nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2021‒09‒13
23 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  2. Adapting Competition Law and Policy for Economic Development: Asian Illustrations By Majah-Leah Ravago; James Roumasset; Arsenio Balisacan
  3. Matching across Markets: An Economic Analysis of Cross-Border Marriage By So Yoon Ahn
  5. Agricultural productivity and fertility: Evidence from the oil palm boom in Indonesia By Gehrke, Esther; Kubitza, Christoph
  6. Analisa Kebijakan Peraturan Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 97 Tahun 2015 tentang Kebijakan Umum Pertahanan Negara Tahun 2015-2019 By Nurbantoro, Endro; Risman, Helda; Widjayanto, Joni; Anwar, Syaiful
  7. RCEP is not enough: South Korea also needs to join the CPTPP By Jeffrey J. Schott
  8. Globalization and Female Economic Participation in MINT and BRICS countries By Tolulope T. Osinubi; Simplice A. Asongu
  9. Factors Affecting the Sustainability of Telecentres in the Developing Country By Do Manh Thai; Duong, Dang; Falch, Morten; Chung Bui Xuan; Tran Thi Anh Thu
  10. Forecast Pooling or Information Pooling During Crises? MIDAS Forecasting of GDP in a Small Open Economy By Chow, Hwee Kwan; Han, Daniel
  11. Poverty, social networks, and clientelism By Nico Ravanilla; Allen Hicken
  12. The Impact of Short-Term Employment for Low-Income Youth: Experimental Evidence from the Philippines By Beam, Emily A.; Quimbo, Stella
  13. The Missing Middle in Product Price Distribution By Chang, Pao-Li; Yi, Xin; Yoon, Haeyeon
  14. Government Expenditures and Economic Growth: A Cointegration Analysis for Thailand under the Floating Exchange Rate Regime By Jiranyakul, Komain
  15. Efficient Bilateral Trade via Two-Stage Mechanisms under One- Sided Asymmetric Information By Kunimoto, Takashi; Zhang, Cuiling
  16. The nexus between urbanization, renewable energy consumption, financial development, and CO2 emissions: evidence from selected Asian countries By Anwar, Ahsan; Sinha, Avik; Sharif, Arshian; Siddique, Muhammad; Irshad, Shoaib; Anwar, Waseem; Malik, Summaira
  17. Exchange rate fluctuations and the financial channel in emerging economies By Beckmann, Joscha; Comunale, Mariarosaria
  18. Disclosures relating to Covid-19 in the Malaysian banking industry: Theory and Practice By Malik, Arsalan Haneef; Rehman, Awais Ur; Khan, Mubashir Ali
  19. Different Strokes for Different Folks: LongMemory and Roughness By Shi, Shuping; Yu, Jun
  20. Early Childhood Human Capital Formation at Scale By Johannes M. Bos; Akib Khan; Saravana Ravindran; Abu S. Shonchoy
  21. Short-Term Booking and Rents Cycles: Evidence from Asian and European Cities By Zhenyu Su; Paloma Taltavull de La Paz; Raúl Pérez; Francisco Juárez Tárraga
  22. Safe and sustainable business models for water reuse in aquaculture in developing countries By Amoah, Philip; Gebrezgabher, Solomie; Drechsel, Pay
  23. Ingroup Bias with Multiple Identities: The Case of Religion and Attitudes Towards Government Size By Sgroi, Daniel; Yeo, Jonathan; Zhuo, Shi

  1. By: , JurnalBukitPengharapan
    Abstract: Produk adalah apa saja yang diproduksi untuk memenuhi kebutuhan orang, bisa dalam bentuk jasa, barang, atau produk virtual. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menjelaskan proses terjadinya marketing mix yang ada di PT. PANIN DAI-ICHI LIFE INDONESIA secara detail. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif. Hasil penelitian adalah Strategi penerapan Marketing Mix di PT. PANIN DAI-ICHI LIFE INDONESIA Sudah sesuai dengan metode strategi hal itu bisa kita lihat dari Produk utama yang dipasarkan oleh PANIN DAI-ICHI LIFE adalah produk Asuransi yang bertujuan untuk memberikan perlindungan kepada seluruh masyarakat Indonesia. Media promosi yang digunakan oleh Panin Dai-Ichi Life Indonesia saat ini adalah menggunakan media serta platform digital. Dan begitu juga dari sisi harga, proses
    Date: 2021–05–30
  2. By: Majah-Leah Ravago (Economics, Ateneo de Manila, Philippines); James Roumasset (Economics, University of Hawai?i at M?noa); Arsenio Balisacan (Philippine Competition Commission, Quezon City, Philippines)
    Abstract: Do the needs of countries in different economic environments and at various stages of development warrant different policies? In the pursuit of economic development and consumer welfare, competition policy should curb rent-seeking and promote market efficiency without interfering with the extra-market institutions for the dynamic promotion of specialization, innovation, and investment coordination. This requires the coordination of competition policy with other economic roles of government including trade, industrial, and infrastructure policies. We investigate the impact of adoption of competition law on long-term economic growth using cross-country data from 1975-2015. Countries may choose to adopt–or not adopt–competition law depending on their circumstances, including level of economic development, institutions, and geography. Considering endogeneity and self-selection, we employ an endogenous switching regression allowing for the interdependence of economic growth and adoption of competition law. Our analysis shows that adoption increased the growth rates in adopting countries but would have decreased growth in non-adopting countries. This suggest that countries should not be pressured to prematurely adopt competition law but a limited international or regional agreement such as harmonization of policies may instead be pursued. In addition to correcting the abuses of anti-competitive behavior, competition policy should be designed to promote innovation and productivity growth and be well-coordinated with trade and domestic policies. We review these arguments focusing on Asian countries. The cases of Korea, Thailand, and the Philippines capture the characteristics of the law and authorities at various stages of maturity.
    Keywords: Competition policy; antitrust; economic development; economic growth; Asia
    JEL: L40 L51 L52 K21 O57 O53
    Date: 2021–06
  3. By: So Yoon Ahn (University of Illinois at Chicago)
    Abstract: Severe gender imbalances coupled with the stark income differences across countries are driving an increase in cross-border marriages in many Asian countries. This paper theoretically and empirically studies who marries whom, including how cross-border couples are selected, and how marital surplus is allocated within couples in the marriage markets of Taiwan (a wealthier side with male-biased sex ratios) and Vietnam (a poorer side with balanced sex ratios). Among the cross-border marriages that are predominantly made up of Taiwanese men and Vietnamese women, I nd that Taiwanese men are selected from the middle level of the socioeconomic status distribution, and Vietnamese women are positively selected for cross-border marriages. Moreover, I show that changes in costs of cross-border marriage, incurred by immigration-policy changes and proliferation of matching services, also affect the welfare of Taiwanese and Vietnamese who do not participate in cross-border marriages by altering marriage rates, matching partners, and intra-household allocations.
    Keywords: Taiwan, Vietnam, Asia, marriage market, sex ratios, socioeconomic status, marital matching
    JEL: C78 D10 D13 J11 J12 J18 F22
    Date: 2021–09
  4. By: Yonanda, Zea Putri; fernos, jhon
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the analysis of financial statements based on the level rentabilitas at PT. Bank Pembangunan Daerah Sumatera Barat. Data analysis method using quantitative data, namely data sourced from the financial statements of PT. Bank Pembangunan Daerah Sumatera Barat. Based on the results of research where the 2017-2019 perio shows that, the average NPM value 24.42%, with the standards set by Bank Indonesia 3% - 12.5%, the evaluation results are very good. For an average ROA value 1.47%, with the standards set by Bank Indonesia of 0.5% - 1.25%, the evaluation results are good. For an average ROE value 21%, with the standard set by Bank Indonesia of 5% - 12.5%, the evaluation results are very good.
    Date: 2021–08–27
  5. By: Gehrke, Esther; Kubitza, Christoph (International Rice Research Institute)
    Abstract: We analyze the link between agricultural productivity growth and fertility, using the oil palm boom in Indonesia as empirical setting. During the time period 1996 to 2016, we find consistently negative effects of the oil palm expansion on fertility. We explain this finding with rising farm profits, that led to consumption growth, the expansion of the non-agricultural sector, increasing returns to education and to higher school nrollment. Together these findings suggest that agricultural productivity growth can play an important role in accelerating the fertility transition, as long as the economic benefits are large enough to translate into local economic development.
    Date: 2021–04–20
  6. By: Nurbantoro, Endro; Risman, Helda; Widjayanto, Joni; Anwar, Syaiful
    Abstract: Kebijakan Umum Pertahanan Negara Tahun 2015-2019 ditetapkan dengan Peraturan Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 97 Tahun 2015, merupakan pedoman dasar bagi Menteri Pertahanan dalam menetapkan kebijakan mengenai penyelenggaraan pertahanan negara dan bagi pimpinan Kementerian/Lembaga dalam menetapkan kebijakan sesuai dengan tugas, fungsi, dan wewenang masing-masing terkait bidang pertahanan. Kedudukannya sangat penting dan strategis, sehingga menggugah penulis untuk menemukan kelebihan dan kekurangannya ditinjau dari aspek substansi dan prosedural agar dapat dijadikan bahan masukan dan rekomendasi dalam perumusan kebijakan di masa datang. Pembahasan artikel ini didasarkan pada teori kebijakan secara umum, kebijakan pertahanan negara, dan analisis kebijakan sebagai operasional. Metode yang digunakan dalam penyusunan artikel ini adalah penelitian kualitatif dengan pendekatan deskriptif melalui analisis data yang didapatkan dalam studi dokumen dihadapkan pada parameter-parameter yang telah ditetapkan. Dari analisis yang dilakukan didapatkan beberapa temuan dari aspek substansi, yaitu: definisi ancaman yang tidak spesifik dan proporsi materi ancaman yang belum seimbang, sedangkan dari aspek prosedural, yaitu: belum adanya badan/lembaga sebagai driver force untuk mengkoordinir seluruh proses kebijakan, kualitas dan kuantitas personil Pokja belum sesuai harapan, dan perbedaan sudut pandang tentang kedudukan kebijakan dalam sistem perencanaan.
    Date: 2021–08–21
  7. By: Jeffrey J. Schott (Peterson Institute for International Economics)
    Abstract: The benefits of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) for South Korea are limited and need to be supplemented by more comprehensive agreements that deepen Korea’s ties to strategic allies in the Asia-Pacific region. RCEP's most important achievement is its new regional content rule that will encourage deeper integration of supply chains across the 15 markets, a key benefit for Korean industries invested in the region. But Schott notes that the pact also has significant limitations. To complement RCEP, he recommends that South Korea move forward with two other trade negotiating priorities, membership in the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) and upgrading the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement (KORUS), the latter aimed at encouraging US reengagement in the Asia-Pacific integration pact.
    Date: 2021–07
  8. By: Tolulope T. Osinubi (Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This study examines the effect of globalization on female economic participation (FEP) in MINT (Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria & Turkey) and BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China & South Africa) countries between 2004 and 2018. Four measures of globalization are employed and sourced from KOF globalization index, 2018, while the female labour force participation rate is a proxy for FEP. The empirical evidence is based on Pooled Mean Group (PMG) estimators. The findings of the PMG estimator from the Panel ARDL method reveal that political and overall globalization in MINT and BRICS countries have a positive impact on FEP, whereas social globalization exerts a negative impact on FEP in the long-run. It is observed that economic globalization has no long-run effect on FEP. Contrarily, all the measures of globalization posit no short-run effect on FEP in the short-run. This supports the argument that globalization has no immediate effect on FEP. Thus, it is recommended that both MINT and BRICS countries should find a way of improving the process of globalization generally to empower women to be involved in economic activities. This study complements the extant literature by focusing on how globalization dynamics influence FEP in the MINT and BRICS countries.
    Keywords: Globalization; female; gender; labour force participation; MINT and BRICS countries
    JEL: E60 F40 F59 D60
    Date: 2020–01
  9. By: Do Manh Thai; Duong, Dang; Falch, Morten; Chung Bui Xuan; Tran Thi Anh Thu
    Abstract: Due to rapid technological changes, governments in developing countries have paid special attention to sustainability. However, understanding insights into the sustainability of telecentres remains an open question. This paper aims to fill this gap. We conducted a case study in Vietnam by using both qualitative and quantitative data. We used the Kumar and Best's (2006) model as our theoretical lens to analyse the sustainability of telecentres in Vietnam. The paper finds that telecentres have shifted their concept to provide a wide range of services, both online and offline. The paper indicates that technological, political, and social sustainability are important for the sustainability of telecentres. The paper recommends that we should take the role of state-owned enterprises and the digital transformation at telecentres into consideration to sustain telecentres. Furthermore, the paper indicates the mutual relation between political and technical sustainability with social sustainability that has not been yet unveiled in the prior literature.
    Keywords: telecentres,cultural-post offices (CPOs),sustainability,digital transformation,Vietnam
    Date: 2021
  10. By: Chow, Hwee Kwan (School of Economics, Singapore Management University); Han, Daniel (School of Economics, Singapore Management University)
    Abstract: This study compares two distinct approaches, pooling forecasts from single indicator MIDAS models versus pooling information from indicators into factor MIDAS models, for short-term Singapore GDP growth forecasting with a large ragged-edge mixed frequency dataset. We investigate their relative predictive performance in a pseudo-out-of-sample forecasting exercise from 2007Q4 to 2020Q3. In the stable growth non-crisis period, no substantial difference in predictive performance is found across forecast models. We find factor MIDAS models dominate both the quarterly benchmark model and the forecast pooling strategy by wide margins in the Global Financial Crisis and the Covid-19 crisis. Reflecting the small open nature of the economy, pooling single indicator forecasts from a small subgroup of foreign-related indicators beats the benchmark, offering a quick method to incorporate timely information for practitioners who have difficulty updating a large dataset. Nonetheless, the information pooling approach retains its superior ability at tracking rapid output changes during crises.
    Keywords: Forecast evaluation; Factor MIDAS; pooling GDP forecasts; global financial crisis; Covid-19 pandemic crisis
    JEL: C22 C53 C55
    Date: 2021–07–01
  11. By: Nico Ravanilla; Allen Hicken
    Abstract: Why are the poor susceptible to clientelism, and what factors shield them from the influence of vote buying? We explore the role of both formal and informal social networks in shaping the likelihood of being targeted with private inducements. We argue that when the poor lack access to formal social networks, they become increasingly reliant on vote buying channelled through informal networks. To test our theory, we build the informal, family-based network linkages between voters and local politicians spanning a city in the Philippines.
    Keywords: Social networks, Poor, vote-buying, Clientelism, Voting behaviour, Philippines
    Date: 2021
  12. By: Beam, Emily A. (University of Vermont); Quimbo, Stella (University of the Philippines, Quezon City)
    Abstract: We use a randomized field experiment to test the causal impact of short-term work experience on employment and school enrollment among disadvantaged, in-school youth in the Philippines. This experience leads to a 4.4 percentage point (79-percent) increase in employment 8 to 12 months later. While we find no aggregate increase in enrollment, we also do not find that the employment gains push youth out of school. Our results are most consistent with work experience serving as a signal of unobservable applicant quality, and these findings highlight the role of temporary work as a stepping- stone to employment for low-income youth.
    Keywords: short-term employment, work experience, ALMP, experiment
    JEL: J24 J08 O15
    Date: 2021–08
  13. By: Chang, Pao-Li (School of Economics, Singapore Management University); Yi, Xin (School of Economics, Singapore Management University); Yoon, Haeyeon (School of Economics, University of Bristol)
    Abstract: The IO literature has typically studied the supply-side factors that determine the price structure of products/services competing in a market. This paper pro-poses that the demand-side demographics could play an important role in shaping the product price structure. In particular, we document a “missing middle” phe-nomenon in both the income and the product price distributions in the U.S., based on the IPUMS ACS dataset (2005–2017) and the Nielsen Retail Scanner Data (2006–2017), for a large set of goods sold in the U.S. at the national, state, or commuting-zone level. We show that the lagged population share of the middle-income class has a positive impact on the market share (in quantity) of middle-priced varieties (and respectively so for the low/high income and price group), after controlling for product category and state (or commuting zone) fixed effects. The impacts are further stronger in commuting zones of higher population density. We then evaluate the cost-of-living implications of the observed missing-middle phe-nomenon, taking into account product entry, exit, and pro-competitive price effects of continuing products, in a framework that allows for non-homothetic preferences across income groups with respective to the price groups. We find that ignoring the non-homothetic demand structure and the missing-middle phenomenon under-states the rise in the cost of living for the period 2006–2017. The downward bias is sizable (as large as 2 percentage points out of 11–13% increase in the cost of living for the period), and particularly noticeable for the middle-income households.
    Keywords: missing middle; price and income distribution; demand demographics; cost of living; entry/exit
    JEL: D12 D31 D61 J11 L11
    Date: 2021–06–07
  14. By: Jiranyakul, Komain
    Abstract: Contributing to the controversial issue of the impact of government spending on economic growth, this paper shows that government spending has a long-run impact in stimulating aggregate output in Thailand during the floating exchange rate regime. The results reveal that the long-run relationship between aggregate output, government expenditures, and private consumption is stable. Based on the quarterly dataset from1997Q3 to 2019Q4, the results suggest that expansionary fiscal policy is effective under the floating exchange rate regime. Furthermore, the traditional version of Wagner’s law is supported since an expansion in aggregate output causes government expenditure to increase. Therefore, the findings in this paper support both the Keynesian hypothesis and Wagner’s law.
    Keywords: Government expenditures, real GDP, cointegration, causality
    JEL: E62
    Date: 2020–05
  15. By: Kunimoto, Takashi (School of Economics, Singapore Management University); Zhang, Cuiling (The Institute for Advanced Economic Research, Dongbei University of Finance and Eco- nomics)
    Abstract: This paper considers a bilateral-trade model with one-sided asymmetric information in which one agent (seller) initially owns an indivisible object and is fully informed of its value, while the other agent (buyer) intends to obtain the object whose value is unknown to himself. As Jehiel and Pauzner (2006) show that no mechanisms can generally result in efficient, voluntary bilateral trades, we aim to overturn this impossibility result by employing two-stage mechanisms (Mezzetti (2004)) in which first, the outcome (e.g., allocation of the goods) is determined, then the agents observe their own outcome-decision payoffs, and finally, transfers are made. We show that the generalized two-stage Groves mechanism induces efficient, voluntary bilateral trades. On the contrary, we also show by means of an example that the generalized two-stage Groves mechanism fails to achieve efficient, voluntary trades in a two-sided asymmetric information setup in which both parties have private information and each party’s valuation depends on the other’s information in the same way.
    Keywords: bilateral trades; one-sided asymmetric information; two-stage mechanisms
    JEL: C72 D78 D82
    Date: 2021–08–01
  16. By: Anwar, Ahsan; Sinha, Avik; Sharif, Arshian; Siddique, Muhammad; Irshad, Shoaib; Anwar, Waseem; Malik, Summaira
    Abstract: In terms of attaining the objectives of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the Asian economies are considered as laggards, and one of the major problems faced by these economies is the issue of environmental degradation. For addressing this pertaining issue, a policy-level reorientation might be necessary. In this view, this study aims to explore the impact of urbanization, renewable energy consumption, financial development, agriculture, and economic growth on CO2 emissions in 15 Asian economies over 1990-2014. The empirical evidence demonstrates that urbanization, financial development, and economic growth increase CO2 emissions, renewable energy consumption reduces CO2 emissions, and the impact of agriculture is insignificant. Impulse response function and variance decomposition techniques are used to test the causality among the variables. Based on the study outcomes, a comprehensive SDG-oriented policy framework has been recommended, so that these economies can make progression towards attaining the objectives of SDG 13 and SDG 7. This study contributed to the literature by recommending this SDG-oriented policy framework, which encapsulates economic growth and its drivers.
    Keywords: Urbanization; Renewable Energy Consumption; Financial Development; CO2 emission; SDG
    JEL: Q2 Q4 Q5
    Date: 2021
  17. By: Beckmann, Joscha; Comunale, Mariarosaria
    Abstract: This paper assesses the financial channel of exchange rate fluctuations for emerging countries and the link to the conventional trade channel. We analyze whether the effective exchange rate affects GDP growth, the domestic credit and the global liquidity measure as the credit in foreign currencies, and how global liquidity affects GDP growth. We make use of local projections in order to look at the shocks’ transmission covering 11 emerging market countries for the period 2000Q1–2016Q3. We find that foreign denominated credit plays an important macroeconomic role, operating through various transmission channels. The direction of effects depends on country characteristics and is also related to the policy stance among countries. We find that domestic appreciations increase demand regarding foreign credit, implying positive effects on investment and GDP growth. However, this is valid only in the short-run; in the medium-long run, an increase of credit denominated in foreign currency (for instance, due to apeiation) decreases GDP. The financial channel works mostly in the short run except for Brazil, Malaysia, and Mexico, where the trade channel always dominates. Possibly there is a substitution effect between domestic and foreign credit in the case of shocks in exchange rate.
    JEL: F31 F41 F43 G15
    Date: 2021–08–30
  18. By: Malik, Arsalan Haneef; Rehman, Awais Ur; Khan, Mubashir Ali
    Abstract: Purpose: Covid-19 has impacted all the spheres of human lives and so on the stakeholders’ demands. This paper is aimed to discuss various strategies the banking industry may be asked to perform for coping against the Covid-19. This paper also analyzed the volume of real in-time disclosures created by the banking industry. These disclosures were also differentiated between public and private banks and between lowly and highly disclosing banks as well. Design/methodology/approach: Different strategies were used theoretically under the triple bottom line of sustainability. For empirical analysis, the data was taken from Malaysian listed and non-listed banks. Group differences and correlation analyses were performed. Findings: Banks with bigger size, more profitability, and previous engagements in CSR were more active in disclosing their strategies for Covid-19. Banks were doing least for their disclosures on environmental strategies on Covid-19. Overall, the disclosures about Covid-19 can be taken as a nexus of CSR disclosures of the banks since they have similar correlating variables and have significant correlations. Moreover, the findings were robust against alternative measures of CSR. Originality: This research is the first in time to discuss disclosures about Covid-19 generated by the banking industry. Research limitations/implications: The study was limited from the banking industry of Malaysia and had not been able to run regression analysis due to a limited number of observations. Practical implications: Various aspects of strategies under economic, social and environmental concerns had been discussed. Pertinent examples from different countries around the globe had also been given. These strategies can help practitioners in formulating their Covid-19 strategies to satisfy the stakeholders’ demands.
    Keywords: Bank size, Covid-19 disclosures, CSR, economic disclosures, environmental disclosures, social disclosures
    JEL: Q50
    Date: 2020–07–16
  19. By: Shi, Shuping (Department of Economics, Macquarie University); Yu, Jun (School of Economics and Lee Kong Chian School of Business, SingaporeManagementUniversity)
    Abstract: The log realized volatility of financial assets is often modeled as an autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average model (ARFIMA) process, denoted by ARFIMA(p, d, q), with p = 1 and q = 0. Two conflicting results have been found in the literature regarding the dynamics. One stream shows that the data series has a long memory (i.e., the fractional parameter d > 0) with strong mean reversion (i.e., the autoregressive coefficient |α1| ≈ 0). The other stream suggests that the volatil-ity is rough (i.e., d
    Keywords: Long memory; fractional integration; roughness; short-run dynamics; realized volatility
    JEL: C15 C22 C32
    Date: 2021–08–03
  20. By: Johannes M. Bos (American Institutes for Research, USA); Akib Khan (Uppsala University, Sweden); Saravana Ravindran (Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore); Abu S. Shonchoy (Department of Economics, Florida International University)
    Abstract: Can governments leverage existing service-delivery platforms to scale early childhood development (ECD) programs? We experimentally study a large-scale home-visiting intervention providing materials and counseling -integrated into Bangladesh's national nutrition program without extra financial incentives for the service providers (SPs). We find SPs partially substituted away from nutritional to ECD counseling. Intent-to-treat estimates show the program improved child's cognitive (0.17 SD), language (0.23 SD), and socio-emotional developments (0.12-0.14 SD). Wasting and underweight rates also declined. Improved maternal agency, complementary parental investments, and higher take-up of the pre-existing nutrition program were important mechanisms. We estimate a sizeable internal rate-of-return of 19.6%.
    Keywords: Early childhood development, Human capital formation, Bangladesh
    JEL: J13 J24 I25 H11
    Date: 2021–09
  21. By: Zhenyu Su; Paloma Taltavull de La Paz; Raúl Pérez; Francisco Juárez Tárraga
    Abstract: The paper builds the cycles of transactions and prices in the short-term rental market since almost the beginning of that this rental activity becomes relevant for cities during the second decade of the XXI century. The paper shows the data elaborated building a micro database with Airbnb information for 46 cities around the world. The analysis reaches the cycles by extracting millions of observations and shows the periods where the rental was more relevant for the cities. A model relating short rental visits with macroaggregates allows for learning the main drivers to explain the explosion of short-term visits using housing rental sharing as the means for hospitality.
    Keywords: Airbnb; Comovements; rental prices; Short-term rental market
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–01–01
  22. By: Amoah, Philip (International Water Management Institute (IWMI)); Gebrezgabher, Solomie (International Water Management Institute (IWMI)); Drechsel, Pay (International Water Management Institute (IWMI))
    Abstract: Wastewater-fed aquaculture has a long history, especially in Asia. This report examines three empirical cases of integrated wastewater treatment and aquaculture production. From an aquaculture entrepreneur’s perspective, the combination of fish farming and wastewater treatment in common waste stabilization ponds allows significant savings on capital (pond infrastructure) and running costs (wastewater supporting fish feed). On the other hand, the treatment plant owner will have the benefit of a partner taking over plant maintenance. Given the importance of food safety and related perceptions, the report is focusing on innovative business models where the marketed fish is not in direct contact with the treated wastewater, but only the brood stock or fish feed. The financial analysis of the presented systems shows profitable options for the fish farmer, operational and in part capital cost recovery for the treatment plant, and as the treatment plant operators can stop charging households a sanitation fee, eventually a triple-win situation for both partners and the served community.
    Keywords: Resource recovery; Resource management; Water reuse; Wastewater aquaculture; Business models; Sustainability; Developing countries; Wastewater treatment; Fishery production; Integrated systems; Infrastructure; Treatment plants; Stabilization ponds; Public-private partnerships; Nongovernmental organizations; Markets; Fisheries value chains; Financial analysis; Circular economy; Cost recovery; Fish feeding; Nutrients; Food safety; Water quality; Public health; Risk assessment; Socioeconomic impact; Environmental impact; Case studies
    Date: 2021
  23. By: Sgroi, Daniel (University of Warwick); Yeo, Jonathan (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore); Zhuo, Shi (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: Group identity is known to exert a powerful socio-psychological influence on behaviour but to date has been largely explored as a uni-dimensional phenomenon. We consider the role of multiple dimensions of identity, asking what might happen to ingroup and outgroup perceptions and the resulting implications for cooperation. Carefully selecting two politically charged identity dimensions documented to have similar strength and to be largely orthogonal (religious belief and views about government size), we find that priming individuals to consider both dimensions rather than one has a noticeable effect on behaviour. Moving from one to two dimensions can produce a significant increase in ingroup allocations at the expense of fairness to outgroup individuals, although the effect varies as we switch from primarily considering religion to government size. Evidence suggests that the heterogeneity of such effects is related to the degree of "harmony" between groups in the dimensions concerned.
    Keywords: group identity, multiple identities, religion, government size, experiment, behavioural economics
    JEL: D91 C91
    Date: 2021–09

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