nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2021‒04‒05
37 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Regressing climate change, agricultural growth and food production on economic sustainability: gathering and analyzing data for ASEAN countries By Achmad Faqih; Mukarto Siswoyo
  2. Comparative Analysis of Financial Sustainability Using the Altman Z-Score, Springate, Zmijewski and Grover Models for Companies Listed at Indonesia Stock Exchange Sub-Sector Telecommunication Period 2014 – 2019 By Fauzi3, Samrony Eka; , Sudjono; Saluy, Ahmad Badawi; Institute of Research, Asian
  3. Indonesian Economic Disruption in Covid-19 Pandemic By Munawir, Muhammad Rapli Al
  4. Optimal capital adequacy ratio: an investigation of Vietnamese commercial banks using two-stage DEA By Phuong Anh Nguyen; Bich Le Tran; Michel Simioni
  5. The Roles of Foreign Ownership and Growth Opportunity amid the Trade War: Evidence from an Emerging Country By , AISDL
  6. The Uncertainty of Global Economy has Renewed Strategy in Indonesia By Belina, Natasya
  7. Perceptions of Micro, Small and Medium Entrepreneurs on the Importance of Fair Presentation of Financial Statements with the Implementation of SAK EMKM as a Moderation Variable By Arda, Devid Putra
  8. How Indonesian Companies Facing The Global Economic Disruption and It Impacts By Melani, Olivia Erisa
  9. A product of social mission, sustainable entrepreneurial and marketing orientation: enhancing social entrepreneurial self-efficacy in Indonesian education sector By Satria Bangsawan; Muhammad Haseeb; Mahrinasari Ms
  10. Bacaan Wajib Semua Sales By Arifin, Antoni Ludfi
  11. Pioneers of the plantation economy: militarism, dispossession, and the limits of growth in the Wa State of Myanmar By Steinmüller, Hans
  12. The Condition of Sustainability of Lobster in Indonesia as The Impact of Regulation Minister of Marine and Fishery Number 12 of 2020 Concerning By Wijaya, Felicya Christina
  13. Sustainability of Lobster in Indonesia By , Michelle
  14. Digital Economy Development in Indonesia 2020 By Fernanda, Maria
  15. Power Resources and Income Inequality in Switzerland and Singapore By Coban, Mehmet Kerem
  16. Pelatihan dan Pengembangan Manajemen sumber Daya Manusia di Masa Pandemi Covid-19 By Mustopa, Rita
  17. Trade-off analysis of cost and nutrient efficiency of coffee farms in vietnam: A more generalised approach By Ho, Thong Quoc; Hoang, Vincent; Wilson, Clevo
  18. Farmers’ livelihood strategies and perceived constraints from the poor and non-poor households: A dataset from a field survey in Nghe An, Vietnam By Khuc, Quy Van; Vuong, Quan-Hoang; Pham, Phu; Nguyen, My-Hien; Ngo, Cong-Thang; Tran, Phuong-Mai
  19. Tugas Sitasi Perekonomian Indonesia KP B Review Journal By Arilony, Jeftha Offel
  21. The Importance of Developing Human Resource in Indonesia’s Industry By Daya, Audriy Shevannisa
  22. Culture affects the economic development of Vietnam By Linh, Nguyen Thi
  23. Geliat Hangat Usai Pilpres 2019 By JAMIL, M.
  24. Income, consumption, and poverty measurement in the Philippines By Briones, Kristine Joy; Lopez, Jessa; Elumbre, Roxanne Jean; Angangco, Therese Marie
  25. Global Economic Discruption and Companies in Indonesia By Loanoto, Vincent Indrakusuma
  26. Sustainability of Lobster in Indonesia By christabel, stevanie
  27. Indonesia's Treasure and Human Resources By rahmadanti, wina illirian sevi
  29. indonesia treasure throne and lobster seed By rahmadanti, wina illirian sevi
  30. Branch Expansion versus Digital Banking: The Dynamics of Growth and Inequality in a Spatial Equilibrium Model By Yan Ji; Songyuan Teng; Robert Townsend
  31. Institutional Ownership, External Auditor Reputation, Financial Leverage, and Earnings Management By Kutha, Ngakan Made; Susan, Marcellia; Institute of Research, Asian
  32. Local Dominance By Catonini, Emiliano; Xue, Jingyi
  33. Real GDP per capita: global redistribution of economic power By Ivan Kitov
  34. Real GDP per capita: global redistribution of economic power By Kitov, Ivan
  35. The role of economic structural factors in determining pandemic mortality rates: Evidence from the COVID-19 outbreak in France By Stéphane Goutte; Thomas Péran; Thomas Porcher
  36. Machine Learning and Central Banks: Ready for Prime Time? By Hans Genberg; Özer Karagedikli
  37. Macroeconomic Dynamics and Reallocation in an Epidemic: Evaluating the "Swedish Solution" By Dirk Krueger; Harald Uhlig; Taojun Xie

  1. By: Achmad Faqih (Swadaya Gunung Jati University); Mukarto Siswoyo (Swadaya Gunung Jati University)
    Abstract: The agricultural sector plays a great role in the economy of several countries and their economic sustainability is also majorly dependent on the agricultural performance of the country. There are various aspects related to agriculture sector that might have the impact on economic sustainability in one way or the other. In continuation of this issue, the researcher has conducted this study so that the impact casted by climate change, agricultural growth, and food production on the economic sustainability of the ASEAN countries can be studied effectively. For this research, the researcher has gathered relevant data from six ASEAN countries i.e. Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Thailand, and Philippines. The period for which the data has been collected comprises of 29 years. For analysis of this data, the researcher has applied tests such as panel unit root test, panel cointegration test, AMG estimation and panel casualty test and has obtained the desired results. The results make it clear that the independent variables i.e. climate change, agricultural growth and food production have significant impact on economic sustainability for most of the selected ASEAN countries. Moreover, various variables have also shown unidirectional and bidirectional casualty among them.
    Keywords: Climate Change,Agricultural Growth and Food Production,Economic Sustainability,ASEAN Countries
    Date: 2020–10–15
  2. By: Fauzi3, Samrony Eka; , Sudjono; Saluy, Ahmad Badawi; Institute of Research, Asian
    Abstract: This study aims to compare the best bankruptcy prediction models between Altman, Springate, Zmijewski and Grover models against companies listed on the Indonesian stock exchange in the telecommunications sub-sector for the 2014-2019 period. The purposive sampling method is used to obtain a sample of companies with the following criteria: Companies listed on the Indonesian stock exchange, the telecommunications sub-sector, the company has conducted an IPO in 2010, the company is obedient in reporting annual reports from 2014 - 2019 and the company is free from delisting issues. There are 4 companies that meet the purposive sampling criteria, namely PT. Telkom TBK, PT. Indosat TBK. PT. XL Axiata TBK and PT. Smartfren TBK. The data used in this research is secondary panel data. The results showed that only PT. Telkom which is in a healthy financial condition. Meanwhile, PT. Indosat, PT. XL Axiata and PT. Smartfren is consistently in an unhealthy condition based on the analysis of the Altman and Springate models. The calculation of Zmijewski's model and Grover's model gave inconsistent results. Comparative testing of the four bankruptcy analysis models resulted in the Altman, Springate and Grover models recording accurate results but Altman modelling is the best because it is an accurate, consistent, and tested model both descriptively and statistically.
    Date: 2021–02–02
  3. By: Munawir, Muhammad Rapli Al
    Abstract: Global economic has been affected Indonesia for several years. It get worse because of Covid-19 that has been affected all over the world include Indonesia. This pandemic is impact Indonesian economic growth. According to ministry of finance (CNN Indonesia,2020), Sri Mulyani said that the spread of Corona virus is still increasing every time and the financial impact will be more serious, so it impact to Indonesian Economy for sure. The cause of the slump in economic growth is because of the decrease of household consumption, investment and government consumption. Sri Mulyani said that house hold consumption decreased from 3, 2% to 1, 6%. It’s really bad effect many company in Indonesia, they have a slump income.
    Date: 2021–03–25
  4. By: Phuong Anh Nguyen (VNU-HCM - Vietnam National University - Ho Chi Minh City); Bich Le Tran (VNU-HCM - Vietnam National University - Ho Chi Minh City); Michel Simioni (UMR MoISA - Montpellier Interdisciplinary center on Sustainable Agri-food systems (Social and nutritional sciences) - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Over the last years the Vietnamese banking system has been struggling to restructure, reform governance, consolidate financial statements and build up merge and acquisition, in line with international standards. The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) proposed BASEL III in 2010, whereby banks must increase their minimum Capital Adequacy Ratios (CAR) year by year with a goal of 10.5% by 2019. The objective of this paper is to address the questions: (1) what are the optimal CAR levels for Vietnamese Commercial Banks (2) whether the minimum required CARs stipulated in the Basel II and III are reasonable for Vietnam banking system? The data set consists of a sample of Vietnamese commercial banks over the six-year period from 2010 to 2015. The optimal CARs of banks are calculated using the nonparametric two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, with two inputs: fixed assets, employee expense and two outputs: interest income, non-interest income. The findings indicate that 92.4% of the banks have the optimal CAR higher than the minimum ratio 10.5% defined in BASEL III. Moreover, 57.98% of the banks should raise their current level of CAR to reach their optimal ones. To conclude, this paper will provide a guideline for Vietnamese banks to decide their optimal CAR to reach the efficiency frontier.
    Keywords: Vietnam banking system,Two-stage DEA,BASEL II,BASEL III,Capital adequacy ratios
    Date: 2021–01–01
  5. By: , AISDL
    Abstract: In recent years investors tend to divert their investment to emerging economies in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), especially during the U.S.-China trade war. The present study adopts the Weighted Least Square (WLS) and PROCESS macro tool to examine the effects of foreign ownership and growth opportunity on financial performance of Vietnamese listed firms over the period 2011-2018. Our findings show that foreign ownership plays as moderator variable in the relationship between short-term and long-term performance of firms. Empirical results also reveal that mediating effects of growth opportunity on short-term and long-term performance are different before and after the trade war. These findings have important implications for investors and managers in the ASEAN countries.
    Date: 2020–01–14
  6. By: Belina, Natasya
    Abstract: Currently, the uncertainty of global economic conditions makes every company in Indonesia have to adapt and change based on the principles of GCG (Good Corporate Governance) in an orderly manner to survive. Business people in Indonesia are required to always update, innovate and create diversification in order to survive in the midst of increasingly fierce business competition. This has made many companies try the latest management systems to deal with global economic disruptions in the hope that the company will be sustainable and adaptive to the times.
    Date: 2021–03–25
  7. By: Arda, Devid Putra
    Abstract: The ability of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) in surviving in the midst of a crisis shows that this group is far more independent than large entities that generally rely on banking in terms of funding and operations. The contribution of SME in the government's trade balance is indicated by the amount of contribution to gross domestic product (GDP). The presence of SME that has not been incorporated is one of the problems that must be addressed, this is because without a difficult legal entity for an SME to take advantage of government financing facilities. In addition, it is difficult for SME to obtain external financial resources, this is because SME often cannot show financial reports that are in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards in Indonesia (FAS). The implementation of the FAS for SME in Indonesia is an effort to make it easy for SME enterprises for each transaction they make. The application of the EMKM SAK makes it easy for SME entrepreneurs to present financial reports in accordance with the Indonesian GAAP in force
    Date: 2021–03–25
  8. By: Melani, Olivia Erisa
    Abstract: How companies in Indonesia implement strategies to deal with global economic disruptions and survive these disruptions.
    Date: 2021–03–17
  9. By: Satria Bangsawan (University of Lampung); Muhammad Haseeb (Taylor's University); Mahrinasari Ms (University of Lampung)
    Abstract: In the current era, there is a major need to make some effective development in the social entrepreneurship based strategic approach in business development. This paper is an informative approach based on critically consider the number of external factors that enhanced the self-efficacy of social entrepreneurship in the education sector of Indonesia. In this paper, social mission orientation, sustainability entrepreneurial orientation, and marketing orientation are act as an independent variable, risk management as a moderator, while social entrepreneurial self-efficacy is studied as a dependent variable. An online survey-based quantitative research method is used for data collection. After implementing the structural equation modeling (SEM) and moderation analysis based statistical testing, it becomes concluded that risk management acts as a strong moderator which enhance the influence of sustainability entrepreneurial orientation and marketing orientation on the social entrepreneurial self-efficacy. But the social mission orientation does not majorly impact on self-efficacy because of its higher risk factor. This is an attractive approach in front of the Indonesian education sector to enhance their understanding regarding the efficient social entrepreneurship that helps them to make a long-lasting decision. No doubt, this is a challenging and informative paper but there are some limitations like lack of mixed method based versatile research and lack of value cocreation factor may impact the authenticity of this paper which can be overcome by the upcoming related field scholars.
    Date: 2020–10–30
  10. By: Arifin, Antoni Ludfi
    Abstract: Salesman adalah profesi yang universal. Setiap orang, bekerja apa pun, sebenarnya ia adalah salesman, minimal untuk dirinya sendiri. Buku yang ditulis oleh Antoni Ludfi Arifin ini, merupakan sari pati dan problem solving dalam bidang sales. Hal yang terpenting adalah penulis sudah membuktikannya sendiri dan sukses melalui karier di bidang sales yang digelutinya. Oleh karena itu, terutama bagi setiap salesman, buku ini sangat layak untuk dibaca dan dimiliki. Luar biasa!" (Andrie Wongso, Motivator No. 1 Indonesia) "Buku ini perlu dibaca oleh para penjual, pemasar, dan juga profesi lainnya untuk menambah motivasi dan wawasan. Pekerjaan apa pun di semua sektor bisnis adalah profesi yang sangat bermanfaat untuk bisnis itu sendiri dan karier Anda. Bahkan, profesi tersebut akan lebih memiliki arti yang mendalam jika dimaknai sebagai sebuah ibadah." (Drs. Agus Anwar, Apt., Marketing Director PT Kimia Farma, Tbk) "Buku ini ditujukan untuk kaum juru-jual, wiraniaga, dan praktisi penjualan tatap muka. Isinya sangat praktis dan ringan sehingga tidak membuat dahi berkenyit. Pengalaman hidup telah membentuk keyakinan penulis bahwa untuk setiap persoalan pasti ada solusinya. Oleh sebab itu, tenaga pemasar jangan cepat putus asa, tetaplah positif dan raihlah sukses dalam penjualan." (Andrias Harefa, penulis 38 Buku Bestseller, trainer coach berpengalaman 20 tahun, pendiri
    Date: 2021–01–02
  11. By: Steinmüller, Hans
    Abstract: The characteristic mobility of highland populations in Southeast Asia relied to a large extent on their particular adaption to an ecological environment: swidden cultivation of tubers on mountain slopes. This ecology corresponded to cosmologies in which potency was limitless, or at least had no fixed and delimited precinct (as did the rice paddies and Buddhist realms in the valleys). Military state building, modern transport, and new crops and agricultural technologies have effectively ended swidden cultivation. In this article, I follow the pioneers of the plantation economy in the Wa State of Myanmar, who dispossess local populations of their land and employ them as plantation labour. The limits of growth and potency they encounter are (a) in the natural environment and (b) in the resistance of local populations. Yet, even though there are such limits, the potency to which these pioneers aspire is still limitless. It is however channelled through a new economy of life, epitomised in the plantation, nourished in excessive feasting, and maintained by the kinship dynamics of capture and care.
    Keywords: plantation; dispossession; life; economy; Wa; Research Infrastructure Investment Fund; APC covered by Wiley deal
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2021–03–05
  12. By: Wijaya, Felicya Christina
    Abstract: Regulation of the Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Number 12 of 2020 has a negative impact on the sustainability of lobsters in Indonesia and may not be enforced in 2020 and should be implemented in mid-2021
    Date: 2021–03–25
  13. By: , Michelle
    Abstract: As an archipelagic and maritime country, Indonesia has attracted many fishermen from all over the world due to its abundance of marine resources. The government's policy to open lobster seed exports and legalize fishing equipment that was previously prohibited (shrimp trawl, payang, cantrang) in the Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Regulation Number 12 of 2020 has created many debates.
    Date: 2021–03–25
  14. By: Fernanda, Maria
    Abstract: Perkembangan Ekonomi Digital di Indonesia 2020
    Date: 2021–03–16
  15. By: Coban, Mehmet Kerem
    Abstract: This chapter endeavours to explain rising inequality in Singapore and Switzerland from a power-resource theory perspective which will be accompanied with the idea of trilemma between earnings equality, full employment, and budgetary restraint. Recent decade has observed rising inequality in two countries, and this chapter mainly argues that the limited role of labour in policymaking process seems to be one but critical explanatory variable in highly decentralised and centralised political context in Switzerland and Singapore, respectively. Besides the role of political institutions, distinct experiences with labour unions, historical evolution of social policies, the need for more integration with world economy, and ageing are also taken into account for a comprehensive understanding of forces behind rising inequality which is instrumented as the gap between top and lower income deciles. This chapter concludes that all forces interdependently play their respective roles; meaning it is difficult to separate one from another. Finally, it calls for being responsive to incessant changes in domestic arena with a focus on shifts in demography, labour demand, aspiration of the youth while maintaining soundness of fiscal capacity.
    Date: 2021–01–26
  16. By: Mustopa, Rita
    Abstract: Semua perusahaan yang mempunyai bisnis pasti selalu ada persaingan, maka dari itu setiap perusahaan harus mengadakan pelatihan dan pengembangan untuk karyawan baru maupun yang sudah lama. Karena untuk menjadikan unggul suatu perusahaan, teknologi canggih tidak akan cukup karena akan percuma jika teknologi sudah canggih tetapi pengguna atau karyawan tidak cukup kompeten untuk menggunakan teknologi tersebut. Tetapi situasi saat ini sudah sangat berbeda, karena virus yang sedang merajalela di dunia, tidak hanya di Indonesia, 200 negara lainnya pun terjangkit virus tersebut, ini tentu akan sangat berpengaruh dalam sistem kerja, sistem ajar dan sistem yang lainnya. Pelatihan dan pengembangan perusahaan pun terganggu dan harus mengubah metode dengan tujuan untuk menyesuaikan pelatihan dan pengembangan dalam keadaan pandemi seperti ini. Metode yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dan menggunakan pendekatan kajian pustaka. Sedangkan sasaran khalayak adalah perusahaan yang sudah mulai menggunakan metode baru dalam pelatihan dan pengembangan. Dengan diadakannya penelitian seperti ini diharapkan agar bisa menjadi contoh kepada perusahaan lain dalam mengubah metode pelatihan dan pengembangan nya di masa pandemi seperti saat ini.
    Date: 2021–01–25
  17. By: Ho, Thong Quoc; Hoang, Vincent; Wilson, Clevo
    Abstract: Analysis of economic and environmental performance of agricultural production has received increasing attention in both the theoretical and empirical literature (Aldieri et al., 2019). Several methodological approaches have been proposed to measure environmental efficiency and to analyse trade-offs between economic and environmental performance (e.g., Fang, 2020; Shuai and Fan, 2020; Azad and Ancev, 2014; Picazo-Tadeo and Prior, 2009; Reinhard et al., 2000). Within this literature strand, Coelli et al., (2007) offer a distinct approach that utilises the material balance principle to derive cost and environmental efficiency measures. Empirical applications of Coelli et al. (2007) for the purpose of environmental and economic analysis have flourished recently (Hoang and Alauddin, 2012; Nguyen et al., 2012; Hoang and Rao, 2010). However, these empirical applications focus only on the economic and environmental trade-off of technically efficient farms, not all the farms.
    Keywords: Coffee production, Cost efficiency, Environmental efficiency, Trade-off, Vietnam.
    JEL: O13
    Date: 2020–02–08
  18. By: Khuc, Quy Van; Vuong, Quan-Hoang; Pham, Phu; Nguyen, My-Hien; Ngo, Cong-Thang; Tran, Phuong-Mai
    Abstract: rural livelihood, plantation forests, primary data, sustainable rural development, Vietnam
    Date: 2021–01–22
  19. By: Arilony, Jeftha Offel
    Abstract: Jurnal ini membahas kondisi ekonomi global yang masih penuh ketidakpastian. perusahaan saat ini mengubah bisnis dan sumber daya manusia mereka. Transformasi yang dilakukan perusahaan didukung oleh perkembangan teknologi informasi. Transformasi bisnis yang inovatif juga dilakukan berdasarkan tata kelola perusahaan yang baik. Kondisi ekonomi global yang tidak menentu mengharuskan perusahaan untuk selalu menciptakan nilai baru di semua aspek bisnis untuk mempertahankan perusahaan di pasar dan memperoleh keuntungan yang positif.
    Date: 2021–03–25
  20. By: Jannah, Raudhatul
    Abstract: Pasar merupakan tempat masyarakat melangsungkan jual beli barang secara langsung dan dalam waktu yang relatif singkat. Pasar yang terdapat di Indonesia terbagi menjadi pasar tradisional dan pasar modern. Pasar tradisional cendrung akrab dengan khasnya yang masih mengusung kedaerahan dan identik dengan masyarakat kelas ekonomi menengah kebawah. Sedangkan pasar modern adalah pasar yang sudah dimodifikasi dengan berbagai perbaikan sarana dan prasarana penunjang jual beli dan identik dengan masyarakat kelas ekonomi menengah keatas. Berkaitandengan pasar yang biasa didatangi oleh masyarakat yaitu pasar tradisional, dianggap lebih memudahkan kalangan masyarakat untuk melakukan jual beli serta tawar-menawar disana. Pasar tradisional sebagai penunjang perkonomian masyarakat baik pedagang maupun pembeli memberi banyak kemudahan. Kaitannya dengan Ilmu Pengetahuan Sosial(IPS) terletak dalam segi ilmu sosial dan humaniora yang bersangkutan dengan Pasar tersebut seperti ilmu ekonomi, geografi dan sosiologi.
    Date: 2021–03–25
  21. By: Daya, Audriy Shevannisa
    Abstract: The Importance of Developing Human Resource in Indonesia’s Industry in the 4.0 industrial revolution which is currently being applied & adapted in industrial production activities
    Date: 2021–03–25
  22. By: Linh, Nguyen Thi
    Abstract: Culture has a special position and role in the development of a country, including economic development. There are many different definitions of culture, so when looking at the position and role of culture in economic development, there are often different approaches.
    Date: 2021–01–29
  23. By: JAMIL, M.
    Abstract: Indonesia sedang berada dalam salahsatu agenda nasional, yaitu Pemilihan Umum (Pemilu) serentak 2019. Pemilu serentak tahun ini dalam rangka pemilihan Calon Anggota Legislatif (baik DPRD Kabupaten/Kota, DPRD Provinsi, DPR RI), DPD RI, dan Pemilihan Capres dan Cawapres untuk masa baksi 2019-2024. Proses Pemilihan serentak sudah berlangsung pada hari Rabu, 17 April 2019, dan sesuai jadwal paling lama dilakukan pengumukan tanggal 22 Mei 2019 (karena rekapitulasi berjalan lancar, sehingga selesai sebelum batas akhir), rekapitulasi selesai pada tanggal 21 Mei 2019, lebih cepat satu hari sebelum batas akhir yang dijadwalkan.
    Date: 2019–05–28
  24. By: Briones, Kristine Joy; Lopez, Jessa; Elumbre, Roxanne Jean; Angangco, Therese Marie
    Abstract: The official poverty methodology of the Philippines uses pretax income as a measure of household welfare. A household is deemed poor if its pretax income falls below a minimum income sufficient to buy the household’s basic needs. However, several studies suggest that a more appropriate welfare measure for poverty estimation is one that includes only resources available for a household’s own consumption of goods and services. This means taxes, social security expenditures, and gifts or expenses for other households must be excluded from the welfare aggregate. Additionally, arguments towards using consumption as a better measure of welfare in poverty estimation also persist. In this study, we explore two welfare aggregates, disposable income, and basic consumption, and assess how well these alternative measures identify the disadvantaged households compared to when pretax income is used. Using the 2018 Family Income and Expenditure Survey, our results show that while disposable income is no better than pretax income in identifying deprived households, a consumption-based measure is preferable to an income-based measure in identifying the disadvantaged. Results are robust even when the welfare measures are adjusted to account for economies of scale in the household.
    Keywords: consumption-based poverty, income-based poverty, welfare measurement
    JEL: I3 I32
    Date: 2021–02–11
  25. By: Loanoto, Vincent Indrakusuma
    Abstract: The uncertainty of the global economy has caused many companies in Indonesia to carry outbusiness transformation, especiallyby generating new values in all aspects of performance, increasing and companies being able to survive in the market by obtaining positive benefits.As well as transforming human resources,by managing these human resources, especially if there are employees who experience threats from external parties.Information technology, which continues to evolve, has become a driving factor for the success of companies to carry out transformation.
    Date: 2021–03–16
  26. By: christabel, stevanie
    Abstract: This quality research leads to a case study of the impact of a new policy regarding the export of lobster seed on the sustainability of lobster in Indonesia. The government's policy to open lobster seed exports and legalize fishing equipment, such as cantrang and the like, is feared to trigger horizontal conflicts between fishermen which are increasingly So far, conflicts have often occurred with fishermen related to the use of nonenvironmentally friendly fishing equipment.
    Date: 2021–03–14
  27. By: rahmadanti, wina illirian sevi
    Abstract: Lobster seed catching and price movements are based on the large demand from other countries. The increase in demand in the international market will encourage the issuance of new policies in the framework of the welfare of fishermen or farmers.
    Date: 2021–03–26
  28. By: Husnah, Asmaul
    Abstract: Hjjkkskskdozoskdbkoanpsjslbsln
    Date: 2021–03–26
  29. By: rahmadanti, wina illirian sevi
    Abstract: Lobster itself is an organism that lives at the bottom of the water,and its distribution depends on substrates in nature, the availability of food,and other organisms in the waters. Opens up opportunities for the cultivation of lobsters which is very interesting.
    Date: 2021–03–26
  30. By: Yan Ji; Songyuan Teng; Robert Townsend
    Abstract: We develop a heterogeneous-agent model with local spatial markets to study the relationships among bank expansion, growth, and inequality. In the model, households choose their occupations, consumption, and holdings of loans and portfolio assets that vary by liquidity. Banks choose the locations of new branches, which affect the financial frictions facing households across regions. We calibrate the model using a geographic information system to evaluate the rapid bank expansion in Thailand between 1986-1996. The model quantifies the sources of growth and inequality over time and across space and the potential role of digital banking in substantially reducing regional heterogeneity.
    JEL: C54 E23 E44 F43 O11 O16 R11 R13
    Date: 2021–03
  31. By: Kutha, Ngakan Made; Susan, Marcellia; Institute of Research, Asian
    Abstract: Profits show the performance of managers before the related parties, such as investors and creditors. Therefore, managers often incorrectly state them in the published annual financial reports to protect their reputation. Undoubtedly, this action needs to be reduced by the governance mechanism, like supervision by institutions as the owner and audit by the external public accountant firm. To control these two effects on profits management, additionally, this study employs financial leverage. This study aims to prove the impact of institutional ownership, the external auditor reputation, and financial leverage on profits management. The population and the samples are the non-financial companies establishing the LQ45 index from 2014 to 2018, getting taken by the simple random sampling technique. Also, the regression model performs as the technique to examine the data. By denoting the testing of the hypothesis results and the discussion section, this study summarizes that institutional ownership and reputable external auditor effectively decrease profits management. Additionally, although firms have much debt, they cut the tendency to manage their profits because of applying transparency.
    Date: 2021–02–04
  32. By: Catonini, Emiliano (Higher School of Economics, ICEF); Xue, Jingyi (School of Economics, Singapore Management University)
    Abstract: We define a local notion of weak dominance that speaks to the true choice problems among actions in a game tree and does not necessarily require to plan optimally for the future. A strategy is (globally) weakly dominant if and only if it prescribes a locally weakly dominant action at every decision node it reaches, and in this case local weak dominance is characterized by a (wishful-thinking) condition that requires no forward planning. From this local perspective, we identify form of contingent reasoning that are particularly natural, despite the absence of an obviously dominant strategy (Li, 2017). Following this approach, we construct a dynamic game that implements the Top Trading Cycles allocation under a notion of local obvious dominance that captures a form of independence of irrelevant alternatives.
    Keywords: Weak dominance; obvious dominance; strategy-proofness; implementation
    Date: 2020–12–22
  33. By: Ivan Kitov
    Abstract: Growth rate of real GDP per capita, GDPpc, is represented as a sum of two components, a monotonically decreasing economic trend and fluctuations related to population change. The economic trend is modelled by an inverse function of GDPpc with a constant numerator which varies for the largest developed economies. In 2006, a statistical analysis conducted for 19 selected OECD countries for the period between 1950 and 2003 showed a very weak linear trend in the annual GDPpc increment for the largest economies: the USA, Japan, France, Italy, and Spain. The UK, Australia, and Canada showed a slightly steeper positive linear trend. The 2012 revision showed that the positive trends became much lower and some of them fell below zero due to the Great Recession. The fluctuations around the trend values are characterized by a quasi-normal distribution with heavy and asymmetric tails. This research revises the previous estimates and extends the set of studied countries by economies in East Europe, Latin America, BRICS, Africa, and Asia including several positive outliers with extremely fast growth. The change in GDP definitions and measuring procedures with time and economic source is discussed in relation to the statistical significance of the trend estimates and data quality requirements for a consistent economic model. The relative performance of all counties since 1960 is compared according to the predicted total GDPpc growth as a function of the initial value. The performance in the 21st century is analyzed separately as revealing potential and actual shifts in the global economic powers.
    Date: 2021–03
  34. By: Kitov, Ivan
    Abstract: Growth rate of real GDP per capita, GDPpc, is represented as a sum of two components – a monotonically decreasing economic trend and fluctuations related to population change. The economic trend is modelled by an inverse function of GDPpc with a constant numerator which varies for the largest developed economies. In 2006, a statistical analysis conducted for 19 selected OECD countries for the period between 1950 and 2003 showed a very weak linear trend in the annual GDPpc increment for the largest economies: the USA, Japan, France, Italy, and Spain. The UK, Australia, and Canada showed a slightly steeper positive linear trend. The 2012 revision showed that the positive trends became much lower and some of them fell below zero due to the Great Recession. The fluctuations around the trend values are characterized by a quasi-normal distribution with heavy and asymmetric tails. This research revises the previous estimates and extends the set of studied countries by economies in East Europe, Latin America, BRICS, Africa, and Asia including several positive outliers with extremely fast growth. The change in GDP definitions and measuring procedures with time and economic source is discussed in relation to the statistical significance of the trend estimates and data quality requirements for a consistent economic model. The relative performance of all counties since 1960 is compared according to the predicted total GDPpc growth as a function of the initial value. The performance in the 21st century is analyzed separately as revealing potential and actual shifts in the global economic powers.
    Keywords: economic development, GDP per capita, economic trend, business cycle
    JEL: E32 O11 O57
    Date: 2021–02–07
  35. By: Stéphane Goutte (Cemotev - Centre d'études sur la mondialisation, les conflits, les territoires et les vulnérabilités - UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, VNU - Vietnam National University [Hanoï]); Thomas Péran (UP UFR SS - Université de Paris - UFR Sciences sociales - UP - Université de Paris); Thomas Porcher
    Abstract: Among the majority of research on individual factors leading to coronavirus mortality, age has been identified as a dominant factor. Health and other individual factors including gender, comorbidity, ethnicity and obesity have also been identified by other studies. In contrast, we examine the role of economic structural factors on COVID-19 mortality rates. Particularly, focusing on a densely populated region of France, we document evidence that higher economic "precariousness indicators" such as unemployment and poverty rates, lack of formal education and housing are important factors in determining COVID-19 mortality rates. Our study will help inform policy makers regarding the role of economic factors in managing pandemics.
    Keywords: COVID-19,Health system,Housing,Pandemic,Poverty,Social distancing,Territorial vulnerabilities
    Date: 2020
  36. By: Hans Genberg (Asia School of Business); Özer Karagedikli (South East Asian Central Banks (SEACEN) Research and Training Centre and Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis (CAMA))
    Abstract: In this article we review what machine learning might have to offer central banks as an analytical approach to support monetary policy decisions. After describing the central bank’s “problem†and providing a brief introduction to machine learning, we propose to use the gradual adoption of Vector Auto Regression (VAR) methods in central banks to speculate how machine learning models must (will?) evolve to become influential analytical tools supporting central banks’ monetary policy decisions. We argue that VAR methods achieved that status only after they incorporated elements that allowed users to interpret them in terms of structural economic theories. We believe that the same has to be the case for machine learning model.
    Date: 2021–03
  37. By: Dirk Krueger (University of Pennsylvania, CEPR and NBER); Harald Uhlig (University of Chicago, NBER, CEPR); Taojun Xie (Research Fellow, Asia Competitiveness Institute, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: In this paper, we argue that endogenous shifts in private consumption behavior across sectors of the economy can act as a potent mitigation mechanism during an epidemic or when the economy is re-opened after a temporary lockdown. We introduce a SIR epidemiological model into a neoclassical production economy in which goods are distinguished by the degree to which they can be consumed at home rather than in a social, possibly contagious context. We demonstrate within the model, that the "Swedish solution" of letting the epidemic play out without much government intervention and allowing agents to reduce their overall consumption as well as shift their consumption behavior towards relatively safe sectors can lead to substantial mitigation of the economic and human costs of the COVID-19 crisis. We argue that significant seasonal variation in the infection risk is needed to account for the two-wave nature of the pandemic. We estimate the model on Swedish health data and show that it predicts the dynamics of weekly deaths, aggregate as well as sectoral consumption, that accord well with the empirical record and the two-waves for Sweden for 2020 and early 2021. We also characterize the allocation a social planner would choose and how it would dictate sectoral consumption patterns. In so doing, we demonstrate that the laissez-faire outcome with sectoral reallocation mitigates the economic and health crisis but possibly at the expense of unnecessary deaths and too massive a decline in economic activity.
    Keywords: Epidemic, Coronavirus, Macroeconomics, Sectoral Substitution
    JEL: E52 E30
    Date: 2021–03

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