nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2021‒01‒11
43 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Gender and start-up capital for agrifood MSMEs in Indonesia and Viet Nam By Ambler, Kate; de Brauw, Alan; Herskowitz, Sylvan; Murphy, Mike
  2. Some reflections on the state of development economics in Asia By Hal Hill; Sisira Jayasuriya
  3. Economic corridors in Southeast Asia: Analytical framework, development Impacts, and policy By Hal Hill; Jayant Menon
  4. Consumer Sentiment During the COVID-19 Pandemic By Dzung Bui; Lena Draeger; Bernd Hayo; Giang NghiemŸ
  5. Adolescent nutrition in Indonesia: What have we learned? By Go, Ara; Olney, Deanna K.
  6. Long-term effects of Agent Orange on health capital in Vietnam By Nobuaki Yamashita; Trong-Anh Trinh
  7. Gender, poverty, and disability in the National Action Plan for Food and Nutrition 2017-2019 of Indonesia and ways forward By Go, Ara; Ramani, Gayathri; Olney, Deanna K.
  8. The Effects of Currency Devaluation on Output Growth in Developing Economies with Currency Crises By Adebayo Mohammed, Ojuolape; H. Agboola, Yusuf; K. Moshood, Alabi; O. Abdullah, Oladipupo
  9. Indonesian living standards over 50 years: A multidimensional analysis By Hal Hill
  10. Indonesia’s perspective on Total Official Support for Sustainable Development (TOSSD) By Guillaume Delalande; Aussama Bejraoui; Melissa Li; Julia Benn
  11. Keajaiban Ekonomi Vietnam: Sebuah Eksploitasi Tidak Kasat Mata By , AISDL
  12. Did a Successful Fight against the COVID-19 Pandemic Come at a Cost? Impacts of the Outbreak on Employment Outcomes in Vietnam By Dang, Hai-Anh H.; Nguyen, Cuong Viet
  13. Did a Successful Fight against the COVID-19 Pandemic Come at a Cost? Impacts of the Outbreak on Employment Outcomes in Vietnam By Dang, Hai-Anh; Nguyen, Cuong Viet
  14. Thailand; Financial Sector Assessment Program-Technical Note-Risk Assessment By International Monetary Fund
  15. The Development of Digital Economy in Indonesia By Intansari, Rosa Kusnia
  16. The rise of research on development economics in Vietnam: Analyses and implications for the public and policymakers from SSHPA 2008-2020 dataset By Ho, Manh-Toan
  17. Natural resource prices and welfare: Evidence from Indonesia’s coal and palm oil boom By Donny Harrison Pasaribu
  18. The Columbian Exchange and conflict in Asia By Dincecco, Mark; Fenske, James; Menon, Anil
  19. Usaha Perusahaan Indonesia Dalam Meningkatkan SDM Agar Dapat Bersaing di Era Globalisasi By utomo, tiffany
  20. Reflections on Asia’s journey to prosperity By Hal Hill
  21. Corruption and Mental Health: Evidence from Vietnam By Sharma, Smriti; Singhal, Saurabh; Tarp, Finn
  22. Indonesia's Efforts to Achieve Globally Competitive Human Resources By pitaloka, adelia intan diah ayu
  23. Survei Kerukunan Umat Beragama tahun 2018 By Ulum, Raudatul
  24. Agricultural transition in Russia, Central Asia, and Eastern Europe: Ten lessons for Venezuela By Brooks, Karen
  25. Vietnam; Technical Assistance Report-Report on the National Accounts Mission By International Monetary Fund
  26. Cambodia; 2019 Article IV Consultation; Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Cambodia By International Monetary Fund
  27. Teacher Accountability and Pay-for-Performance Schemes in (Semi-) Urban Indonesia By Marcello Perez-Alvarez; Jan Priebe; Dewi Susanti
  28. Equitable Congestion Pricing By Cohen D’Agostino, Mollie; Pellaton, Paige; White, Brittany
  29. More is more livelihood interventions and child labor in the agricultural sector By Chiodi, Vera.; Escudero, Verónica.
  30. Economic Costs Associated to the Coronavirus Pandemic for Vietnam By Jacques Morisset
  31. The Changes and Implications of Indian Maritime Diplomacy Policy during Modi Administration By Zhao, Tiantian; Institute of Research, Asian
  32. The Role of Imported Inputs in Firms’ Productivity and Exports By Deasy D.P. Pane; Arianto A. Patunru
  33. If Global or Local Investor Sentiments are Prone to Developing an Impact on Stock Returns, is there an Industry Effect? By Jing Shi; Marcel Ausloos; Tingting Zhu
  34. Philippines; Technical Assistance Report-Monetary and Financial Statistics Mission By International Monetary Fund
  35. Globalization and Female Empowerment: Evidence from Myanmar By Molina, Teresa; Tanaka, Mari
  36. A Review of the Myanmar National Community Driven Development Project in Conflict-Affected Contexts By Matthew Zurstrassen
  37. Labor Mobility as a Jobs Strategy for Myanmar By Mauro Testaverde; Harry Moroz; Puja Dutta
  38. The Dynamics of Foreign Direct Investment and Exchange Rates: An Interconnection Approach in ASEAN By Syarifuddin, Ferry
  39. Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Technical Assistance Report-Risk-Based Banking Supervision By International Monetary Fund
  40. The Cross-Sectional Pricing of Corporate Bonds Using Big Data and Machine Learning By Turan G. Bali; Amit Goyal; Dashan Huang; Fuwei Jiang; Quan Wen
  42. Lao Biodiversity By World Bank
  43. Illusion of Gender Parity in Education: Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Bangladesh By Sijia Xu; Abu S. Shonchoy; Tomoki Fujii

  1. By: Ambler, Kate; de Brauw, Alan; Herskowitz, Sylvan; Murphy, Mike
    Abstract: Micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in developing countries frequently face financial con-straints undermining their ability to reach their full production potential. These constraints include expo-sure to uninsured risk, lack of suitable savings technologies, and expensive or inaccessible credit. Such challenges may be particularly acute for MSMEs operating in the agrifood system, in value chains be-tween farmers and retailers, where the seasonality and structure of these value chains creates unique financing needs relative to other sectors. Moreover, constraints affecting MSME performance in one part of the value chain may impact other value chain actors both up and downstream, including smallholder farmers, consumers, and exporters. As has been observed more broadly about MSMEs, marginalized groups such as women, low-income households, and ethnic minorities often face additional barriers to finance and adoption suitable financial services.1 If so, then the most vulnerable populations may be unintentionally excluded from emerging economic opportunities in the agriculture sector.
    Keywords: VIET NAM, VIETNAM, SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, INDONESIA, gender, small and medium enterprises, agrifood systems, value chains, capital, start-up
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Hal Hill; Sisira Jayasuriya
    Abstract: This paper reviews some salient aspects of the state of development economics, from the early post-war pioneers through the major 1989 Survey by Nicholas Stern, to contemporary experiences and lessons. The latter is illustrated with references to five South and Southeast Asian countries. While the techniques of economic analysis have become ever more sophisticated and the data bases larger and richer, significant analytical puzzles remain. The central question of why some countries perform well and others indifferently is still imperfectly understood. Because many factors – economic, political, institutional, as well as random events – shape countries’ development trajectories, country economic forecasting over the medium to longer run continues to be as much art as science.
    Keywords: development economics, history of economic thinking, Asia, Philippines, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Singapore
    JEL: B20 N15 O53
    Date: 2020
  3. By: Hal Hill; Jayant Menon
    Abstract: Economic corridors have gained popularity as a potentially important instrument in the development and transformation of low and middle income economies. But why have some countries had more success with them than others? What role does governance, institutions, finance and policy frameworks play in determining their success? How can we measure their impacts? We try and answer these questions by looking closely at, and drawing lessons from, two case studies of successful corridors in Asia, Malaysia and Thailand. A key conclusion is that economic corridors are more likely to succeed with greater domestic spillovers when the physical and policy infrastructure are conducive.
    Keywords: Economic corridors, economic geography, Southeast Asia
    JEL: O53 R11 R58
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Dzung Bui (Philipps University Marburg); Lena Draeger (Leibniz University of Hannover); Bernd Hayo (Philipps University Marburg); Giang NghiemŸ (Leibniz University of Hannover)
    Abstract: We analyze consumer sentiment with a novel survey of Thai and Vietnamese consumers conducted in May 2020, that is, shortly after the end of the immediate lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In a randomized control trial, we expose subgroups of the survey respondents to four different information treatments: (1) how their country ranks in a global survey on agreement or disagreement with the government's response to COVID-19, (2) how the country compares in a global survey on the appropriateness of the general public's reaction to the pandemic, (3) the negative unemployment outlook due to the pandemic, and (4) the positive effects of social distancing for the spread of the virus. First, our results show that consumers are more optimistic if they expect higher GDP growth and trust the government in dealing with the crisis, whereas having stronger concerns about their household's financial situation due to COVID-19 is related to less optimistic sentiment. Second, we find that the information treatments only weakly affect consumer sentiment. However, consumer sentiment is strongly affected by treatment (1) and (2) when they go against respondents' previously held views. Finally, we discover large differences between the two countries.
    Keywords: Consumer sentiment; COVID-19; randomized control trial (RCT); survey experiment; government trust; macroeconomic expectations; Thailand; Vietnam
    JEL: E71 H12 I12 I18 Z18
    Date: 2020
  5. By: Go, Ara; Olney, Deanna K.
    Abstract: Investments in adolescent health have the potential to influence the future course of global health by improving the health and nutritional status of adolescents themselves, their life trajectories in adulthood, and the lives of their future children (1,2). Despite the growing recognition of the importance of adolescent health and nutrition (1–6), very few policies and programs have been designed and imple-mented to improve adolescent nutrition especially in low- and middle-income countries. There is also little evidence on how to effectively address the health and nutrition needs of adolescents from well-designed program effectiveness studies. Having a clear understanding of the nutritional problems of adolescents, and the drivers of those problems are prerequisites to developing appropriate policies and programs to improve adolescent nutrition, health and well-being. This brief offers a concise overview of the key nutritional challenges among Indonesian adolescents and current policies and programs to address these challenges. It also highlights other programs and policies to consider based on regional and international experiences.
    Keywords: INDONESIA, SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, adolescents, nutrition, health, policies, obesity, overweight, malnutrition, anaemia, malnutrition, diet, gender, adolescent girls
    Date: 2020
  6. By: Nobuaki Yamashita; Trong-Anh Trinh
    Abstract: This paper examines the long-term health effects of Agent Orange—the military herbicide containing the hazardous chemical compound dioxin—which was widely disseminated in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War (1959–1975). Based on data from the US military archives on the herbicide operations, we estimate the prevalence of disabilities among Vietnamese people using the 2009 Population Census. The results demonstrate that the legacy of Agent Orange continues, with ongoing adverse (although small) effects on health even over 30 years since the end of the war. Critically, the health burden of severe mobility disability has been mostly born by women of ethnic minorities in the affected areas.
    Keywords: Vietnam War, Agent Orange, health effects of war, public health
    JEL: I14 I15 J15
    Date: 2020
  7. By: Go, Ara; Ramani, Gayathri; Olney, Deanna K.
    Abstract: Over the past two decades Indonesia has undergone a major economic transformation including reducing the poverty rate by more than half to a current level of about 10% and becoming the 10th largest economy in the world. However, as the fourth most populous nation, this means that about 25 million Indonesians are living below the poverty line and even more are at-risk of falling into poverty. Although Indonesia’s economic growth has been impressive, indices related to human development and inclusion indicate that there is room for improvement. Across several indices, Indonesia is ranked in the bottom third to the bottom half of all countries.
    Keywords: INDONESIA, SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, gender, poverty, nutrition, policies, food policies, nutrition policies, disabilities, women, health, social protection
    Date: 2020
  8. By: Adebayo Mohammed, Ojuolape (University of Ilorin,); H. Agboola, Yusuf (University of Ilorin,); K. Moshood, Alabi (University of Ilorin,); O. Abdullah, Oladipupo (University of Ilorin,)
    Abstract: Currency devaluation is an important topic in the history of international economics and finance. It has proved to impact positively on some economies’ growth and negatively on others. This study focuses on the real effects of devaluing the currency in short and long run using panel data analysis. Seven countries were examined, these are; Ghana, Mexico, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore and South Africa. These countries devalued their currencies within the same period under consideration. The long run effects and relationships were determined by testing for co-integration using different co-integration methods, and the short run effect was determined using the Fully Modified OLS (FMOLS) and the Error Correction Model. A panel data covering the period between 1981- 2010, was used in the analysis.The empirical results show the existence of no significant relationship between currency devaluation and output growth in the short run and a negative relationship between currency devaluation and economic growth in the long run.
    Date: 2020–12–27
  9. By: Hal Hill
    Abstract: There is a continuing debate on the measurement of living standards, especially in developing countries. The proliferation of social indicators in recent decades, motivated by both philosophical and pragmatic empirical considerations, has been illuminating. But it has also led to some confusion: which indicator or set of indicators should be employed? The most widely used indicator continues to be headcount poverty, or some refined variant of it. But what of the many other indicators and, importantly, do they portray a similar picture? We illustrate these issues with reference to the Indonesian experience over several decades. Indonesia has experienced moderately fast economic growth since the late 1960s, and as a consequence headcount poverty has fallen rapidly. Most other social indicators have also improved. But the rate of progress has varied, from similarly rapid improvement to stagnation and in one instance – environmental amenities – to regress.
    Keywords: living standards, Indonesia, health, education, wages, gender, nutrition, environment, regional development
    JEL: I00 I31 O53
    Date: 2020
  10. By: Guillaume Delalande; Aussama Bejraoui; Melissa Li; Julia Benn
    Abstract: This Working Paper presents the perspective of Indonesia on the concept of total official support for sustainable development (TOSSD), the extent of TOSSD resources provided by Indonesia and the capacity of the government to report on these resources. Indonesia broadly supported TOSSD as a relevant measure for monitoring SDG implementation and proposed some adjustments to the TOSSD methodology.Estimates for TOSSD provided by Indonesia in 2017 amount to USD 6 376 million, with USD 16 million for Pillar I (cross-border flows to other developing countries) and USD 6 360 million for Pillar II (contributions to international public goods). For Indonesia, activities recorded in TOSSD should not only be assessed in financial terms, but also in terms of their sustainable development impact. This pilot study attests to Indonesia’s strong capacity to report on TOSSD Pillar I, but finds that tracking could be improved for a wider range of resources. The country also has the capacity to report on Pillar II.
    Keywords: development finance, financing for development, global public goods, Indonesia, international public goods, SDG, statistics, sustainable development, TOSSD, total official support for sustainable development, Transparency
    JEL: C4 O11 F3 F35
    Date: 2020–12–18
  11. By: , AISDL
    Abstract: Keajaiban ekonomi Vietnam adalah peristiwa yang menjelaskan kebangkitan ekonomi Vietnam semenjak adanya reformasi ekonomi bernama Doi Moi yang dimulai sejak tahun 1986. Keajaiban tersebut ditandai dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi Vietnam yang mencapai angka 7,5% per tahun.
    Date: 2020–11–01
  12. By: Dang, Hai-Anh H.; Nguyen, Cuong Viet
    Abstract: Vietnam is widely praised for its successful fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. The country has had an extremely low mortality rate of 35 deaths to date (out of a population of approximately 100 million) and currently has no community transmission. We offer the first study that examines the effects of the COVID-19-induced lockdown on various employment outcomes for Vietnam. We employ difference-in-differences econometric models to estimate the causal effects of the lockdown, using rich individual-level data from the quarterly Labor Force Surveys. We find that the lockdown increases the unemployment rate, the temporary layoff rate, and decreases the quality of employment. It also reduces workers' numbers of working hours and their monthly incomes and wages. Our estimation results remain robust to different model specifications and estimation samples. Further heterogeneity analysis suggests that the effects vary across education levels and occupation sectors but are similar across regions or provinces with different lockdown durations.
    Keywords: COVID-19,employment,income loss,differences-in-differences,Vietnam
    JEL: E24 I30 J21 O12
    Date: 2020
  13. By: Dang, Hai-Anh (World Bank); Nguyen, Cuong Viet (National Economics University Vietnam)
    Abstract: Vietnam is widely praised for its successful fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. The country has had an extremely low mortality rate of 35 deaths to date (out of a population of approximately 100 million) and currently has no community transmission. We offer the first study that examines the effects of the COVID-19-induced lockdown on various employment outcomes for Vietnam. We employ difference-in-differences econometric models to estimate the causal effects of the lockdown, using rich individual-level data from the quarterly Labor Force Surveys. We find that the lockdown increases the unemployment rate, the temporary layoff rate, and decreases the quality of employment. It also reduces workers' numbers of working hours and their monthly incomes and wages. Our estimation results remain robust to different model specifications and estimation samples. Further heterogeneity analysis suggests that the effects vary across education levels and occupation sectors but are similar across regions or provinces with different lockdown durations.
    Keywords: COVID-19, employment, income loss, differences-in-differences, Vietnam
    JEL: E24 I30 J21 O12
    Date: 2020–12
  14. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This technical note on the risk assessment for Thailand discusses that the Thai banking system shows a substantial resilience to severe shocks. The solvency stress tests indicate that the largest banks can withstand an adverse scenario broadly as severe as the Asian financial crisis. While three banks would deplete their capital conservation buffer (CCB) under the adverse scenario, recapitalization needs would be minimal. A battery of complementary sensitivity stress tests, which allows to cover in more detail certain risk factors, also confirmed the overall picture of a resilient baking system: no particular vulnerability emerged from the analysis of the bond portfolio to an increase in government and corporate spreads, exposure to foreign exchange risk, and concentration risk in the loan portfolio, with the possible exception of one entity with a particular concentration on single-name exposures. The liquidity stress test on investment funds (IFs) showed that they would be able to withstand a severe redemption shock and its impact on the banks and the bond market would be limited.
    Keywords: Banking;Stress testing;Mutual funds;Liquidity requirements;Commercial banks;ISCR,CR,investment funds,central bank,fund family,liquid asset,fixed income
    Date: 2019–10–24
  15. By: Intansari, Rosa Kusnia
    Abstract: Pesatnya perkembangan teknologi digital di Indonesia mendukung perkembangan aktivitas perusahaan berbasis teknologi dan digital untuk mengembangkan bisnis start up, industri kreatif, UMKM dan lembaga pendidikan yang bergerak di bidang informasi teknologi. Pelaku jasa keuangan konvensional dan teknologi keuangan nasional perlu membangun kolaborasi yang didorong oleh keberadaan pemerintah sebagai penyedia layanan teknologi keuangan untuk meningkatkan pemerataan akses, memajukan industri keuangan agar lebih efisien dalam menopang modal dan kegiatan produksi UMKM serta meningkatkan pertumbuhan ekonomi Indonesia. Faktanya, sejumlah perusahaan besar berbasis teknologi bekerjasama baik dengan bank untuk perihal sumber daya investasi. Beberapa pengaruh perkembangan teknologi digital adalah adanya internet yang mendorong pertumbuhan ekonomi, pendapatan per kapita Indonesia di tengah-tengah ekonomi global yang menurun karena adanya persaingan harga minyak di pasar internasional yang semakin meningkat memperluas kesempatan kerja serta meningkatkan fasilitas publik. Contohnya penggunaan kartu kredit dan kartu ATM yang menjadi pilihan pembayaran dalam transaksi online maupun offline. E-money juga menjadi salah satu peningkatan teknologi digital dalam hal alat pembayaran. E-money mengalami pertumbuhan pesat sejak dulu dalam hal jumlah transaksi, nilai transaksi, dll. Bahkan pemerintah mewajibkan pengguna jalan melakukan pembayaran menggunakan e-money. Teknologi digital membuat kegiatan menjadi lebih efisien dan memungkinkan lalu lintas informasi menyebar lebih cepat dibagikan dengan orang lain.
    Date: 2020–12–12
  16. By: Ho, Manh-Toan (Thanh Tay University Hanoi)
    Abstract: Over three decades of economic reform since 1986, Vietnam has gone from one of the poorest in the world to a lower-middle-income country. To bring the economy to the next level, science and technology development has been viewed as one of the major instruments with various new policies being introduced since 2008. Consequently, scientific publications have become an important intellectual resource. The field of development economic research also benefits from the focus on science and technology. Yet, little is known about the overall research landscape of the field. This thesis, hence, aims to fill this knowledge gap by studying a bibliometric dataset of development economic research in Vietnam from 2008 to 2020, which was extracted from The Social Sciences and Humanities Peer Awards (SSHPA) database. Descriptive and Bayesian statistics were used for analysis. We observed a steady growth of scientific publications over the years. Quantitative studies dominate the field, probably because of the availability of secondary data. The number of authors increased significantly, but the productivity is highly skewed toward the top 5% authors, who contributed 50.61% of total publications. Collaboration pattern witnessed a significant change: less dependence on foreign colleagues and the emergence of domestic research groups. The list of journals and publishers where Vietnamese authors published the most shows high quality and reputation. Although traditional paywalled publishing is common, the result suggests that open access (OA) is being adopted widely. In fact, OA articles tend to get more citations. Meanwhile, the citation is negatively associated with female authors and the number of Vietnamese authors. Finally, the number of foreigners in an article, and the participation of female authors tend to increase the quartile of the article.
    Date: 2020–12–29
  17. By: Donny Harrison Pasaribu
    Abstract: This study measures the impact of coal and palm oil prices during the 2000s commodity boom in Indonesia on regional poverty, household consumption, employment and wages. The strategy is to exploit the within-country variation in exposure to each commodity, interacted with exogenous changes in global commodity prices. I focus on two of Indonesia’s main export commodities, coal and palm oil. I find that an increase in the price of coal and palm oil both decrease the poverty rate in districts that produce them relative to districts that do not. However, the mechanisms through which they affect poverty are different.
    Keywords: Natural resource booms, welfare, poverty, subnational impacts
    JEL: O13 Q33 Q32 O53
    Date: 2020
  18. By: Dincecco, Mark (University of Michigan); Fenske, James (University of Warwick); Menon, Anil (University of Michigan)
    Abstract: Difference in difference and event study analyses in a panel of Asian grid cells over nine centuries demonstrate that greater agricultural potential due to New World crops increased violent conflict after 1500. Rising caloric potential in a typical grid cell increased conflict by roughly its mean. The result holds across several New World crops and conflict types. It is largely driven by South Asia, a densely populated, diverse region with several competing historical states. The evidence supports a rapacity effect – increases in the gains from appropriation to Asian and non-Asian belligerents – as a mechanism. Population density, urbanization, and British imperialism significantly mediate the impact of the Columbian Exchange.
    Date: 2020
  19. By: utomo, tiffany
    Abstract: review jurnal from Indonesia's effort tp achieve globally competitive human resources
    Date: 2020–12–14
  20. By: Hal Hill
    Abstract: The Asian Development Bank is the premier financial development institution for the Asia Pacific region. To commemorate its first half-century, it has released a major study of the economic development of its 46 developing member countries, Asia’s Journey to Prosperity. It is arguably the most comprehensive analytical survey of the region’s socio-economic development over this period. This paper reviews the volume.
    Keywords: Asian Development Bank, Asia Pacific economies, economic development
    JEL: F02 F63 N15 O53
    Date: 2020
  21. By: Sharma, Smriti (Newcastle University); Singhal, Saurabh (Lancaster University); Tarp, Finn (University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: While there is substantial corruption in developing countries, the costs imposed by corruption on individuals and households are little understood. This study examines the relationship between exposure to local corruption and mental health, as measured by depressive symptoms. We use two large data sets – one cross-sectional and one panel – collected across rural Vietnam. After controlling for individual and regional characteristics, we find strong and consistent evidence that day-to-day petty corruption is positively associated with psychological distress. Our results are robust to a variety of specification checks. Further, we find that the relationship between corruption and mental health is stronger for women, and that there are no heterogeneous effects by poverty status. An examination of the underlying mechanisms shows that reductions in income and trust associated with higher corruption may play a role. Finally, using a difference-in-difference estimation strategy, we also provide suggestive evidence that a recent high profile anti-corruption campaign had significant positive effects on mental health. Overall, our findings indicate that there may be substantial psychosocial and mental health benefits from efforts to reduce corruption and improve rural governance structures.
    Keywords: corruption, anti-corruption, mental health, depression, Vietnam
    JEL: I3 I15 O12 D73 P3
    Date: 2020–12
  22. By: pitaloka, adelia intan diah ayu
    Abstract: Dalam persaingan bisnis di industry 4.0 ini maka persaingan di era global sangat ketat. Banyak perusahaan yang mengubah Sumber Daya Manusia sebagai strategi untuk menghadapi persaingan global agar terus dapat mengikuti perkembangan jaman dalam dunia bisnis dan mampu bersaing serta mempertahankan perusahaan mereka. Hal tersebut untuk meciptakan kultur kerja yang dapat mencerminkan visi dari perusahan tersebut.
    Date: 2020–12–14
  23. By: Ulum, Raudatul
    Abstract: Survei Kerukunan Umat Beragama tahun 2018, adalah survei tentang tingkat toleransi, sikap terhadap kesetaraan beragama, kerjasama antarpemeluk agama dalam berbagai aspek adalah kegiatan penelitian seri tahunan sejak tahun 2015. Kerukunan antarumat beragama di Indonesia cukup dinamis dengan angka yang naik dan turun setiap tahun, tren data tahunan berkisar antara 67-72, kemungkinan di masa sepuluh tahun akan stasioners di angka 70. Kategori rukun antara 60-80, diyakini sebagai angka yang menggambarkan kerukunan tinggi. Pada survei tahun 2018, angka kerukunan nasional
    Date: 2019–09–29
  24. By: Brooks, Karen
    Abstract: Thirty years have elapsed since the fall of communist governments in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The collapse of political structures took with it regimes of highly administered management of agri-food systems. The shift from state management to markets has been generally known as the agricultural transition. The term is most frequently used in reference to the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, but key features of a move from dominant state intervention to greater reliance on markets characterized reforms in China after 1978, Vietnam in 1986 and thereafter, and many countries in Africa south of the Sahara during the years of structural adjustment in the 1990s. The policy reforms that constitute an agricultural transition are intrinsically difficult and made even more so when undertaken under conditions of crisis-induced chaos. Lessons from countries that have undergone the process might be of use, either as guidance or cautionary notes, to leaders and civil society groups in countries such as Venezuela that may be embarking on a transition or swept into one by circumstance. The paragraphs below attempt to summarize lessons from the early transition in Russia, Central Asia, and Eastern Europe in the 1990s.
    Keywords: RUSSIAN FEDERATION, EASTERN EUROPE, EUROPE, CENTRAL ASIA, ASIA, VENEZUELA, SOUTH AMERICA, AMERICAS, agriculture, political systems, prices, agrifood systems, consumers, food security, privatization, public investment, agricultural transition, political change, consumer expectations
    Date: 2020
  25. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This technical assistance report on Vietnam discusses evaluation of revised estimates of gross domestic product, to ensure that the compilation process is aligned with the System of National Accounts 2008 (2008 SNA) and that the methodology employed for estimation is consistent and coherent. This mission noted that the revisions follow recommendations of previous missions to implement the 2008 SNA to cover research and development and software will be treated as part of gross fixed capital formation. It is particularly important to conduct outreach to public and private data users to help them to understand the reasons for the revisions. Revisions to statistics are needed to consider changes in data sources and the economic structure. Revisions are a normal and expected part of national accounts compilation, reflecting additional information and new economic developments.
    Keywords: National accounts;Gross fixed investment;ISCR,CR,information,economy,estimate,growth rate
    Date: 2019–12–19
  26. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This 2019 Article IV Consultation with Cambodia discusses stable macroeconomic environment, strong growth and ongoing structural reforms have contributed to significant progress toward Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, uncertainties including slower global growth and potential suspension of preferential market access under the Everything but Arms (EBA) scheme highlight the importance of maintaining macroeconomic stability while meeting still large development needs, addressing elevated financial sector vulnerabilities, and accelerating structural reforms. Continued strong revenue mobilization efforts and a prudent fiscal stance supported by restraining nondevelopment current spending will allow additional spending to address development needs. Expenditures should be oriented toward supporting inclusive growth through priority infrastructure investment, as well as health and education spending. Policies should be geared toward addressing sizeable spending needs to reach SDG targets in health, education and infrastructure, with support from the private sector and international donors. Accelerated implementation of structural reforms is needed to remove structural constraints to growth, correct external imbalances, address governance and corruption weaknesses and promote sustainable and inclusive development.
    Keywords: Public debt;External debt;Public investment and public-private partnerships (PPP);Infrastructure;Public investment spending;ISCR,CR,debt,authority,deficit
    Date: 2019–12–23
  27. By: Marcello Perez-Alvarez; Jan Priebe; Dewi Susanti
    Keywords: Education - Education Reform and Management Education - Effective Schools and Teachers
    Date: 2020–01
  28. By: Cohen D’Agostino, Mollie; Pellaton, Paige; White, Brittany
    Abstract: Congestion pricing can be an equitable policy strategy. This project consisted of a review of case studies of existing and planned congestion pricing strategies in North America (Vancouver, Seattle, and New York) and elsewhere (Singapore, London, Stockholm, and Gothenberg). The analysis shows that the most equitable congestion pricing systems include 1) a meaningful community-engagement processes to help policymakers identify equitable priorities; 2) pricing structures that strike a balance between efficiency and equity, while encouraging multi-modal travel; 3) clear plans for investing CP revenues to equalize the costs and benefits of congestion relief; and lastly, 4) a comprehensive data reporting plan to ensure equity goals are achieved. This project was developed to support the San Francisco County Transportation Authority in its efforts to conduct the Downtown Congestion Project.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Congestion pricing, social equity, travel demand, planning methods, performance measurement, policy analysis, case studies
    Date: 2020–12–01
  29. By: Chiodi, Vera.; Escudero, Verónica.
    Abstract: What works to reduce child labor in agriculture? In this paper, we evaluate two randomized livelihood intervention programs, aimed to reduce child labor, particularly in its most exploitative forms, in rural areas of Peru and the Philippines. In the first randomized experiment, we evaluate a livelihood intervention provided to farmers in Peru that use the labor of their children on their family farms, accompanied by an education intervention aimed to improve the quality of schools and an awareness-raising intervention. In the second randomized experiment, we evaluate the incremental effect of the livelihood intervention implemented within a similar program in the Philippines, focused on the sugarcane agricultural sector. We find that when livelihood interventions were provided alone, they did not manage to improve economic conditions, and hence generally failed to reduce child labor rates in rural areas. However, when the livelihood intervention was combined with measures to improve the quality of education in Peru, we see a reduction in hazardous child labor and child labor overall. Awareness-raising interventions, aimed at changing the perceptions of parents through community interaction, appear to have also had an effect in the reduction of child labor, and these effects were reinforced by education interventions. Results indicate that a comprehensive approach including livelihood support with education and awareness-raising components is a more effective way to reduce child labor and hazardous labor for children in the agricultural sector.
    Date: 2020
  30. By: Jacques Morisset
    Keywords: Environment - Tourism and Ecotourism Finance and Financial Sector Development - Financial Crisis Management & Restructuring International Economics and Trade - Access to Markets International Economics and Trade - Foreign Direct Investment International Economics and Trade - Trade and Transport Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Economic Conditions and Volatility
    Date: 2020–02
  31. By: Zhao, Tiantian; Institute of Research, Asian
    Abstract: During Modi administration, India has attached more importance on maritime diplomacy. With Act East policy, India starts to focus more on Indo-Pacific area and tries to build closer relation with Southeast Asian states. Also, India pays more attention on small island states in South Asia, such as Sri Lanka and Maldives. In this research, I will base on the previous studies about maritime diplomacy and conclude the changes of Indian maritime diplomacy during Modi administration. Economic interdependence makes it difficult to ignore neighbouring states’ impact on energy transportation and regional cooperation. Also, non-traditional maritime security problems are increasing, and it is extremely important for littoral states to cooperate to fight against piracy and maritime terrorism. Modi chooses to adopt co-operative maritime diplomacy policy which is beneficial for regional development and the stability of regional order.
    Date: 2020–12–12
  32. By: Deasy D.P. Pane; Arianto A. Patunru
    Abstract: The rise of economic protectionism worldwide has come with re-emergence of mercantilist policies whereby governments push for exports while restricting imports. Against this populist approach, we show that importing inputs can raise productivity and export. Using firm-level data matched with very detailed customs data of Indonesia’s exports and imports during 2008–12, we apply instrumental variable strategy with import tariffs and import weighted real exchange rates as instruments for import of intermediate inputs. We find causality from imported inputs to productivity increase and export growth. Higher access to input varieties has a larger impact than an increase in import volume on export, implying that the main benefits of importing may come from access to broader alternatives of inputs. Furthermore, the impact is also larger when imports originate from developed countries, suggestive of a positive effect of technology and product quality.
    Keywords: imported intermediate inputs, export performance, total factor productivity
    JEL: D22 D24 F13 F14 F31
    Date: 2020
  33. By: Jing Shi; Marcel Ausloos; Tingting Zhu
    Abstract: This paper investigates the heterogeneous impacts of either Global or Local Investor Sentiments on stock returns. We study 10 industry sectors through the lens of 6 (so called) emerging countries: China, Brazil, India, Mexico, Indonesia and Turkey, over the 2000 to 2014 period. Using a panel data framework, our study sheds light on a significant effect of Local Investor Sentiments on expected returns for basic materials, consumer goods, industrial, and financial industries. Moreover, our results suggest that from Global Investor Sentiments alone, one cannot predict expected stock returns in these markets.
    Date: 2020–12
  34. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This Technical Assistance report focuses on Philippines’s monetary and financial statistics (MFS). In order to align the coverage of the other depository corporations survey to statistical standards, the mission recommended the inclusion of the money market unit investment trust funds in the survey. With the compilation of other financial corporation’s data, the Philippines is now able to produce intersectoral balance sheet approach (BSA). MFS with full coverage, together with quarterly international investment position and public debt statistics, are the building blocks for the BSA. The mission recommended a detailed action plan with the following priority recommendations carrying weight to make headway in improving MFS quality and completeness. The experience by BSP compilers on data reporting by Securities and Exchange Commission supervised corporations pointed to a need to enhance the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas’s (BSP) authority to collect data for statistical purposes, which has been addressed by BSP management. Details on the priority recommendations and the related actions/milestones can be found in the action plan under Detailed Technical Assessment and Recommendations.
    Keywords: Nonbank financial institutions;Offshore financial centers;Securities;Business enterprises;Data collection;ISCR,CR,financial corporations,OFC survey,OFC compiler,money market UITFs,securities statistics
    Date: 2019–12–30
  35. By: Molina, Teresa (University of Hawaii at Manoa); Tanaka, Mari (Hitotsubashi University)
    Abstract: This paper examines whether globalization promotes female empowerment by improving the jobs available to women. Previous work has documented that exporting causally improved working conditions at predominantly female garment factories in Myanmar. In this study, restricting to garment factory neighborhoods, we find that women living near exporting factories are significantly more likely to be working, have lower tolerance of domestic violence, and are less likely to be victims of domestic violence. Using distance to the international airport as an instrument for proximity to an exporting factory, we find similar results: higher employment rates, lower tolerance of domestic violence, and a decrease in the experience of physical violence.
    Keywords: female empowerment, domestic violence, globalization, trade, Myanmar
    JEL: J12 F66
    Date: 2020–12
  36. By: Matthew Zurstrassen
    Keywords: Communities and Human Settlements - Community Driven Development Conflict and Development - Armed Conflict Conflict and Development - Conflict and Fragile States Social Development - Community Development and Empowerment Social Development - Social Cohesion
    Date: 2020–01
  37. By: Mauro Testaverde; Harry Moroz; Puja Dutta
    Keywords: Poverty Reduction - Migration and Development Social Protections and Labor - Labor Markets Social Protections and Labor - Labor Policies Social Protections and Labor - Skills Development and Labor Force Training Social Protections and Labor - Vocational & Technical Education
    Date: 2020
  38. By: Syarifuddin, Ferry
    Abstract: This paper examines the direct and spillover effects of the exchange rate on foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows based on a panel of ASEAN countries for the period 2001 to 2018. We utilize the spatial econometric approach to accommodate the nature of spatial dependence among ASEAN countries. Our results suggest that the effect of the exchange rate depends on the source-region of FDI, implying the existence of spatial heterogeneity in ASEAN’s FDI. We also show that FDI inflows in ASEAN is not only influenced by the exchange rate of the country itself but also by those of the neighboring countries.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, Exchange Rates, Macroeconomics, Spatial Models
    JEL: F21
    Date: 2020–12–01
  39. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This Technical Assistance report on the Lao People’s Democratic Republic provides advice toward implementing risk-based supervision (RBS). Special attention needs to be given to expediting the formal approval of the RBS manual and fully implementing RBS methods in practice. Although this could be delayed due to other supervisory priorities, it is considered essential as the quality of supervision is improved by the practical application of RBS tools and learning-by-doing. The root causes of risks should be better identified, and greater attention should be paid to well-reasoned analysis of risks and the accompanied supervisory action. In addition, the mission advised additional modification of these documents to enhance its usefulness and quality. With respect to foreign-branch supervision, special consideration should be given to the extent of adequate oversight by the branch head office, supervision by the home supervisor, and overall financial condition of the foreign banking group. The mission provided examples of qualitative criteria for foreign-branch rating.
    Keywords: Banking;Commercial banks;Bank supervision;Foreign banks;Bank legislation;ISCR,CR,BSD,bank,process,BSD staff,supervision
    Date: 2019–10–30
  40. By: Turan G. Bali (Georgetown University - Robert Emmett McDonough School of Business); Amit Goyal (University of Lausanne; Swiss Finance Institute); Dashan Huang (Singapore Management University - Lee Kong Chian School of Business); Fuwei Jiang (Central University of Finance and Economics (CUFE)); Quan Wen (Georgetown University - Department of Finance)
    Abstract: We provide a comprehensive study on the cross-sectional predictability of corporate bond returns using big data and machine learning. We examine whether a large set of equity and bond characteristics drive the expected returns on corporate bonds. Using either set of characteristics, we find that machine learning methods substantially improve the out-of-sample predictive power for bond returns, compared to the traditional linear regression models. While equity characteristics produce significant explanatory power for bond returns, their incremental predictive power relative to bond characteristics is economically and statistically insignificant. Bond characteristics provide as strong forecasting power for future equity returns as using equity characteristics alone. However, bond characteristics do not offer additional predictive power above and beyond equity characteristics when we combine both sets of predictors.
    Keywords: machine learning, big data, corporate bond returns, cross-sectional return predictability
    JEL: G10 G11 C13
    Date: 2020–09
  41. By: Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz (Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland)
    Abstract: This study examines the potential effects of China’s “One-Belt One-Road” initiative (OBOR) on trade flows and global value chain connections. The empirical analysis is based on the augmented gravity model of international trade, which comprises 186 reporters and 199 partners in the period 2000-2018. We also estimate the gravity model for involvement in global value chains (domestic and foreign value added in exports and the value contributed by a partner to a reporter’s exports). OBOR proves to be positively correlated with international trade and global value chains (GVC), while some of the corridors seem to be more beneficial than others (e.g. China-Pakistan, China-Mongolia-Russian Federation, and Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar).
    Keywords: One-belt one-road, China, gravity trade models, global value chains
    JEL: F13 F14 C23
    Date: 2020–12
  42. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Environment - Biodiversity Environment - Environmental Economics & Policies Environment - Environmental Protection Environment - Forests and Forestry Environment - Green Issues Environment - Wildlife Resources
    Date: 2020–02
  43. By: Sijia Xu (East China University of Science and Technology); Abu S. Shonchoy (Department of Economics, Florida International University); Tomoki Fujii (Singapore Management University)
    Abstract: Gender parity in education—an important global development goal—is often measured through school enrollment. However, this can be misleading as girls may lag behind boys in other measures. We investigate this with Bangladeshi survey data by decomposing households' education decisions into enrollment, education expenditure, and its share for the quality of education. We ï¬ nd a strong profemale bias in enrollment but promale bias in the other two decisions. This contradirectional gender bias is partly explained by conditional cash transfer programs, which promoted girls' secondary school enrollment but did not narrow the gaps in the intrahousehold allocation of education resources.
    Keywords: education parity, conditional cash transfer, gender, Bangladesh
    JEL: D15 H52 I28 J16 O15
    Date: 2020–12

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