nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2022‒02‒07
thirteen papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Uniform nonparametric inference in time series via Stata By Jia Li; Zhipeng Liao; Mengsi Gao
  2. Relationship between Water and Sanitation and Maternal Health: Evidence from Indonesia By Lisa Cameron; Claire Chase; Diana Contreras Suarez
  3. Trade linkages and supply chains of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and vaccines in ASEAN during the COVID-19 pandemic. By Bruno Jetin
  4. Crimes against morality: unintended consequences of criminalizing sex work By Lisa Cameron; Jennifer Seager; Manisha Shah
  5. Information, Intermediaries, and International Migration By Samuel Bazzi; Lisa Cameron; Simone Schaner; Firman Witoelar
  7. Impact of Travel Bubbles: Cooperative Travel Arrangements in a Pandemic By Taojun Xie; Jiao Wang; Shiqi Liu
  8. How Do Disasters Change Inter-Group Perceptions? Evidence from the 2018 Sulawesi Earthquake By Yuzuka Kashiwagi; Yasuyuki Todo
  9. Blockchain System Architecture for Land Registration By Muhammad Najib Razali; Rohaya Abdul Jalil; Ainur Zaireen Zainudin; Norhidayah Mohd Yunus; Azlina Mohd. Yassin
  10. Review of Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) For Development of Sustainable Covid-19 Resilient Framework for Office Building By Shazmin Shareena A. Azis; Hishamuddin Mohd Ali; Nur Hannani Ab Rahman; Nur Amira Aina Zulkifli
  11. The dragon down under: The regional labour market impact of growth in Chinese imports to Australia By Michael Coelli; James Maccarrone; Jeff Borland
  12. 'Moving On' -- Investigating Inventors' Ethnic Origins Using Supervised Learning By Matthias Niggli
  13. What are the correlates of childhood undernutrition? An analysis of DHS data from Africa South of the Sahara By Haile, Beliyou; Ru, Yating; Ahn, Hee Eun

  1. By: Jia Li (Singapore Management University); Zhipeng Liao (Singapore Management University); Mengsi Gao (Singapore Management University)
    Date: 2021–11–10
  2. By: Lisa Cameron (Melbourne Institute: Applied Economic & Social Research, the University of Melbourne); Claire Chase (World Bank Water Global Practice); Diana Contreras Suarez (Melbourne Institute: Applied Economic & Social Research, the University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: Poor household water supply and sanitation can affect maternal and newborn health outcomes through several pathways, including the quality of drinking water consumed by pregnant woman and exposure to harmful fecal pathogens in the environment due to poor quality sanitation. Using data on 14,098 pregnancies across four rounds of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS), we investigate the relationship between water and sanitation and outcomes along the course of a pregnancy - health and complications during pregnancy, probability of a miscarriage, complications during child birth, probability of live birth, and neonatal outcomes including birth weight and newborn survival rates. After controlling for confounding factors, we find that access to at least basic household sanitation is strongly associated with substantially decreased overall risk during pregnancy and birth. Whether or not a household has access to at least basic sanitation is strongly significantly associated with a lower probability of miscarriage and is a strong predictor of high fever during labor (an indicator of infection). We find no systematic association between household access to basic water and maternal and newborn outcomes. We also find no evidence of herd protection resulting from high levels of sanitation within the community.
    Keywords: Sanitation, water, maternal health, neonatal health, Indonesia, developing countries
    JEL: I15 Q59 O15
    Date: 2021–07
  3. By: Bruno Jetin (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - UP13 - Université Paris 13 - USPC - Université Sorbonne Paris Cité - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universiti Brunei Darussalam)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is precisely to check whether the region played a significant role in the supply of PPE and vaccines during 2020, the first full year of the pandemic for which data is available. Our concept of the region is two-fold. First, we will focus on ASEAN to verify to what extent it could satisfy its needs of medical products and vaccines. ASEAN is then compared with the wider Asian region. ASEAN has signed with China, Japan and South Korea a set of trade and political agreements which establishes privileged relationships. These three partner countries have expertise and capabilities in the production of medical goods. However, among the three, China plays a specific role. It is the second-largest economy in the world and the largest global producer of some critical medical goods. It has signed with ASEAN a free trade agreement in 2002, which progressively eliminated tariffs on goods between the two parties. Their connectivity has also improved. The paper's ambition is a modest contribution to the role of regions in the COVID-19 pandemic that we have more comprehensively analysed in another paper on the policy response of ASEAN and the EU (Jetin, 2021). Here, the objectives are the following: in the next section, we want to check if Asia , as a broad region, is the leading provider of medical goods to ASEAN. We also look at the specific contribution of China, the rest of Asia, and ASEAN in the supply of medical goods to ASEAN. In the latter case, we want to assess the capacity of ASEAN to be self-sufficient. Finally, we look at the rest of the world, primarily the European Union (EU) and the USA, to see in which case they provide medical goods.
    Keywords: COVID-19,Region,ASEAN,Asia,Protective Personal Equipment,Vaccines,medical goods,Global Value Chains,Dependency
    Date: 2021–10–16
  4. By: Lisa Cameron (Melbourne Institute: Applied Economic & Social Research, The University of Melbourne); Jennifer Seager (Department of Global Health, George Washington University); Manisha Shah (Department of Public Policy, University of California)
    Abstract: We examine the impact of criminalizing sex work, exploiting an event in which local officials unexpectedly criminalized sex work in one district in East Java, Indonesia, but not in neighboring districts. We collect data from female sex workers and their clients before and after the change. We find that criminalization increases sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers by 58 percent, measured by biological tests. This is driven by decreased condom access and use. We also find evidence that criminalization decreases earnings among women who left sex work due to criminalization, and decreases their ability to meet their children’s school expenses while increasing the likelihood that children begin working to supplement household income. While criminalization has the potential to improve population STI outcomes if the market shrinks permanently, we show that five years post-criminalization the market has rebounded and the probability of STI transmission within the general population is likely to have increased.
    Keywords: Not specified
    JEL: I18 K42 J16
    Date: 2020–10
  5. By: Samuel Bazzi (UC San Diego, NBER, and CEPR); Lisa Cameron (Melbourne Institute: Applied Economic & Social Research, the University of Melbourne); Simone Schaner (University of Southern California, NBER); Firman Witoelar (Australian National University)
    Abstract: Job seekers often face substantial information frictions related to potential job quality. This is especially true in international labor markets, where intermediaries match prospective migrants with employers abroad. We conducted a randomised trial in Indonesia to explore how information about intermediary quality shapes migration choices and outcomes. Information reduces the migration rate, lowering use of low-quality intermediaries. However, workers who migrate receive better pre-departure preparation and have higher-quality job experiences abroad, despite no change in occupation or destination. Information does not change intentions to migrate or beliefs about the return to migration or intermediary quality. Nor does selection explain the improved outcomes for workers who choose to migrate with the information. Together, our findings are consistent with an increase in the option value of search: with better ability to differentiate offer quality, workers become choosier and ultimately have better migration experiences. This offers a new perspective on the importance of information and matching frictions in global labor markets.
    Keywords: International Migration, Information, Middlemen, Quality Disclosure, Search
    JEL: F22 O15 D83 L15
    Date: 2021–12
  6. By: Yves Romani Aguillon (VNU - Vietnam National University [Hanoï], ADEF - Apprentissage, Didactique, Evaluation, Formation - AMU - Aix Marseille Université)
    Abstract: En 2013, paraissait l'article de J. Létourneau, M. Alderson, C. Caux et L. Richard « La déviance positive : analyse de concept selon l'approche évolutionniste de Rodgers » consacré à l'analyse du concept de déviance positive, dans le n°2 de Recherche en Soins Infirmiers. Il analysait l'évolution de la déviance positive dans les sciences infirmières, la médecine et la psychologie puis son apport et l'opportunité de continuer cette méthode en la développant. Toutefois, en ne remettant pas en cause la dénomination de « déviance positive », leurs auteurs n'ont pas perçu les normes formelles ou informelles qui pouvaient sanctionner socialement les populations ou individus sollicités comme déviants et en a ainsi restreint l'usage dans les disciplines qu'elles mentionnaient tout autant que son emprunt par d'autres disciplines. Cette présentation reconsidère la dénomination du concept de déviance positive utilisée jusqu'à présent. La transdisciplinarité de plus en plus fréquente dans les milieux de la recherche invite à mettre en avant les problèmes actuels soulevés par cette dénomination pour en faire une méthode libérée des prénotions issues de différentes disciplines et adaptable aux sciences humaines, renforçant ainsi l'émergence de recherches respectueuses de l'éthique dans de nombreux autres champs disciplinaires dont l'éducation.
    Keywords: Déviance Positive,éthique,transdisciplinarité
    Date: 2020–10–22
  7. By: Taojun Xie (Asia Competitiveness Institute, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore); Jiao Wang (Melbourne Institute: Applied Economic & Social Research, The University of Melbourne); Shiqi Liu (Asia Competitiveness Institute, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: We develop a two-region Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Macroeconomic model to evaluate the cooperative and non-cooperative cross-border travel arrangements during a pandemic. In a symmetric setting, the Pareto optimal is a cooperative travel arrangement that emphasizes exclusively on domestic containment. A non-cooperative game between social planners results in high travel restrictions with little benefit in economics or health. With asymmetric pandemic dynamics, a border closure on average results in less welfare loss than a noncooperative game, compared to cooperation. A border control allowing minimal essential travel only delays the outbreak in a region initially not infected. This can however be remedied by a timely vaccination plan. Under cooperation, pre-departure tests further enhance the welfare. Applying our model, we estimate that the Singapore { Hong Kong travel bubble is valued at US$635.1 per capita, and the Australia { New Zealand travel bubble is valued at US$307.8 per capita.
    Keywords: Travel Bubbles, Optimal Policy, Cooperation, Noncooperation, COVID-19 Pandemic
    JEL: F41 F42 I10
    Date: 2021–07
  8. By: Yuzuka Kashiwagi (Waseda University and National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience); Yasuyuki Todo (Faculty of Political Science and Economics, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050, Japan.)
    Abstract: This study investigates whether and how natural disasters affect intergroup perceptions, particularly focusing on subjective expectations for dependability on other groups in emergencies. We conduct a household survey in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, which has experienced religious conflicts and was heavily hit by the 2018 Sulawesi earthquake. Our estimation results from the survey data indicate that individuals who suffered from the earthquake exhibit higher expectations for access to emergency support from other religious groups in the future. As a possible mechanism of this change, we show that the direct and indirect experience of actual cooperation between groups after the earthquake contribute to the higher expectations of sufferers. We also find heterogeneity in the effect of the earthquake on intergroup perception, depending on, for example, the types of damage and past experiences.
    Keywords: disasters, subjective expectations, helping networks, weak ties.
    JEL: D1 O12 D83 D91 H84 Q54
    Date: 2021–02
  9. By: Muhammad Najib Razali; Rohaya Abdul Jalil; Ainur Zaireen Zainudin; Norhidayah Mohd Yunus; Azlina Mohd. Yassin
    Abstract: Land registration requires complex sensitive data which requires a decentralised environment. Current technology only concentrates on the database storage which is less secure and can be exposed to any misconduct. This is due to the characteristics of the database having problems with unstructured data and non-relational databases. Fraud is one the major problems and is currently a serious problem within the Malaysian land registration system. The blockchain technology creates public ledgers from all complex transactions that have high potential to replace the complicated systems with one simple database. Current practice at the land office has seen the land registration process being very centralised which requires only several persons to validate and authorise the data. Therefore, the need to identify the model of the blockchain technology for land registration is essential. In addition, the foundation of the blockchain technology for the land registration system in Malaysia should be undertaken.
    Keywords: blockchain; Land; Malaysia; Registration; Technology
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–01–01
  10. By: Shazmin Shareena A. Azis; Hishamuddin Mohd Ali; Nur Hannani Ab Rahman; Nur Amira Aina Zulkifli
    Abstract: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has rapidly affected day to day life, business and disrupt the world trade and movements. Various industries and sectors are greatly affected by the cause of this disease. This virus creates significant knock-on effects on the daily life of citizens, as well as the global economy. The World Health Organization (WHO) acknowledge coronavirus airborne transmission could be potentially indoors with crowded and poorly ventilated space. Therefore, new Standard of Procedures (SOP) in workplace has been introduced to reduce the spread of COVID-19 including practicing physical distancing and avoiding physical meetings. Several researchers have suggested that green measurement such as Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) would ensure long-term social and environmental protection. Therefore, it is important to integrate the Indoor Air Quality attributes in the recent SOP in workplace. This study is conducted to comprehensively review the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) attributes for office building in Malaysia. This is one of the processes of developing a sustainable COVID-19 resilient framework for office building. There are three green rating tools for office building in Malaysia namely Green Building Index, GreenRE and PHJKR. Seven categories, 16 sub-criteria, and 42 attributes of IEQ for office building that should be consider for the framework development including space management air quality, thermal comfort, lighting comfort, visual comfort, acoustic comfort, and verification and space management.
    Keywords: COVID-19; Green Building; Indoor environmental quality (IEQ); Office; Resilient; Sustainable
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–01–01
  11. By: Michael Coelli (Department of Economics, The University of Melbourne); James Maccarrone (Department of Economics, the University of Melbourne); Jeff Borland (Department of Economics, The University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: Imports of manufactured goods from China to Australia grew more than eleven-fold in real US dollar terms between 1991 and 2006. This study uses differences in industry structure between regions to identify the impact of that growth on labour market outcomes in Australia. Overall, the growth in Chinese imports is estimated to have reduced the ratio of manufacturing employment to population by 1.6 percentage points, and manufacturing employment by 221,000 workers. Adjustment to this impact on local manufacturing employment appears to have occurred through labour mobility between regions, but also increased rates of unemployment and non-participation. Growth in manufacturing imports from other Asian countries during this period, by contrast, is found to have had little impact on manufacturing employment in Australia – with the main explanation for the difference being that Chinese imports were weighted more to manufacturing sectors experiencing slower growth in domestic consumption (absorption) and with high labour-intensity. The study concludes by interpreting the estimated impacts of Chinese imports on Australia against estimates for other countries.
    Keywords: Manufacturing employment, trade shocks, labour market adjustment, import exposure
    JEL: J21 J23 J61 F16 F66
    Date: 2021–07
  12. By: Matthias Niggli
    Abstract: Patent data provides rich information about technical inventions, but does not disclose the ethnic origin of inventors. In this paper, I use supervised learning techniques to infer this information. To do so, I construct a dataset of 95'202 labeled names and train an artificial recurrent neural network with long-short-term memory (LSTM) to predict ethnic origins based on names. The trained network achieves an overall performance of 91% across 17 ethnic origins. I use this model to classify and investigate the ethnic origins of 2.68 million inventors and provide novel descriptive evidence regarding their ethnic origin composition over time and across countries and technological fields. The global ethnic origin composition has become more diverse over the last decades, which was mostly due to a relative increase of Asian origin inventors. Furthermore, the prevalence of foreign-origin inventors is especially high in the USA, but has also increased in other high-income economies. This increase was mainly driven by an inflow of non-western inventors into emerging high-technology fields for the USA, but not for other high-income countries.
    Date: 2022–01
  13. By: Haile, Beliyou; Ru, Yating; Ahn, Hee Eun
    Abstract: Despite progresses made over the last several decades, the prevalence of child malnutrition re-mains alarmingly high. About 149 million children under the age of five years old were stunted (too short for their age) in 2018, of which 55% and 39% lived in Asia and Africa, respectively. Malnourished children, especially stunted ones, may never achieve their full cognitive and non-cognitive potential with implications for their educational and labor market performance among other things. Malnutrition results from several interlinked factors operating at child, parental, household, and landscape level such as inadequate maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy and at the time of lactation, suboptimal breastfeeding practices, lack of nutritious complementary foods, and unhealthy living environments. This study analyzes the correlates of child undernutrition in rural Africa South of the Sahara (SSA) – a region with the least progress in tackling undernutrition.
    Keywords: AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, agriculture, investment, income, economic growth, nutrition, child nutrition, child health, malnutrition, stunting,
    Date: 2021

This nep-sea issue is ©2022 by Kavita Iyengar. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.