nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2021‒04‒26
forty-two papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. How Krugman forgot agriculture and misread the sources of Asia’s growth By Peter Warr
  2. Consumer Sentiment during the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Role of Others' Beliefs By Dzung Bui; Lena Dräger; Bernd Hayo; Giang Nghiem
  4. Intersectoral linkages and imports of Vietnam: An input-output approach By Hai Thanh Nguyen
  5. Perception of Institutional Quality Difference and Return Migration Intention: The Case of the Vietnamese Diaspora By Ngoc Thi Minh Tran; Michael P. Cameron; Jacques Poot
  7. Labour Regulation Shift and Labour Intensive Manufacturing By Nurina Merdikawati; Sarah Xue Dong
  9. COVID-19 Pandemic, Stimulus Packages and Stock Returns in Vietnam By Vu, Son T.; Le, Tam T.; Nguyen, Chi N. L.; Le, Duong T.; Le, Phuc H.; Truong2, Ha K.
  10. Pandemic-induced de-urbanisation in Indonesia By Peter Warr; Arief Anshory Yusuf
  12. Indonesia Companies at the Disruption of Global Economic By syam, muhammad alvin arkananta
  14. Indonesia Company in the Global Economic Disruption By Virantau, Gilbert Nathaniel
  16. Salwa Alfalah 130218273 KP B By alfalah, salwa
  17. Companies in Indonesia in the vortex of global economic disruption By Thedy, Christopher Carlos
  18. Companies in Indonesia in the vortex of global economic disruption by Christopher Carlos Thedy By Thedy, Christopher Carlos
  20. Electricity poverty reduction as an indicator of progress towards the Sustainable Development Goal 7: Vietnam, 2008-2018. By Minh Ha-Duong; Nguyen Son
  21. Analisis Pengaruh Rasio Keuangan Terhadap Penerimaan Opini Audit Going Concern By , Aminah; Pransiska, Deta
  22. Sự hài lòng của khách hàng về chất lượng dịch vụ hàng lẻ nhập khẩu bằng container tại công ty Ecu Wowldwide Vietnam By Giao, Ha Nam Khanh; Dung, Vo Mong Thuy
  23. Tugas Review Jurnal “Companies in Indonesia In The Vortex Of Global Economics Distruption” oleh Gatum Ananta Putra By Putra, Gatum Ananta; Zafrullah, Ahmad
  24. Decentralized renewable energy broke Vietnam’s power planning logic By Minh Ha-Duong
  26. Exploratory Data Analysis of Electric Tricycle as Sustainable Public Transport Mode in General Santos City Using Logistic Regression By Geoffrey L. Cueto; Francis Aldrine A. Uy; Keith Anshilo Diaz
  27. The effect of labour demand on women’s intra-household decision power: Evidence from Indonesia By Sarah Xue Dong
  28. Asian economic development: A primer By Prema-chandra Athukorala
  30. Merawat Mentalitas Pembangunan di Masa Pandemi By Saputro, Agus
  31. When transparency fails: Financial incentives for local banking agents in Indonesia By Erika Deserranno; Gianmarco León-Ciliotta; Firman Witoelar
  32. Employment effects of joining global production networks: Does domestic value added matter? By Wannaphong Durongkaveroj
  33. How Company Face Global Economic Disruption By christanto, angelia
  34. The Relevance of Good Corporate Governance Practices to Bank Performance By Ma’aji, Muhammad M.; Anderson, Ediri O.; Colon, Christine G.
  35. Determining Firm Value in the Indonesian Banking Sub Sector By Medyawati, Henny; Yunanto, Muhamad
  36. Dodging a Draft: Gary Becker's Lost Paper on Conscription By Gibbs, Michael; Perri, Tim
  37. Out of the shadow: Encouraging online registration of micro and small businesses through a randomized controlled trial By Sarah Xue Dong; Dewi Meisari; Banu Rinaldi
  38. Conserving rhinos by legal trade: Insights from a choice experiment on rhino horn consumers By Dang Vu, Hoai Nam; Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl
  39. ASEAN’s limited regional Integration spells globalisation, not Failure By Jayant Menon
  40. The Geography of the Effectiveness and Consequences of Covid-19 Measures: Global Evidence By Asongu, Simplice; Diop, Samba; Nnanna, Joseph
  41. Covid-19 Economic Vulnerability and Resilience Indexes: Global Evidence By Diop, Samba; Asongu, Simplice; Nnanna, Joseph
  42. What can be learned from the free destination option in the LNG Imbroglio ? By Amina Baba; Anna Creti; Olivier Massol

  1. By: Peter Warr
    Abstract: In his famous 1994 essay ‘The Myth of Asia’s Miracle’, Paul Krugman argued that the growth of output per person in Asia was due almost entirely to increasing primary factor inputs per head of population – raising labour force participation and adding capital to labour. He called this ‘perspiration’, which he distinguished from ‘inspiration’ – productivity growth derived from technical change. According to Krugman’s sources, the latter contributed very little. The article rightly discounted the ‘miracle’ rhetoric that had been applied to Asia’s rapid economic growth over the preceding two decades, but it missed a key point. By focusing on the economic record of enclave, city-based economies like Singapore and Hong Kong, which lack traditional agriculture, Krugman overlooked the role of agriculture and the process of structural transformation. This is the mechanism through which workers relocate from low-productivity employment in agriculture to higher-productivity employment in industry and, more especially, services, raising overall labour productivity. The present paper demonstrates the importance of this matter, using data for Thailand and Indonesia. It shows that structural transformation contributed 47 per cent of long-term growth of labour productivity in Thailand and 28 per cent in Indonesia.
    Keywords: Asia’s miracle; structural transformation; productivity growth; agriculture; Thailand; Indonesia
    JEL: O13 O47 O53
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Dzung Bui; Lena Dräger; Bernd Hayo; Giang Nghiem
    Abstract: This paper investigates the direct and indirect effects of others’ beliefs on respondents’ own beliefs and consumer sentiment. Conducting consumer surveys with randomized control trials (RCTs) in Thailand and Vietnam during the COVID-19 pandemic, we implement two information treatments. Both treatments contain cross-country information about others’ beliefs about the appropriateness of the government’s or the general public’s reaction to the pandemic. The first treatment is asymmetric across our sample countries, as it shows opposite appropriateness ratings of the governments’ reaction in Vietnam and Thailand, whereas the second treatment is rather symmetric. We find that the information treatments affect consumer sentiment only in Vietnam, where the sign of the effect suggests that the treatments are viewed as positive news. Moreover, consumer sentiment in Vietnam is strongly affected by both treatments when the information goes against respondents’ prior beliefs.
    Keywords: consumer sentiment, Covid-19, randomized control trial (RCT), survey experiment, second-order beliefs, belief updating, government trust, macroeconomic expectations, Thailand, Vietnam
    JEL: E21 E37 E71 D84 D83
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Fitri, Rohmadina Sabila
    Abstract: Indonesia is an archipelagic country that has diverse marine resources. Many types of fish farming are being looked at by foreign people. Indonesia itself is the largest country in supplying marine products in the world. On the pages Information Portal Indonesia in 2019 stated that,"Indonesia has become the largest exporter of tuna in the world. Becomes America's largest exporter of crab. In addition, trade balance is Indonesia's fisheries in Southeast Asia. Indonesia has excellence, among others, as a world leader in terms of legality and traceability of marine products " (Administratrator, 2019)
    Date: 2021–03–27
  4. By: Hai Thanh Nguyen
    Abstract: This study traces the intersectoral linkages, or the interdependence of industries, in Vietnam’s economy within the period of 2000-2012 using the input-output analysis. The total linkages– computed using Leontief inverse–are generally employed by policymakers in identifying critical industries for policy focus However, for many countries that heavily dependent on imported inputs like Vietnam, total linkages can give an erroneous result. The paper shows how important are the domestic linkages, which is the inverse net of imports, in analyzing the importance of industries in the economy. By constructing the non-competitive input-output tables relying on the assumption that imports are distributed across industries in the same proportion as the gross domestic output of the corresponding industry, the paper finds that there are considerable divergences between total and domestic linkages. The results indicate that failure to take into account import dependence tends to overestimate intersectoral linkages of some key sectors in the Vietnamese economy.
    Keywords: Regionalism; Globalisation; ASEAN
    JEL: D57 O21 O53
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Ngoc Thi Minh Tran (University of Waikato and Vietnam National University); Michael P. Cameron (University of Waikato); Jacques Poot (University of Waikato and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)
    Abstract: This study examines whether the perception of difference in institutional quality between OECD destination countries and Vietnam, and the stated importance attached to such difference, influences Vietnamese migrants’ intention to return home. We use data from a web-based survey (N = 159) that we conducted in 2016. The countries covered capture about 90% of the Vietnamese diaspora in the world. We find, by means of weighted logistic regression analysis with a range of measures of institutional quality, that migrants who perceive a larger institutional quality difference are less likely to have the intention to return. However, there is considerable heterogeneity by gender. Women are, if they attach importance to institutional quality, particularly concerned about control of corruption, while the between-country difference in government effectiveness and regulatory quality matters to men. Concerns about a lack of voice & accountability; and about political instability & the presence of violence/terrorism deter return migration of both genders.
    Keywords: Return migration intention, institutional quality, perception, heterogeneity, Vietnam
    JEL: F22 O15
    Date: 2021–04
  6. By: Daga, Rosnaini
    Abstract: Judul Penelitian ini adalah “Analisis Strategi PemasaranDalam Peningkatan Pembiayaan Konsumtif Pada PT Bank Rakyat Indonesia Syariah, Tbk Kantor Cabang Pembantu Gowa Sungguminasa”. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis strategi pemasaran yang digunakan dalam peningkatan pembiayaan konsumtif PT Bank Rakyat Indonesia Syariah, Tbk kantor cabang Pembantu Gowa Sungguminasa. Metode analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu metode penelitian kualitatif. Pokok bahasan penelitian adalah untuk analisis strategi pemasaran dalam peningkatan pembiayaan konsumtif berdasarkan indikator strategi pemasaran yaitu relationship marketing strategy, strategi superior custumer service, strategi unconditional guarantees, dan strategi peningkatan kinerja perusahaan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa telah terjadi peningkatan jumlah nasabah pada PT Bank Rakyat Indonesia Syariah, Tbk kantor cabang Pembantu Gowa Sungguminasa.
    Date: 2020–11–21
  7. By: Nurina Merdikawati; Sarah Xue Dong
    Abstract: This paper analyses the relationship between a significant shift to more stringent labour market regulations in Indonesia in the early 2000s and changes in employment patterns in the manufacturing sector. While this regulation shift has been associated with a notable decline in employment in labour intensive production in Indonesian manufacturing in the last two decades, there is little rigorous evidence to support the association. This study compares plants in labour intensive and non-labour intensive manufacturing industries over time, and use difference-in-difference method to analyse different employment trends between these two groups around the time of the labour regulation change. The findings indicate that that employment in plants in labour intensive manufacturing declined by 4 to 14 percent relative to plants in non-labour intensive manufacturing around the time of the labour regulation change. This pattern is robust to using different measures of labour intensity, and to controlling for other policies that can affect different industries differently during the same period including trade liberalisation, China’s ascension to WTO and changes in Multi Fibre Agreement.
    Keywords: : Large and medium manufacturing; labour intensive manufacturing; labour regulations; employment; difference-in-difference
    JEL: D22 J08 J21 L60 O14
    Date: 2021
  8. By: Daga, Rosnaini
    Abstract: Penelitian Ini berjudul “Analisis Strategi Pemasaran Dalam Peningkatan Jumlah Nasabah Produk Tabungan Britama Pada PT.Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk Mengethui dan menganalisis strategi pemasaran yangdigunakan dalam peningkatan jumlah nasabah produk tabungan britama pada PT Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero), Tbk kantor cabang Palopo. Metode analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu metode deskriftif kualitatif. Informan ditentukan dengan teknik purposive, yaitu teknik penentuan subjek (informan) berdasarkan kriteria dan tujuan dari penelitian ini. Kriteria yang dipilih adalah Kepala Bagian Marketing Manager PT. Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk, Kantor Cabang Palopo JL. K.H Ramli No. 2, Palopo, Sulawesi Selatan dengan tidak berdasarkan jenis kelamin dan mereka siap menjadi informan. Informan yang digunakan adalah 1 (satu) orang dan memungkinkan adanya penambahan jika tujuan penelitian belum tercapai. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa telah terjadi peningkatan jumlah nasabah pada PT Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero), Tbk kantor cabang Palopo. Strategi pemasaran yang dilakukan untuk meningkatkan jumlah nasabah pada PT Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) tidak jauh dari unsur marketing mix yaitu Place, Product, Price, dan Promotion. Strategi yang paling tepat adalah melalui strategi Relationship Marketing Strategy,, Strategy Superior Customer Service, Strategy Unconditional Guarantees, dan strategi penanganan keluhan yang efektif.
    Date: 2021–03–07
  9. By: Vu, Son T.; Le, Tam T.; Nguyen, Chi N. L.; Le, Duong T.; Le, Phuc H.; Truong2, Ha K.
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impacts of COVID-19’s new cases and stimulus packages on the daily stock returns of five key economic sectors (Finance, Fast-moving-consumer-goods (FMCG), Healthcare, Oil and Gas, and Telecommunication) in Vietnam – one of the best countries in the world for handling COVID-19. The research team uses the Pool OLS method, with the panel data of 11 342 observations from 107 listed firms in these five sectors in the period January-June 2020. The key findings are (i) all sectors’ stock returns are negatively affected by daily new confirmed cases of COVID-19, the hardest hit is on the financial sector, followed by FMCG, healthcare, oil and gas, and telecommunications sectors. Vietnam did not have many affected cases, but low average income makes investors and consumers more careful and hesitate to spend/invest; (ii) in contrast to prior studies, stimulus packages did not accelerate the growth of stock returns in all sectors, with the order from most to least negatively affected: finance, oil and gas, telecommunication, healthcare, and FMCG. The slow implementation made investors skeptical of the growth potential of firms, they assess the stimulus packages as the signs of economic downturn. This fact leads to different recommendations for the Vietnamese Government in combating COVID-19.
    Date: 2021–04–11
  10. By: Peter Warr; Arief Anshory Yusuf
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected Indonesia severely. It was initially an urban event, but the loss of urban jobs has induced a large urban to rural migration, which we call de-urbanisation. This phenomenon temporarily reversed the long-term process of rural to urban reallocation of labour. In early 2021 the approximate size of this de-urbanisation was known, but not its effects. This paper analyses the general equilibrium consequences of this overlooked feature of the pandemic. The analysis shows that taking deurbanisation into account, the negative economic impact of the pandemic is largest among rural, not urban households, especially the poorest.
    Keywords: De-industrialisation; Indonesia; COVID-19; structural change; rural poverty; urban poverty; inequality.
    JEL: I15 O12 O53
    Date: 2021
  11. By: Daga, Rosnaini
    Abstract: Penelitian ini berjudul “Faktor – Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Nasabah Mengambil Kredit Kepemilikan Rumah Pada PT. Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk, Cabang Panakkukang Makassar” Tujuan Penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui faktor yang paling dominan mempengaruhi nasabah mengambil kredit kepemilikan rumah di PT. Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk, Cabang Panakkukang Makassar. Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel sebanyak 98 orang nasabah sebagai responden dengan teknik simple random sampling. Alat analisis yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah Analisis Faktor. Untuk menentukan faktor yang paling dominan mempengaruhi nasabah mengambil kredit kepemilikan rumah di PT. Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk, Cabang Panakkukang Makassar maka terdapat lima langkah yang terdapat di dalam analisis faktor yaitu : (1) Merumuskan masalah, (2) Menyusun matriks korelasi, (3) Menentukan jumlah faktor dan rotasi faktor, (4) Pengelompokkan faktor (5) Penamaan faktor. Untuk medapatkan hasilnya maka akan dilakukan pengujian dengan bantuan menggunakan IBM SPSS Statistics 21. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian terhadap 14 faktor, diperoleh 5 faktor inti yang terbentuk, yaitu ; (1) Faktor pribadi, sebagai faktor pertama dengan pengaruh yang paling besar (2) Faktor umur dan pekerjaan, sebagai faktor kedua (3) Faktor psikologis, sebagai faktor ketiga (4) Faktor sosial, sebagai faktor keempat, dan (5) Faktor kebudayaan sebagai faktor kelima.
    Date: 2021–01–05
  12. By: syam, muhammad alvin arkananta
    Abstract: This article tells you how Indonesia's doing in the disruption of global economic
    Date: 2021–03–26
  13. By: Daga, Rosnaini
    Abstract: Penelitian berjudul “Analisis Tingkat Kepuasan Nasabah Terhadap Sistem Antrian Pada PT. Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. Unit BTP Tamalanrea” Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis tingkat kepuasan nasabah terhadap sistem antrian. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode pengumpulan data dengan cara membagikan kuesioner. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan purposive sampling. Metode analisis data yang digunakan yaitu analisis angka indeks Three Box Method dan analisis instrumen yang terdiri dari uji validitas dan uji realibilitas dengan alat bantu IBM SPSS Versi 22. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tingkat kepuasan nasabah terhadap sistem antrian, mencakup lima indikator, yaitu dari kelima indikator sistem antrian semua berada pada kategori indeks tertinggi sampai indeks paling tertinggi. Adapun kepuasan nasabah mencakup lima indikator, sehingga kepuasan nasabah mencakup semua indikator yang berada pada kategori indeks tertinggi sampai indeks paling tertinggi. Dari semua indikator tersebut sudah berjalan dengan baik sehingga tingkat kepuasan nasabah terhadap sistem antrian dapat dikatakan berjalan efektif
    Date: 2020–12–25
  14. By: Virantau, Gilbert Nathaniel
    Abstract: the best alternative for companies in Indonesia to survive in the midst off global economic uncertainty is by transforming their business and human resources, given that changes in business concepts are highly driven and patterned by advances in information technology that are exponentially.
    Date: 2021–03–27
  15. By: Sugiarto, Safitri
    Abstract: Based on a World Bank report, in 2018 the ranking of success for companies in Indonesia decreased by one rank compared to 2017. This decline is not expected to have an impact on investment in Indonesia. Not only did Indonesia's ranking experience a decline, it can be said that the global economic conditions in 2018 tended to be sluggish and unbalanced. In addition, the economies of Europe and China also appear to be growing slowly. In addition, the volume of world trade is also expected to worsen conditions of international trade.
    Date: 2021–03–27
  16. By: alfalah, salwa
    Abstract: Indonesia is very rich in natural attractions such as mountains, beaches, forests, lakes and even deserts. Indonesia is a country that occupies the 14th position in the world as a country with the best natural tourism competitiveness.
    Date: 2021–03–27
  17. By: Thedy, Christopher Carlos
    Abstract: Indonesia's business ranking which was initially low has progressed every year due to support from business sectors such as tourism which can attract tourists from various countries so that it also has an impact on the value of the rupiah.
    Date: 2021–03–27
  18. By: Thedy, Christopher Carlos
    Abstract: Various efforts to improve the ranking of ease of doing business in Indonesia
    Date: 2021–03–27
  19. By: Kencanasari, Fidelia Rahayu
    Abstract: Indonesia has a policy on maritime affairs and warnings made in Law no. 12 of 2020 concerning the Management of Lobster and Crab in the Territory of the Unitary State of Indonesia. The policies that have been established are deemed to have no significant impact but in fact have a very large negative impact on the natural resources environment. The information held by the government is less accurate so that the government does not understand the impact that can arise from the policies to be determined.
    Date: 2021–03–27
  20. By: Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Université Paris-Saclay - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Nguyen Son (NEU - National Economics University (Ha Noi, Vietnam), ABIES Doctoral School - ABIES Doctoral School)
    Abstract: We estimate the reduction of electricity poverty in Vietnam from 2008 to 2018 using national household surveys. We find that in 2018, the fraction of households with access to electricity was over 98% (up from 96.5% in 2010). The median level of electricity usage was 139 kWh per month per household (up from 74 kWh in 2010), enough to access high power appliances like a washing machine or microwave. The electricity bill weighted less than 6% of income for 92.1% of households (down from 97.7% in 2010). In statistical terms, the electricity consumption distribution was closer to uniform than the income distribution: energy inequality is lower than income inequality. In 2014, the fraction of households declaring unsatisfied electricity needs was below three per cent. Few households cannot afford to turn on fans or air conditioner during a heatwave. The engineering, economic and socio-political perspectives converge to indicate that electricity poverty was not an acute social issue in 2018. Vietnam has mostly satisfied the universal electricity access facet of the Sustainable Development Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy for all (SDG7). The electricity subsidy mechanism contributes more to alleviating poverty (SDG1) than to SDG7
    Keywords: Electricity poverty,Vietnam,Sustainable Development Goals,Indicators Q41,Q48,Q56
    Date: 2021–03–19
  21. By: , Aminah; Pransiska, Deta
    Abstract: Seorang auditor bertanggungjawab memberikan peringatan maupun sanksi kepada para pengguna laporan keuangan dalam mempertahankan going concern dimasa yang akan datang yang diatur dalam Pernyataan Standar Akuntansi. Penelitian ini digunakan untuk melihat pengaruh dari rasio likuidity, solvenvy, aktivity dan laverage terhadap penerimaan opini audit going concern. Manufacturing company yang tedaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia pada tahun 2017-2019 merupakan populasi dalam penelitian ini. Metode purposive sampling merupakan sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Jumlah sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini sebanyak 69 perusahaan. Analisis statistik deskriftif dan analisis regresi logistik merupakan teknik analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian ini mengemukakan bahwa rasio aktivitytidakberpengaruh terhadap penerimaan opini audit going concern, sedangkan rasio likuidity, solvency dan leverage berpengaruh terhadap penerimaan opini audit going concern.
    Date: 2021–04–20
  22. By: Giao, Ha Nam Khanh; Dung, Vo Mong Thuy
    Abstract: Nghiên cứu này được thực hiện nhằm đo lường sự hài lòng của khách hàng về chất lượng dịch vụ hàng lẻ nhập khẩu bằng container tại công ty ECU Wowldwide Vietnam (EWV), bằng việc khảo sát 200 khách hàng. Công cụ Cronbach’s alpha, EFA và phân tích hồi quy bội được sử dụng. Kết quả đã đưa ra được mô hình sự hài lòng của khách hàng gồm 06 nhân tố, sắp theo thứ tự giảm tầm quan trọng: Năng lực phục vụ, Giá cả, Quá trình phục vụ, Năng lực quản lý, Uy tín, và Nguồn lực. Từ đó, nghiên cứu đề xuất các hàm ý quản trị đến ban quản lý công ty nhằm nâng cao sự hài lòng của khách hàng.
    Date: 2021–04–19
  23. By: Putra, Gatum Ananta; Zafrullah, Ahmad
    Abstract: Alternatif bagi perusahaan untuk bertahan dalam kondisi ketidakpastian lingkungan adalah dengan menerapkan sistem GCG atau Good Corporate Governance. GCG berfokus pada langkah dasar perusahaan sebagai sarana untuk menciptakan Inovasi ke arah yang lebih baik. Dengan adannya tata kelola hubungan yang baik antar pemangku kepentingan, akan memberikan efek postitif bagi perusahaan.
    Date: 2021–03–27
  24. By: Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Université Paris-Saclay - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Early 2021, Vietnam's Ministry of Industry and Trade released for public discussion the draft Power Development Plan VIII describing how the country will produce its electricity for the next ten years. Focused on developing gas-fired power, the draft reuses a renewable energy development strategy elaborated six years ago. That strategy was ambitious then but is now outdated by an ongoing solar and wind boom. Obsolete before publication, the draft fails to plan the ongoing energy transition which is all about PV, wind, storage, transport electrification, and increasing climate policy goals. To remain relevant in the energy transition era, quinquennial planning has to become more agile.
    Keywords: Planning,Energy Transition,Vietnam
    Date: 2021–03
  25. By: Redaputri, Appin Purisky; Suganda, Dandy
    Abstract: Kemplang adalah sebuah kerupuk ikan yang umum ditemukan di belahan selatan Sumatra, Indonesia. Kerupuk kemplang umumnya terbuat dari ikantenggiri, yang dicampur dengan tepungtapioka dan penyedap rasa lain, dikeringkan dan kemudian dipanggang atau digoreng. Bentuk kemplang serupa dengan senbei dari negara Jepang. Salah satu usaha kemplang yang ada di Bandar Lampung adalah Kemplang Panggang Fajar. Awal mulanya usaha ini di bentuk karena untuk mengisi kekosongan waktu owner dari kemplang tersebut. Dikarenakan orang tua dari owner tersebut membuka usaha kemplang di daerah Prabumulih, Sumatera Selatan. Kemudian owner dari kemplang tersebut ingin belajar cara membuat kemplang mulai dari pembelian bahan, peralatan yang diperlukan, hingga proses pembuatannya. Kemudian seiring berjalannya waktu usaha tersebut mulai tumbuh menjadi usaha tetap. 3 bulan pertama usaha tersebut mengalami peningkatan penjualan, namun di 1 bulan terakhir minat konsumen menurun dan sehingga penjualan produk mengalami penurunan. Alat analisis yang digunakan untuk menganalisis permasalahan yaitu analisisSWOT. Berdasarkan hasil pembahasan diagram Matrix SWOT diatas, diketahui Kemplang Panggang Fajar Bandar Lampung berada dikaudran I ,dimanasituasiyangsangatmenguntungkan. Padakuadran ini, Kemplang Panggang Fajar Bandar Lampung memiliki peluang dan kekuatan sehingga dapat memanfaatkan peluang yang ada. Strategiyangharusditerapkan dalam kondisi ini adalah mendukungkebijakan pertumbuhan penjualan.
    Date: 2021–04–22
  26. By: Geoffrey L. Cueto; Francis Aldrine A. Uy; Keith Anshilo Diaz
    Abstract: General Santos City, as the tuna capital of the Philippines, relies with the presence of tricycles in moving people and goods. Considered as a highly-urbanized city, General Santos City serves as vital link of the entire SOCKSARGEN region's economic activities. With the current thrust of the city in providing a sustainable transport service, several options were identified to adopt in the entire city, that includes cleaner and better transport mode. Electric tricycle is an after sought alternative that offers better choice in terms of identified factors of sustainable transport: reliability, safety, comfort, environment, affordability, and facility. A literature review was conducted to provide a comparison of cost and emission between a motorized tricycle and an e-tricycle. The study identified the existing tricycle industry of the city and reviewed the modal share with the city's travel pattern. The survey revealed a number of hazards were with the current motorized tricycle that needs to address for the welfare of the passengers and drivers. The study favors the shift to adopting E-tricycle. The model derived from binary logistics regression provided a 72.72% model accuracy. Based from the results and findings, electric tricycle can be an alternative mode of public transport in the city that highly support sustainable option that provides local populace to improve their quality of life through mobility and economic activity. Further recommendation to local policy makers in the transport sector of the city include the clustering of barangays for better traffic management and franchise regulation, the inclusion of transport-related infrastructure related to tricycle service with their investment planning and programming, the roll out and implementation of tricycle code of the city, and the piloting activity of introducing e-tricycle in the city.
    Date: 2021–04
  27. By: Sarah Xue Dong
    Abstract: This study contributes to the literature on household decisions and women’s empowerment by looking at the relationship between labour market opportunities and women’s intra-household decision power in Indonesia. Using Bartik labour demand measures, I estimate the effect of change in local labour demand for women in large and medium manufacturing on women’s intra-household decision power. Household decision power is calculated using direct information on who makes decisions in the household. I find that increase in labour demand for women in large and medium manufacturing increases women’s intra-household decision power by a large magnitude. Increase in labour demand for men decreases women’s household decision power. Consistent with intra-household bargaining theories, increase in labour demand for women increases women’s decision power even for women who do not work. Based on new literature discussing the validity of Bartik instruments, I discuss the validity of my identification strategy and conduct robustness tests.
    Keywords: intra-household decisions, women’s empowerment, labour demand; large and medium manufacturing; shift-share (Bartik) instrument
    JEL: D10 J23 O14
    Date: 2021
  28. By: Prema-chandra Athukorala
    Abstract: During the post-World War 11 era, the process of economic transformation in Asia has been more rapid and extensive than in any other region in the world. With the Asia-wide embrace of market-oriented policy reforms and following the meteoric rise of China and India’s awakening from economic slumber, the twenty-first century has come to be labelled the ‘Asian Century’. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the nonspecialized reader to a selection of published papers that provides a comprehensive picture of economic policymaking and performance of these countries. The compilation of the collection was motivated by both the economic significance of the region in the global economy and the pivotal role played by Asia-focused research in the enrichment of the subject area of development economics. The papers have been carefully selected to help the reader to understand political and economic underpinnings of the Asian economic dynamism in general and notable differences in economic progress among the Asian countries.
    Keywords: Asian century, economic development, structural chnage
    JEL: O10 O40 O53 F02
    Date: 2021
  29. By: Hafni, Nur
    Abstract: Natural disasters are one of the impacts on environmental dynamics, both natural and as a result of human behavior. The Destana (Disaster Resilient Village) policy is one of the programs created by BNPB (National Disaster Management Agency) and implemented by BPBD (Regional Disaster Management Agency) as one of the government's efforts in dealing with disaster problems. The purpose of the study is to describe how Destana plays an optimal role in increasing community preparedness in dealing with floods. Using a qualitative approach, this study conducted observations on 11 Destana in Bojonegoro, conducted interviews with BPBD and each Destana coordinator and documented the activities Destana had carried out to improve community preparedness. The first finding in the implementation of Destana is a medium for the community together with stakeholders in disaster management to carry out activities related to increasing community knowledge about flood preparedness. The second result is that through Destana the community becomes more aware of its environment and has a responsibility to protect itself. Finally, there is a pattern of optimizing the use of rural resources to be used in every Destana activity. The three results indicate that Destana has been used and is running optimally in an effort to increase community preparedness in facing flood disasters. Optimizing the use of Destana in this study shows that the community plays an active role by utilizing their local knowledge and resources. In addition, the government remains the main actor in implementing disaster preparedness policies.
    Date: 2021–03–19
  30. By: Saputro, Agus
    Abstract: Keberhasilan sebuah pembangunan dapat diukur melalui pertumbuhan ekonomi masyarakat yang tinggi. Dilihat melalui produktivitasnya, yakni Produk Nasional Bruto (PNB/GNP), dan Produk Domestik Bruto (PDB/ GDP). Untuk melihat realitas produktivitas rata-rata maka digunakanlah PNB/kapita/tahun atau PDB /kapita /tahun. Akan tetapi realitasnya di Indonesia ketimpangan ekonomi menjadi massalah yang konkrit. Sehingga rata-rata produktivitas tidak menjadi ukuran mutlak jika Indeks Gini (skala 0-1) mendekati 1, berarti ketimpangan ekonomi tinggi. Lepas dari itu pembangunan bukan hanya sekedar perhitungan produktivitas barang dan jasa, akan tetapi yang lebih penting adalah membangun mentalitas. Mentalitas menentukan produktivitas berkelanjutan sedangkan produktivitas belum tentu menentukan mentalitas pembangunan yang baik apalagi berkelanjutan. Sehingga merawat mentalitas pembangunan lebih penting daripada mengutamakan produktivitas barang, karena pembangunan yang baik tidak hanya memikirkan keuntungan ekonomi, tetapi mempertimbangkan aspek kemanusiaan dan masyarakat.
    Date: 2020–09–30
  31. By: Erika Deserranno; Gianmarco León-Ciliotta; Firman Witoelar
    Abstract: We study the effect of raising the level and the transparency of financial incentives offered to local agents for acquiring clients of a new banking product on take-up. We find that paying agents higher incentives increases take-up, but only when the incentives are unknown to prospective clients. When disclosed, higher incentives instead have no effect on take-up, despite greater agent effort. This is explained by the financial incentives conveying a negative signal about the reliability and trustworthiness of the product and its providers to potential clients. In contexts with limited information about a new technology, financial incentives can thus affect technology adoption through both a supply-side effect (more agent effort) as well as a demand-side signaling effect (change in demand perceptions). Organizations designing incentive schemes should therefore pay close attention to both the level and the transparency of such incentives.
    Keywords: Financial incentives; pay transparency; technology adoption
    JEL: J31 D84 M52 O14 G28
    Date: 2021
  32. By: Wannaphong Durongkaveroj
    Abstract: Is the emphasis placed in trade and industry policy-making in developing countries on the share of domestic value-added ('value-added ratio') in exports consistent with the objective of achieving economic development through an export-oriented development strategy? This paper examines the rationale behind this policy emphasis, first by revisiting the conventional case for using the value-added ratio as a policy guide, and then by undertaking an input-output (I-O) analysis of manufacturing industry in Thailand with an emphasis on employment generation and equity.
    Keywords: global production networks, value added, Exports, Employment, Thailand, Business networks, Production
    Date: 2021
  33. By: christanto, angelia
    Abstract: In the global economic uncertainty, the best way companies in Indonesia to survive is transforming business and human resources with information technology that refer to Good Corporate Governance. The key to survive in the market is manage operational foundation, guarantee trust from stakeholders and employee engagement that can gain positive profits.
    Date: 2021–03–27
  34. By: Ma’aji, Muhammad M.; Anderson, Ediri O.; Colon, Christine G.
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine how corporate governance instruments impact firm value in the context of Cambodian banks. This paper considers foreign and domestic-owned banks in Cambodia. This study opts for a balanced sample of foreign and domestic owned banks for the period 2014-2018. Panel data regression is adopted for estimation of main results. The suitable model, i.e. fixed and random effect model is selected using the Hausman specification test where the result shows that the random effect model using generalized least square (GLS) regression is more suitable for the analysis. The findings show that Cambodian banks are having a substantially higher percentage of NEDs on their board, high implementation of governance procedures on board committees where on average the banks are having more than the required two board committees (audit and risk committees) as required by the Prakas on the governance of banks by National Bank of Cambodia. The average board size is around 8 members of which at least 3 members are having a postgraduate degree or a professional qualification. Policymakers need to improve on their supervisory function as the majority of the domestic and some foreign banks do not disclose their annual reports on their company website as required by the Prakas on Corporate Governance of Banks operating in Cambodia. Moreover, amendments should be made to the current corporate governance code for financial institutions as there are no explanatory notes that guide companies and therefore, the current guideline is open to individual and subjective interpretation.
    Date: 2021–04–11
  35. By: Medyawati, Henny; Yunanto, Muhamad
    Abstract: This study aims to find the most appropriate model for analysing the effect of financial performance, dividend policy, interest rates and the rupiah exchange rate on firm value. The research sample includes the banking sub-sector companies listed on the IDX in 2013-2019. The research method used is purposive sampling to analyse the panel data. The variables used in this study are the company value as measured by Price to Book Value (PBV), financial performance is measured by Return on Assets (ROA), dividend policy is measured by Dividend Pay-out Ratio (DPR), interest rate is measured by BI interest rate, and the rupiah exchange rate is measured by the middle rate. The results show that ROA and exchange rate affect firm value. The appropriate model used in this study is the random effect model.
    Date: 2021–04–15
  36. By: Gibbs, Michael (University of Chicago); Perri, Tim (Appalachian State University)
    Abstract: Gary Becker wrote what may be the first economic analysis of conscription. Less than a decade later, economists played a key role in an important public policy debate during the Vietnam War, which eventually led to abolishment of the military draft. Becker had connections to many of those economists who studied the economics of conscription, and his paper foreshadowed many of the ideas in that literature. Despite this, none cited his paper on conscription. We discuss this history and speculate on this puzzle.
    Keywords: conscription, labor market public policy
    JEL: M5
    Date: 2021–04
  37. By: Sarah Xue Dong; Dewi Meisari; Banu Rinaldi
    Abstract: This paper presents the findings of a large scale randomized controlled field trial that informs micro and small businesses about a free and easy to use online registration portal for business registration. We find that in the context of Indonesia, a country with a large informal sector and complicated business registration process, simple online registration can be attractive to micro and small businesses. Sending three rounds of short WhatsApp or text messages resulted in 3.4% of recipients clicking the registration link in the messages. Only 0.1% of recipients registered through the portal, however, indicating that the registration portal is not easy enough to use. Different phrasing of messages results in different click rate, different registration rate, and different rates the sender’s number is blocked. Neutral message performs the best, followed by message that emphasize that registration is easy. Message that appeals to people’s patriotic feelings or message that emphasize the registration is free performs the last, depending on the outcome.
    Keywords: business registration; micro and small enterprises; informal sector; randomized controlled trial; behavioural insights;
    JEL: C93 O17 O29
    Date: 2021
  38. By: Dang Vu, Hoai Nam (University of Copenhagen); Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl
    Abstract: A legal rhino horn trade is suggested to reduce poaching. To examine this proposition we conducted a choice experiment with 345 rhino horn consumers in Vietnam investigating their preferences for legality, source, price and peer experience of medicinal efficacy as attributes in their decision to purchase rhino horn. We calculated consumers’ willingness to pay for each attribute level. Consumers preferred and were willing to pay more for wild than semi-wild and farmed rhino horn but showed the strongest preference for legal horn although higher-income consumers were less concerned about legality. The number of peers having used rhino horn without positive effect reduced preference for wild-sourced horn and increased preference for legality. Hence, a legal trade in rhino horn would likely not eliminate a parallel black market. Whether poaching would be reduced depends on the price difference in the two markets, campaigns ability to change consumer preferences, and regulation efforts.
    Date: 2021–04–12
  39. By: Jayant Menon
    Abstract: In assessing regionalism, it has become customary to look to the European experience to serve as a benchmark against which all other regional integration programs are judged. But ASEAN is different. Compared to Europe, it is outward- rather than inward-looking, market rather than government driven, and institution light rather than heavy. These differences reflect the very different motivations and objectives of the two regional programs. ASEAN’s success lies in its almost unique achievement of using regionalism for globalisation. The metrics that we use to assess regionalism must reflect true objectives, even if they lie below the surface. Widely used indicators such as shares of intra-regional trade and investment not only fail to capture the real story, but they can point in the wrong direction.
    Keywords: Regionalism; Globalisation; ASEAN
    JEL: F13 F14 F15
    Date: 2021
  40. By: Asongu, Simplice; Diop, Samba; Nnanna, Joseph
    Abstract: This study has: (i) analysed the economic impact of the Covid-19 pandemic, (ii) evaluated the effectiveness and relevance of different measures against the pandemic and (iii) examined nexuses between the corresponding measures and economic outcomes. The study uses a sample of 186 countries divided into four main regions, notably: Asia-Pacific and the Middle East, Europe, Africa and America. 34 preventing and mitigating measures against the Covid-19 pandemic are classified into five main categories: lockdown, movement restrictions, governance and economic, social distancing, and public health measures. The empirical evidence is based on comparative difference in means tests and correlation analyses. The findings show how the effectiveness and consequences of the Covid-19 measures are different across regions. In adopting the relevant policies to fight the ongoing pandemic, the comparative insights from the findings in the study are worthwhile. Inter alia: (i) from a holistic perspective, only European countries have favourably benefited from the Covid-19 measures; (ii) lockdown measures at the global level have not been significant in reducing the pandemic; (iii) the restriction of movement measure has been relevant in curbing the spread in the American continent; (iv) social distancing has been productive in Europe and counter-productive in Africa; (v) governance and economic measures have exclusively been relevant in Europe and (vi) overall public health measures have not had the desired outcomes in flattening the infection curve probably because most of the underlying measures are awareness decisions or oriented toward people already infected.
    Keywords: Novel Coronavirus, Social Distance, Macroeconomics effects
    JEL: E10 E12 E20 E23 I10 I18
    Date: 2020–07
  41. By: Diop, Samba; Asongu, Simplice; Nnanna, Joseph
    Abstract: The study complements the extant literature by constructing Covid-19 economic vulnerability and resilience indexes using a global sample of 150 countries which are categorized into four principal regions, namely: Africa, Asia-Pacific and the Middle East, America and Europe. Seven variables are used for the vulnerability index and nine for the resilience index. Both regions and sampled countries are classified in terms of the two proposed and computed indexes. The classification of countries is also provided in terms of four scenarios pertaining to vulnerability and resilience characteristics, notably: low vulnerability-low resilience, high vulnerability-low resilience, high vulnerability-high resilience and low vulnerability-high resilience to respectively illustrate, sensitive, severe, asymptomatic and best cases. The findings are relevant to policy makers especially as it pertains to decision making in resources allocation in the fight against the global pandemic.
    Keywords: Novel coronavirus, Economic vulnerability, Economic resilience
    JEL: E10 E12 E20 E23 I10 I28
    Date: 2020–10
  42. By: Amina Baba (Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres, LEDA-CGEMP - Centre de Géopolitique de l’Energie et des Matières Premières - LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Anna Creti (Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres, LEDA-CGEMP - Centre de Géopolitique de l’Energie et des Matières Premières - LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, X - École polytechnique); Olivier Massol (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles - IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles, IFP School, University of London [London])
    Abstract: We examine the profitability of flexible routing by LNG cargoes for a single supplier taking into account uncertainty in the medium-term dynamics of gas markets. First, we model the trajectory of natural gas prices in Asia, Northern America, and Europe using a Threshold Vector AutoRegression representation (TVAR) in which the system's dynamics switches back and forth between high and low regimes of oil price volatility. We then use the generalized impulse response functions (GIRF) obtained from the estimated threshold model to analyze the effects of volatility shocks on the regional gas markets dynamics. Lastly, the valuation of destination flexibility in LNG supplies is conducted using a real option approach. We generate a sample of possible future regional price trajectories using Monte Carlo simulations of our empirical model and determine for each trajectory the optimal shipping decisions and their profitability. Our results portend a substantial source of profit for the industry and reveal future movements of vessels. We discuss the conditional impact of destination flexibility on the globalization of natural gas markets.
    Keywords: LNG arbitrage,destination flexibility option,volatility,TVAR,Monte Carlo simulation
    Date: 2020–01

This nep-sea issue is ©2021 by Kavita Iyengar. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.