi yang beranggotakan orang-orang atau badan-badan, yang memberikan kebebasan masuk dan keluar sebagai anggota menurut peraturan yang ada, dengan bekerjasama secara kekeluargaan menjalankan suatu usaha, dengan tujuan mempertinggi kesejahteraan jasmaniah para anggotanya. Dalam persaingan global sekarang ini, koperasi juga harus mengemban misi negara yang sangat berat, yaitu sebagai sakaguru perekonomian nasional, atau tiangnya perekonomian nasional, atau dasar ekonomi nasional.
    Date: 2022–04–01
  34. By: , Le Thanh Tung
    Abstract: This paper aims to test the Kuznets hypothesis regarding the existence of the inverted U-curve in the relationship between FDI and income inequality with an international sample. Some economists have recently expressed concern that the globalization of the production process can promote inequality and create social problems. Whether foreign resources might be related to unequal income distribution in emerging economies remains an open question. In order to fill the research gap, the paper tries to examine the impact of foreign direct investment on inequality in 33 emerging economies between 1980 and 2019. There are two methods including OLS and 2-SLS estimations are employed to estimate the coefficients of the variables. Where the 2-SLS methodology employs instrumental variables to solve the endogenous phenomenon in the study function. The results indicate that both the FDI-inequality nexus and the income-inequality nexus are non-linear effects that confirm the Kuznets curve hypothesis and that improved infrastructure and trade openness can reduce inequality in this group of economies. Finally, the result also suggests that emerging economies need to persevere to FDI attracting strategy because there is a threshold that FDI will ultimately reduce inequality in these economies.
    Date: 2022–03–14
  35. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: The CBvCSM is the sole supervisory authority for all regulated financial institutions operating locally and in the offshore (or international) sector, as well as the stock exchange in Curacao and St Maarten. The financial sector comprises different types of institutions, which include banks and non-bank institutions, insurance companies (both Life, and Non-life), securities intermediaries, asset management firms, investments institutions, fund administrators, management of pension funds, reinsurers, and trust companies.
    Date: 2022–03–25
  36. By: Hinder, Nicola
    Abstract: International trade in agricultural and food commodities is essential to global food and nutrition security. Trade is enhanced by systems-based and science-based approaches to regulation that address risks to animal and plant biosecurity, zoonotic disease, food safety and nutrition. The World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) recognises the ‘three sisters’ – the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), and the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) – as the international standard-setting bodies squarely at the centre of this nexus between biosecurity, health and trade. The standards set by these bodies are integral to maintaining a transparent rules-based trading environment and reducing risk for those operating in the increasingly connected global value chain. I will explore how the work of the three sisters intersect to influence food import and export systems, continuing to adapt in a changing world, and I will discuss Australia’s crucial role in promoting science-based standards and guidance that facilitate trade in safe food, with a focus on the important role Australia plays in contributing to the work of Codex.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2021
  37. By: Akbar, Muh.
    Abstract: Secara sederhana pendapatan nasional dapat diartikan sebagai jumlah barang dan jasa yang dihasilkan suatu negara pada periode tertentu biasanya satu tahun. Istilah yang terkait dengan pendapatan nasional beragam antara lain; produk domestic bruto (gross domestic product/GDP), produk nasional bruto (gross national product/GNP), serta produk nasional neto (netnational product).
    Date: 2022–04–10
  38. By: Mikkel Bennedsen (Aarhus University and CREATES); Eric Hillebrand (Aarhus University and CREATES); Sebastian Jensen (Aarhus University and CREATES)
    Abstract: We investigate the relationship between per capita gross domestic product and per capita carbon dioxide emissions using national-level panel data for the period 1960-2018. We propose a novel semiparametric panel data methodology that combines country and time fixed effects with a nonparametric neural network regression component. Globally and for the regions OECD and Asia, we find evidence of an inverse U-shaped relationship, often referred to as an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). For OECD, the EKC-shape disappears when using consumption-based emissions data, suggesting the EKC-shape observed for OECD is driven by emissions exports. For Asia, the EKC-shape becomes even more pronounced when using consumption-based emissions data and exhibits an earlier turning point. JEL classifcation: C14, C23, C45, C51, C52, C53 Key words: Territorial carbon dioxide emissions, Consumption-based carbon dioxide emissions, Environmental Kuznets curve, Climate econometrics, Panel data, Machine learning, Neural networks
    Date: 2022–05–24
  39. By: Babak Naysary (Monash University, School of Business, Selangor, Malaysia); Mehdi Malekzadeh (Service Rocket Inc., Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia); Ruth Tacneng (LAPE - Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Prospective Economique - GIO - Gouvernance des Institutions et des Organisations - UNILIM - Université de Limoges); Amine Tarazi (LAPE - Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Prospective Economique - GIO - Gouvernance des Institutions et des Organisations - UNILIM - Université de Limoges)
    Abstract: This multidisciplinary study aims to overcome the shortcomings of traditional data collection methods used in the literature to investigate drivers of e-wallet adoption. We apply big data analytics to gather and analyze real-world data from users' sentiments and opinions available on online platforms. We use a text analytics approach to identify and categorize principal themes of concern affecting user adoption. After, we use the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique to weigh and rank these themes and subsequently construct a structural framework for choosing the optimal e-wallet alternative in the market. Our results identify 10 clusters of e-wallet adoption drivers that can be categorized into three groups. The first group includes factors such as usefulness, ease of use, trust, risk security, and associated costs, confirming existing findings in the literature. The second group reinforces the importance of more implicit factors which existing theories fail to integrate, such as customer service, user interface, and promotional rewards. And finally, the last group comprises interoperability, highlighting the importance of e-wallet connectivity and how conveniently it performs transactions with other platforms, systems, and applications. Based on the results of clustering and the AHP model, we provide several managerial recommendations that can guide decision-making and eventually optimize the performance of e-wallets. Our study makes significant contribution by adopting a holistic, multi-criteria framework to evaluate ewallet adoption comprehensively.
    Keywords: E-wallet adoption,big data analytics,AHP,mobile payment,text mining
    Date: 2022–04–06
  40. By: Akbar, Muh.
    Abstract: Ketika kita berbicara tentang manajemen koperasi, selain definisi atau makna dari koperasi, maka kita perlu tahu arti kata manajemen. Dalam literatur banyak cara orang mendefinisikan manajemen. Meskipun berbeda-beda di dalam mendefinisikan pengertian manajemen pada umumnya mereka menyetujui unsur dasar dan tujuan yang sama dari manajemen. G. Terry mendefinisikan bahwa : “Manajemen adalah suatu proses tertentu yang terdiri dari perencanaan, pengorganisasian, pelaksanaan dan pengawasan penggunaan suatu ilmu dan seni yang bersama-sama menyelesaikan tugas untuk mencapai tujuan”
    Date: 2022–04–10
  41. By: Agnusia, Nur Adillah
    Abstract: Guna mencapai tujuan Koperasi, perlu diperhatikan adanya sistim Manajemen yang baik. Manajemen adalah suatu proses tertentu yang terdiri dari perencanaan, pengorganisasian, pelaksanaan dan pengawasan penggunaan suatu ilmu dan seni yang bersama-sama menyelesaikan tugas untuk mencapai tujuan. Koperasi secara umum adalah sekelompok orang yang memiliki tujuan sama dan dihimpun dalam satu organisasi dengan asas kekeluargaan untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan para anggota di dalamnya. Manajemen koperasi adalah kegiatan profesional yang dilakukan koperasi untuk membantu seluruh keanggotaan koperasi di dalam mencapai tujuannya. Lebih lanjut perlu dijelaskan bahwa manajemen koperasi tidak didasarkan pada pemaksaan wewenang, melainkan melalui keterlibatan dan partisipasi. Dalam suatu koperasi pasti tercipta yang namanya Struktur organisasi dapat diartikan sebagai susunan dan hubungan antarkomponen dan antarposisi dalam suatu perusahaan. Struktur organisasi menunjukkan hierarki organisasi dan struktur wewenang, serta memperlihatkan aliran pelaporannya. Selain itu struktur organisasi memberikan stabilitas dan kelanjutan hidup organisasi, walaupun sumber daya manusia di dalamnya silih berganti.
    Date: 2022–04–09

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