nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2021‒11‒08
thirteen papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Evaluation of Economic Transition Outcomes of CLMV Countries in Southeast Asia and Its Implications for North Korea By Choi, Jang Ho; Choi, Yoojeong; Han, Halin
  2. Energy prices, generators, and the (environmental) performance of manufacturing firms: Evidence from Indonesia By Greve, Hannes; Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Renner, Sebastian
  3. Labor Displacement in Agriculture: The Case of Oil Palm in Indonesia By Kubitza, Christoph; Krishna, Vijesh; Klasen, Stephan; Kopp, Thomas; Nuryartono, Nunung; Qaim, Matin
  4. Shocks, Agricultural Productivity, and Natural Resource Extraction in Rural Southeast Asia By Nguyen, Thanh Tung; Nguyen, Trung Thanh; Nguyen, Duy Linh; Do, Manh Hung; Grote, Ulrike
  5. Islam and the State: Religious Education in the Age of Mass Schooling By Samuel Bazzi; Masyhur Hilmy; Benjamin Marx
  6. The Impact of Smallholder Vegetable Production on Rural Vietnamese Children’s Nutrition Outcomes By Genova, Christian; Umberger, Wendy J.; Peralta-Sanchez, Maria-Alexandra; Newman, Suzie; Zeng, Di
  7. Ethnicity and risk sharing network formation: Evidence from rural Viet Nam By Quynh Hoang; Camille Saint Macary; Laure Pasquier-Doumer
  8. Altruistic Care for the Elderly: A Gender Perspective By Minh Tam Bui; Ivo Vlaev
  9. Smallholders in Agro-Industrial Production:Lessons for Rural Development at New Frontiers from a Comparative Analysis of Ghana’s and Indonesia’s Oil Palm Sectors By Ruml, Anette; Chrisendo, Daniel; Osabuohien, Evans; Karakara, Alhassan; Iddrisu, Abdul Malik; Lay, Jann
  10. Labor-management Relations in Emerging Economies and Developing Countries By Horwitz, Frank M.; Cooke, Fang Lee
  11. A handbook for establishing water user associations in pump-based irrigation schemes in Myanmar. In Burmese By de Silva, Sanjiv; Schmitter, Petra; Thiha, Nyan; Suhardiman, Diana
  12. Digitalisierung in der Arbeitswelt - Aktualisierte Substituierbarkeitspotenziale für Bayern By Eigenhüller, Lutz; Fetsch, Nadine; Rossen, Anja; Böhme, Stefan
  13. Socially Responsible Investment: Ex-ante Contracting or Ex-post Bargaining? By Meg Adachi-Sato

    Abstract: Economic transition can be divided into two prototypes; one is the market economy epitomized by the United States, and the other is state capitalistic transition (or East Asian transition), represented by China. This study proceeded in two stages of designing transition indicators suited to evaluate the degree of CLMV’s economic transition. First, we rearranged all the categories and sectors between 1997 and 2010. Inclusive growth and sustainable growth components are excluded as the observed period of Southeast Asia was not a time when CLMVs focus was on any of these components. The EBRD indicators in the observed period show a clear map of a transition economy whether its institutional transition to market economy is well established. Next, we matched the major components of the Washington Consensus to its policy targets. As a result, 84 reconstructed transition indicators are created out of original transitional indicators from the EBRD (1997‒2010) and corresponding components of the Washington Consensus. The results of evaluation of CLMV countries with the yardstick of 84 indicators and their distinct characteristics are presented in this study. There are a couple of lessons to be learned from these examples of transition in CLMV countries. One is the need to target a certain area first in the process of economic transition rather than aiming for transition in every sector equally. If an administration wishes to achieve fast economic growth and development, it is best to place export- and foreign direct investment-oriented policies at the top of the list and set aside the rest of related policies for the time being. The other is that it is crucial to maintain political stability within the nation and a stable bilateral relationship with the United States. The research outcomes of this study will be the very foundation to set the direction of North Korea’s transition and prioritize agendas at each stage of transition. This study differentiates itself from previous studies of transition as it evaluated Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Vietnam to develop an analytic framework based on quantitative measures. In addition, this study made a novel attempt to investigate transition of CLMV countries in Southeast Asia from the perspective of state capitalism shaped by China. This would contribute to extending the horizon of studies of transition economies.
    Keywords: Southeast Asia; North Korea; CLMV; economic transition
    Date: 2021–02–24
  2. By: Greve, Hannes; Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Renner, Sebastian
    JEL: O14
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Kubitza, Christoph; Krishna, Vijesh; Klasen, Stephan; Kopp, Thomas; Nuryartono, Nunung; Qaim, Matin
    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2021–08
  4. By: Nguyen, Thanh Tung; Nguyen, Trung Thanh; Nguyen, Duy Linh; Do, Manh Hung; Grote, Ulrike
    Keywords: Productivity Analysis, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–08
  5. By: Samuel Bazzi (BU - Boston University [Boston]); Masyhur Hilmy (BU - Boston University [Boston]); Benjamin Marx (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Public schooling systems are an essential feature of modern states. These systems often developed at the expense of religious schools, which undertook the bulk of education historically and still cater to large student populations worldwide. This paper examines how Indonesia's longstanding Islamic school system responded to the construction of 61,000 public elementary schools in the mid-1970s. The policy was designed in part to foster nation building and to curb religious influence in society. We are the first to study the market response to these ideological objectives. Using novel data on Islamic school construction and curriculum, we identify both short-run effects on exposed cohorts as well as dynamic, long-run effects on education markets. While primary enrollment shifted towards state schools, religious education increased on net as Islamic secondary schools absorbed the increased demand for continued education. The Islamic sector not only entered new markets to compete with the state but also increased religious curriculum at newly created schools. Our results suggest that the Islamic sector response increased religiosity at the expense of a secular national identity. Overall, this ideological competition in education undermined the nation-building impacts of mass schooling.
    Date: 2020–05–01
  6. By: Genova, Christian; Umberger, Wendy J.; Peralta-Sanchez, Maria-Alexandra; Newman, Suzie; Zeng, Di
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety
    Date: 2021–08
  7. By: Quynh Hoang (DIAL - Développement, institutions et analyses de long terme, IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement); Camille Saint Macary (DIAL - Développement, institutions et analyses de long terme, LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement); Laure Pasquier-Doumer (DIAL - Développement, institutions et analyses de long terme, LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement)
    Abstract: Ethnic inequality remains a persistent challenge for Viet Nam. This paper aims at better understanding this ethnic gap through exploring the formation of risk sharing networks in rural areas. It first investigates the differences in risk sharing networks between the ethnic minorities and the Kinh majority, in terms of size and similarity attributes of the networks. Second, it relies on the concept of ethnic homophily in link formation to explain the mechanisms leading to those differences. In particular, it disentangles the effect of demographic and local distribution of ethnic groups on risk-sharing network formation from cultural and social distance between ethnic groups, while controlling for the disparities in the geographical environment. Results show that ethnic minorities have smaller and less diversified networks than the majority. This is partly explained by differences in wealth and in the geographical environment. But ethnicity also plays a direct role in risk-sharing network formation through the combination of preferences to form a link with people from the same ethnic group (in breeding homophily) and the relative size of ethnic groups conditioning the opportunities to form a link (baseline homophily). In breeding homophily is found to be stronger among the Kinh majority, leading to the exclusion of ethnic minorities from Kinh networks, which are supposed to be more efficient to cope with covariant risk because they are more diversified in the occupation and location of their members. This evidence suggests that inequalities among ethnic groups in Viet Nam are partly rooted in the cultural and social distances between them.
    Abstract: Les inégalités inter-ethniques demeurent un problème préoccupant au Viet Nam. Dans cet article, nous cherchons à mieux comprendre l'origine de ce phénomène en explorant la formation de réseaux de solidarité dans les zones rurales. Nous examinons d'abord quelles sont les différences de composition de ces réseaux entre les minorités ethniques et la majorité Kinh. Nous montrons que les minorités ethniques ont des réseaux plus petits et moins diversifiés que la majorité. Nous explorons ensuite les mécanismes à l'origine de ces différences, en nous appuyant sur le concept d'homophilie. Plus précisément, nous distinguons l'effet de la répartition démographique et locale des groupes ethniques de l'effet de la distance culturelle et sociale entre groupes ethniques, ou autrement dit des préférences à former un lien avec des personnes du même groupe ethnique. Nous montrons que les différences de composition des réseaux de solidarité s'expliquent en partie par les écarts de richesse entre les groupes ethniques et des 2 environnements géographiques différents. Mais l'ethnicité joue toutefois un rôle direct dans la formation de ces réseaux à travers un effet combiné de préférences à se lier avec des personnes de la même ethnie et de composition démographique différenciées selon les groupes ethniques. Les préférences à se lier avec des personnes du même groupe ethnique sont plus fortes chez les Kinh majoritaires, ce qui entraîne l'exclusion des minorités ethniques des réseaux Kinh, supposés être plus efficaces pour faire face à des risques covariants car ils sont plus diversifiés dans l'occupation et la localisation de leurs membres. Ces résultats suggèrent que les inégalités entre les groupes ethniques au Viet Nam sont en partie enracinées dans les distances culturelles et sociales qui les séparent.
    Keywords: Réseau de solidarité,homophilie,inégalités inter-ethniques,homophily,ethnic gap,Viet Nam,Risk-sharing network,Vietnam
    Date: 2021–10–01
  8. By: Minh Tam Bui; Ivo Vlaev
    Abstract: Ageing society poses an increasing need for elderly care and the essential role of unpaid family care. Using time-use data of Thailand 2014/2015, we found significant gender gaps in providing eldercare across heterogenous groups. The novelty of this study is a measurement of altruism proxy, its gender bias to examine the effects of caregiver’s altruistic behavior on care provision and to explain the caregiving burden on women. Our analysis reveals that education has different effects on care among male and female caregivers, but not the employment status. The instrumental variable modelling reveals that reducing men’s paid work is unlikely to raise their time spent on eldercare and swapping leisure time for care time is one-for-one among men but multiplicative among women. Strong associations between altruism and peer pressure imply behavioral change strategies to target social norms and underpin policy interventions beside the state provision of long-term care for a more equitable eldercare work.
    Keywords: Unpaid Work; Elder Care; Gender Gaps; Altruism; Behavioral Change; Time Use
    JEL: D13 D64 D9 J14 J16 J22
    Date: 2021–11
  9. By: Ruml, Anette; Chrisendo, Daniel; Osabuohien, Evans; Karakara, Alhassan; Iddrisu, Abdul Malik; Lay, Jann
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2021–08
  10. By: Horwitz, Frank M.; Cooke, Fang Lee
    Abstract: Adopting a largely institutional theoretical perspective, this chapter focuses on emerging and developing economies in Africa and Asia, including labor-management relations in South Africa and other jurisdictions in both Africa and Asia. The aim is to assess the effects of changes in the labor markets and regulatory institutions pertaining to employment relations. Whilst other theoretical lenses such as socio-cultural and cross-cultural management and postcolonial approaches are important, this chapter critically evaluates the institutional effects relating to changes in the nature of work and the effects of external factors on market and employment relations institutions. Providing a definitional overview, this chapter discusses empirical evidence on determinants and outcomes of institutions. Though referring to other regions such as Latin America, in order to narrow the scope of analysis, the analysis focuses on two major emerging and developing economic regions, namely Asia and Africa. It includes a discussion of the Africa-Asia nexus or Sino-Africa interface in labor-management relations. Labor market institutions, their relative strengths and weaknesses, trade unions and collective bargaining, inequality and informalization of employment practices, are discussed.
    Date: 2021
  11. By: de Silva, Sanjiv (International Water Management Institute); Schmitter, Petra (International Water Management Institute); Thiha, Nyan (International Water Management Institute); Suhardiman, Diana (International Water Management Institute)
    Keywords: Water user associations; Irrigation schemes; Pumps; Handbooks; Guidelines; Models; Participatory management; Irrigation management; Farmer participation; Gender; Farmers organizations; Water allocation; Equity; Organizational development; Strategies; Governing bodies; Human resources; Multi-stakeholder processes; Nongovernmental organizations; Government agencies; Development policies; Irrigation programs; Infrastructure; Costs; Legal frameworks; Regulations; Awareness raising; Empowerment; Capacity building; Training; Villages; Living standards; Socioeconomic environment; Conflicts
    Date: 2021
  12. By: Eigenhüller, Lutz (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany); Fetsch, Nadine (IAB); Rossen, Anja (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany); Böhme, Stefan (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany)
    Abstract: "Eine wichtige Frage im Zusammenhang mit den Folgen der Digitalisierung für die Arbeitswelt ist, inwieweit Tätigkeiten, die bislang von Menschen ausgeführt werden, durch Computer und computergesteuerte Maschinen ersetzt werden können. Mit Hilfe des Substituierbarkeitspotenzials nähert sich das Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB) der Beantwortung dieser Frage an. Das Substituierbarkeitspotenzial gibt den Anteil der Tätigkeiten in einem Beruf an, der heute schon durch Computer bzw. computergestützte Maschinen ausgeführt werden könnte. Dieser Bericht stellt die aktualisierten Ergebnisse für die Substituierbarkeitspotenziale im Jahr 2019 für Bayern vor. Auch bei dieser Aktualisierung sind die Substituierbarkeitspotenziale in fast allen Berufssegmenten und auf allen Anforderungsniveaus gestiegen. Das Wachstum fällt aber geringer aus als in den Vorjahren. Am stärksten war es in einigen Dienstleistungsberufen. Das höchste Substituierbarkeitspotenzial weisen allerdings nach wie vor Fertigungsberufe und Fertigungstechnische Berufe auf, das niedrigste die Sozialen und kulturellen Dienstleistungsberufe sowie die Medizinischen und nicht-medizinischen Gesundheitsberufe. Bezogen auf das Anforderungsniveau sind Helfer- und Fachkraftberufe am stärksten betroffen. Der Anteil sozialversicherungspflichtig Beschäftigter in Berufen mit einem hohen Substituierbarkeitspotenzial von über 70 Prozent an allen Beschäftigten ist von 26 auf 35 Prozent gestiegen. Bei den Beschäftigten, die Berufe auf Helferniveau ausüben, beträgt der Anteil 48 Prozent, auf dem Fachkraftniveau 44 Prozent. Die Anteile für Beschäftigte auf Spezialisten- und Expertenniveau liegen deutlich darunter. Auf regionaler Ebene zeigen sich innerhalb Bayerns deutliche Unterschiede. In der Stadt München sind mit 23 Prozent die wenigsten Beschäftigten mit einem hohen Substituierbarkeitspotenzial konfrontiert, in Dingolfing-Landau mit 59 Prozent die meisten. Differenziert nach Geschlecht liegt das Substituierbarkeitspotenzial insgesamt für Männer höher als für Frauen. Auf Ebene der Berufssegmente zeigt sich allerdings, dass in einigen Bereichen Frauen stärker betroffen sind, wofür die ungleiche Verteilung von Männern und Frauen auf einzelne Berufe sowie Anforderungsniveaus ausschlaggebend ist. Gleichwohl liegt der Anteil sozialversicherungspflichtig beschäftigter Frauen, die von einem hohen Substituierbarkeitspotenzial betroffen sind, mit 29 Prozent deutlich unter dem der Männer mit 40 Prozent. Die Ergebnisse der Analyse bestätigen, dass Bildung, Ausbildung und Weiterbildung zentral dafür sind, die Folgen der Digitalisierung positiv zu gestalten." (Autorenreferat, IAB-Doku)
    Keywords: Bayern ; Bundesrepublik Deutschland ; Beruf ; Berufsabschnitt ; Qualifikationsanforderungen ; regionale Disparität ; Digitale Arbeitswelt ; Substitutionseffekte ; Substitutionspotenzial ; Tätigkeitswandel ; technischer Wandel ; 2013-2019
    Date: 2021–10–27
  13. By: Meg Adachi-Sato (Faculty of Business Administration and Accountancy, Khon Kaen University, THAILAND and Research Institute for Economics and Business Administration, Kobe University, JAPAN)
    Abstract: This paper shows how a socially and environmentally aware firm principal can motivate a profit-oriented manager to pursue environmental, social and governance (ESG) outcomes. In the model, the manager produces a verifiable output that is detrimental to ESG, but also engages in an unverifiable output that promotes ESG. I show that an ex-post bargaining contract is preferred to an ex-ante commitment contract if the unverifiable output substantially improves ESG or if there is a large negative externality. The paper also demonstrates how social impact bonds can be more effective than short-term debt to finance social programs.
    Keywords: Socially responsible investment; ESG; Multitask; Hold-up; Incomplete contracts; Social impact bonds; Sustainability-linked bonds
    JEL: D86 G11 G23 M12 M14
    Date: 2021–09

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