nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2022‒01‒03
eight papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. The Impact of Small- and Medium-Size Hydro-Power Plants on Farming in Rural Vietnam By Seewald, Eva
  2. The middle class in Emerging Asia: Champions for more inclusive societies? By Antoine Bonnet; Alexandre Kolev
  3. Environmental Regulation and Labour Demand among Vietnamese SMEs By Matthew Sharp
  4. Planning, policy and integration for sustainable development of offshore wind energy in Vietnam 2022 -2030 By Minh Ha-Duong; Sven Teske; Dimitri Pescia; Mentari Pujantoro
  5. Marketed Surplus of Indonesian Rice Production By Rifin, Amzul
  6. Impact on Leader's Emotional Intelligence on Turnover Intention: a Mediation role of Organization Commitment By Sheikh Muhamad Hizam Sheikh Khairuddin
  7. Network Analysis of the Determinants of Attitudes towards Immigrants across Regions By Rachael Kei KAWASAKI; IKEDA Yuichi
  8. Cash, and "Drops": Boosting vaccine registrations By Suah, Jing Lian

  1. By: Seewald, Eva
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2021–08
  2. By: Antoine Bonnet; Alexandre Kolev
    Abstract: As Asian societies continue to undergo rapid economic transformation, income distribution and social stratification are set to change radically. A primary characteristic of this evolution is the emergence of wealthier Asian middle-income classes. While middle-income classes are a heterogeneous group, they often come with new policy expectations, and the extent to which they will call for policy changes that are beneficial to more fragile segments of society remains unclear. This paper investigates the characteristics of different income classes in Asia in order to explore the extent to which the emergence of wealthier Asian middle-income classes could become a driver for more inclusive societies. From this perspective, we assess whether middle-income classes share common characteristics with the poor and the near-poor in six Asian countries, i.e. Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Thailand, Pakistan and Viet Nam. The paper finds that, in some aspects, middle-income classes share a number of similar characteristics with lower income classes. We discuss how this resemblance could result in support for policies that could benefit larger segments of society. We also underline the necessity to better integrate the needs of the poor and the near-poor in policy discussions, especially in areas where the interests of lower and upper income classes do not necessarily converge. La rapide transformation des économies émergentes d’Asie a radicalement modifié leur distribution du revenu et leur structure sociale. Cette évolution est notamment caractérisée par l’augmentation du revenu des classes moyennes. Quoique ces classes moyennes sont fortement hétérogènes, il est généralement admis que leur émergence s’accompagne de nouvelles préférences et demandes sur le plan des politiques publiques, et l’alignement de ses préférences avec celles de segments plus fragiles de la société reste à établir. Cet article évalue la mesure dans laquelle les classes moyennes sont différentes des populations pauvres et quasi-pauvres, et, sur cette base, si elles peuvent apparaître comme des moteurs de croissance inclusive, dans six pays asiatiques émergents : le Cambodge, la Chine, l’Indonésie, la Thaïlande, le Pakistan et le Viet Nam. L’article met en évidence une série de similarités entre leur classes moyennes respectives et des groupes au revenu moindre. Nous observons comment ces similarités peuvent soutenir des politiques bénéficiant à de larges pans de la société. Nous soulignons également la nécessité d’intégrer d’avantage les besoins spécifiques des foyers pauvres et quasi-pauvres dans l’établissement de politiques publiques, en particulier dans des domaines où leurs intérêts divergent de ceux des classes moyennes et supérieures.
    Keywords: Asia, Income distribution, Inequalities, Social Classes
    JEL: D63 N35 O15
    Date: 2021–12–20
  3. By: Matthew Sharp
    Abstract: The effects of environmental regulation on labour demand has received significant attention, though research has almost entirely been conducted in developed countries. The aggressive development strategy pursued by Vietnam, through reforms such as the Doi Moi, has been associated with poor environmental performance. Since 1994, Vietnam has pursued detailed Environmental Plans aimed at reducing emissions and pollution by firms and has introduced numerous laws which have implications for all Vietnamese businesses. This dissertation examines changes in employment resulting from treatment of environmental factors as mandated by regulation among micro, small, and medium manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam, using unbalanced firm-level panel data from the 2011, 2013, and 2015 rounds of the UNU-Wider Vietnam SME survey. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), two-stage-least squares (2SLS), fixed-effects, and fixed-effects-2SLS models are estimated to recover effects of treatment of environmental factors on labour demand. OLS and fixed-effect models show small positive effects. Once instrumental variables and fixed effects are used to control for endogeneity, results still indicate that there are no large negative effects on employment from treatment of environmental factors. These results are consistent with existing evidence from developed countries that environmental regulation does not lead to large reductions in employment by regulated firms.
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Sven Teske (UTS - University of Technology Sydney); Dimitri Pescia (Agora Energiewende); Mentari Pujantoro
    Abstract: The wind power sector took off in Vietnam after the feed-in tariff was raised to 8.5 UScents / kWh for onshore projects in 2018. As of March 2021, 113 wind projects with total capacity 6,038MW have signed a power purchase agreement. Most are expected to enter commercial operation before December 2021. We explore here three scenarios for wind power development in Vietnam through 2030. It argues that by 2030 the wind power installed capacity in the New Normal could be around 17 GW onshore and 10 GW offshore. In a Factor Three scenario, offshore wind reaches 21 GW by 2030. This has three policy implications. First, Vietnam's next power development plan provides an important opportunity to increase at low costs the level of ambition of wind power development. Second, flexibility should be the guiding principle of the plan. Third, to realize the large potential of offshore wind power, infrastructure planning has to start soon.
    Keywords: Wind energy,Vietnam,scenarios
    Date: 2021–12
  5. By: Rifin, Amzul
    Keywords: Marketing, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2021–08
  6. By: Sheikh Muhamad Hizam Sheikh Khairuddin (Universiti Kuala Lumpur Business School, Jalan Pesiaran Gurney, Kampung Datuk Keramat, 54000 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Author-2-Name: Syed Sardar Hussain Author-2-Workplace-Name: Universiti Kuala Lumpur Business School, Jalan Pesiaran Gurney, Kampung Datuk Keramat, 54000 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: "Objective - The study is aimed to examine the relationships between a leader's emotional intelligence (as perceived by nursing staff), organizational commitment, and turnover intention through empirical investigation across the service sector. Methodology/Technique - A total of 433 employees working in the healthcare sector were approached through probability sampling. A questionnaire-based survey was employed to conduct the responses. Two-stage approaches were applied using structural equation modelling. In the first stage, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was applied. Findings - The study tests the direct linkages between independent and dependent variables, and in the second-stage path, coefficients were examined. Third, affective and normative commitments were positively and significantly associated with nursing staff turnover intention; but study found no relation of continuance commitment with nursing staff turnover intention. Fourth, the study found that a leader's emotional intelligence (as perceived by nursing staff) was positively associated with organizational commitment, but negatively associated with turnover intention. The current study also confirmed the mediating role of organizational commitment between a leader's emotional intelligence and nursing staff turnover intention. Novelty - The study has practical and theoretical implications for HR managers to reduce employees' turnover intention. Limitations are also discussed. The study elucidates the importance of perceived organizational learning culture in enhancing job satisfaction, organization commitment and reducing turnover intention. Type of Paper - Empirical"
    Keywords: Emotional intelligence, Organizational Commitments, Turnover Intention, Pakistani Healthcare Sector.
    JEL: M00 M1 M12
    Date: 2021–12–31
  7. By: Rachael Kei KAWASAKI; IKEDA Yuichi
    Abstract: Widespread anti-immigrant sentiment during the COVID-19 pandemic has shown that attitudes towards immigrants are a pertinent issue for policymakers aiming to create effective immigration and integration policy. However, previous research has mainly focused on European and a select group of Anglophone countries, like the United States, Canada, the UK. As a result, policymakers outside of these contexts may find this research inapplicable to their context. This study analyzes regional differences in the determinants of attitudes towards immigrants in over 50 countries by employing four signed and weighted bipartite networks of large regions of countries connected through migration. Using data from Wave 6 of the World Values Survey, four bipartite networks of countries and determinants of attitudes towards immigrants are constructed and projected into one-mode networks: one of the countries and one of the attitudes, beliefs, and values which influence attitudes, or "features." Community analysis detects which features are correlated in determining attitudes, allowing for the reduction of hundreds of features to key determinants of attitudes in a region. The study finds that prejudices towards out-groups, especially racial prejudice, are important determinants irrespective of region and can be considered a generalizable determinant of attitudes towards immigrants. Moreover, analysis of racial prejudice's links with other determinants and its subcommunity structure finds that intergroup conflict theory is influential in the Eastern Europe/Central Asia and Western Europe/North Africa networks, while neither social identity theory nor intergroup conflict theory are present in the Africa, Americas, or Asia networks. Results are mixed in the Middle East and Southeast Asia networks. Finally, values-based attitudes, such as the importance a person puts on fairness or benevolence, are more prominent in networks containing European countries, while they are not in other regions. This finding suggests that values-based communications on migration, which are often considered best practice, may not be effective in other regions, and highlights the need for greater research into cultural differences in the determinants of attitudes.
    Date: 2021–12
  8. By: Suah, Jing Lian
    Abstract: Demand (registrations), supply (availability of vaccines), and throughput (administering of vaccines) are key determinants of the progress of vaccination drives globally, including Malaysia's National COVID-19 Immunisation Programme (Program Imunisasi COVID-19 Kebangsaan, PICK). This paper will focus on the first determinant - demand. Specifically, were major policy "shocks" effective in influencing vaccine registrations? Between 24 February 2021 to 14 June 2021 when the PICK was in progress, several interventions were applied in select districts and states. These provided "natural experiments" to assess the effect of certain policy interventions on vaccine demand. In this paper, we assess the effect of two types of interventions on vaccine registrations in the PICK programme in a difference-in-difference (DiD) and panel event study settings - (1) a cash transfer programme for vaccine recipients, and (2) two instances of parallel opt-in "first come, first serve" queues. Finally, we rationalise these findings in a simple model of individual demand with preference shocks.
    Keywords: COVID-19, vaccination drive, panel event study, difference-in-difference
    JEL: D83 I15 I18
    Date: 2021–06–20

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