nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2021‒01‒04
forty papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Estimating the global economic benefits of physically active populations over 30 years (2020 to 2050) By Hafner, Marco; Yerushalmi, Erez; Stepanek, Martin; Phillips, William; Pollard, Jack; Deshpande, Advait; Whitmore, Michael; Millard, Francois; Subel, Shaun; Van Stolk, Christian
  2. An evolving paradigm of agricultural mechanization development: How much can Africa learn from Asia? Synopsis By Diao, Xinshen, ed.; Takeshima, Hiroyuki. ed.; Zhang, Xiaobo, ed.
  3. Transition to a market economy, foreign direct investment and export performance in Vietnam By Prema-chandra Athukorala; Nguyen Trung Kien
  5. Keajaiban Ekonomi Vietnam: Sebuah Eksploitasi Tidak Kasat Mata By , AISDL
  6. Community perceptions of the social and economic impacts of COVID-19 in Myanmar: Insights from round 4 of the National COVID-19 Community Survey (NCCS) – October 2020 By Oo, Than Zaw; Lambrecht, Isabel; Headey, Derek D.; Goudet, Sophie
  7. Impact of the ASEAN Economic Community and implications for Latin America By Elms, Deborah
  8. Economic efficiency versus social equity: the productivity challenge for rice production in a `greying' rural Vietnam? By Hoa-Thi-Minh Nguyen; Huong Do; Tom Kompas
  9. Leadership (kepemimpinan) By Ulfah, Ojah Nasiah
  10. Agri-food trade in Myanmar: Its role in Myanmar’s future economic takeoff By Diao, Xinshen; Masias, Ian; Lwin, Wuit Yi
  11. Vietnam By , AISDL
  12. Structural change and formal sector employment growth in Indonesia By Devanto Shasta Pratomo; Chris Manning
  13. Comparative Analysis of Trade Competitiveness between Bangladesh and Vietnam By , AISDL
  14. The Impact of Innovation on the Performance of Manufacturing Enterprises in Vietnam By , AISDL
  15. Curating Local Knowledge : Experimental Evidence from Small Retailers in Indonesia (Revision of DP 2019-015) By Dalton, Patricio; Rüschenpöhler, Julius; Uras, Burak; Zia, Bilal
  16. Benefits of Joint Land Titling in Vietnam By Helle Buchhave; Viet Cuong Nguyen; Tam Giang Nguyen; Thi Mong Hoa Pham
  17. Kopi Luwak : A Potential Market of Monopolistic Competition By Nova, Vinitasari
  18. Doi Moi en Vietnam By , AISDL
  19. Curating Local Knowledge : Experimental Evidence from Small Retailers in Indonesia (Revision of DP 2019-015) By Dalton, Patricio; Rüschenpöhler, Julius; Uras, Burak; Zia, Bilal
  20. Vietnam; Technical Assistance Report-Government Finance Statistics (June 10–14, 2019) By International Monetary Fund
  21. Testing the Dutch disease: the impact of natural resources extraction on the manufacturing sector By Donny Harrison Pasaribu
  22. 2019 Investment Policy and Regulatory Review - Indonesia By World Bank
  23. 2019 Investment Policy and Regulatory Review - Vietnam By World Bank
  24. Vietnam By Jacques Morisset
  25. 2019 Investment Policy and Regulatory Review - Thailand By World Bank
  26. Improving the Performance of Higher Education in Vietnam By World Bank
  27. The Changes and Implications of Indian Maritime Diplomacy Policy during Modi Administration By Zhao, Tiantian; Institute of Research, Asian
  28. Agricultural Productivity Growth and Poverty Reduction: Evidence from Thailand By Peter Warr; Waleerat Suphannachart
  29. 2019 Investment Policy and Regulatory Review - Malaysia By World Bank
  30. An Assessment of Forest Tenure in Myanmar By World Bank
  31. How to Jump Start Vietnam's Economy? By Keiko Inoue; Jacques Morisset
  32. Who is Keeping Score? Estimating the Number of Foreign Workers in Malaysia By World Bank
  34. Commodity Booms, Conflict, and Organized Crime: Logics of Violence in Indonesia's Oil Palm Plantation Economy By Paul D. Kenny; Rashesh Shrestha; Edward Aspinall
  35. Informality and firm performance in Myanmar By Hanna Berkel; Finn Tarp
  36. Welfare Measurement and Poverty By Martin Wiegand
  37. Risk preferences, global market conditions and foreign debt: Is there any role for the currency composition of FX reserves? By Mateane, Lebogang
  38. Explaining Changes in Inequality: Myanmar, 2005 to 2010 By Lwin Lwin Aung; Peter Warr
  39. Bilateral Integration Measures and Risk Attitudes in Large Stock Markets By Shoka Hayaki
  40. e. The use of blockchain technology to improve the food supply chain By Marecki, Krzysztof; Wójcik-Czerniawska, Agnieszka

  1. By: Hafner, Marco; Yerushalmi, Erez; Stepanek, Martin; Phillips, William; Pollard, Jack; Deshpande, Advait; Whitmore, Michael; Millard, Francois; Subel, Shaun; Van Stolk, Christian
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: We assess the potential benefits of increased physical activity on the global economy for 23 countries and the rest of the world over a 30-year time horizon (from 2020 to 2050). The main factors taken into account in the economic assessment are excess mortality and lower productivity.METHODS: This study links three methodologies. First, we estimate the association between physical inactivity and workplace productivity using multivariable regression models with proprietary data on 120,143 individuals in the UK and six Asian countries (Australia, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Thailand, Singapore and Sri Lanka). Second, we analyse the association between physical activity and mortality risk through a meta-regression analysis with data from 74 prior studies with global coverage. Finally, the estimated effects are combined in a computable general equilibrium (CGE) macroeconomic model to project the economic benefits of physical inactivity over time.RESULTS: Doing at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity, as per lower limit of the range recommended by the 2020 World Health Organisation guidelines, would lead to an increase in global GDP of 0.16%-0.23% per year by 2050, worth up to US $314-$446 billion per year and $6.0-$8.6 trillion cumulatively over the 30-year projection horizon (in 2019 prices). The results vary by country due to differences in baseline levels of physical activity and GDP per capita.CONCLUSIONS: Increasing physical activity in the population would lead to reduction in working-age mortality and morbidity and an increase in productivity, particularly through lower presenteeism, leading to substantial economic gains for the global economy.
    Keywords: physical activity; economic benefits; workplace productivity; computable general equilibrium; probability of dying
    Date: 2020–11–25
  2. By: Diao, Xinshen, ed.; Takeshima, Hiroyuki. ed.; Zhang, Xiaobo, ed.
    Abstract: Agricultural mechanization in Africa south of the Sahara — especially for small farms and businesses — requires a new paradigm to meet the needs of the continent’s evolving farming systems. Can Asia, with its recent success in adopting mechanization, offer a model for Africa? An Evolving Paradigm of Agricultural Mechanization Development analyzes the experiences of eight Asian and five African countries. The authors explore crucial government roles in boosting and supporting mechanization, from import policies to promotion policies to public good policies. Potential approaches presented to facilitating mechanization in Africa include prioritizing market-led hiring services, eliminating distortions, and developing appropriate technologies for the African context. The role of agricultural mechanization within overall agricultural and rural transformation strategies in Africa is also discussed. The book’s recommendations and insights should be useful to national policymakers and the development community, who can adapt this knowledge to local contexts and use it as a foundation for further research.
    Keywords: AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, CENTRAL AFRICA, EAST AFRICA, NORTH AFRICA, SOUTHERN AFRICA, WEST AFRICA, CHINA, EAST ASIA, ASIA, INDIA, SOUTH ASIA, SRI LANKA, THAILAND, VIET NAM, VIETNAM, BANGLADESH, MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, NEPAL, GHANA, KENYA, NIGERIA, TANZANIA, ETHIOPIA, agricultural mechanization, policies, technology, governance, agriculture, machinery, tractors, mechanization, equipment, labour, imports, demand, farm size, remuneration, farmers, households, surveys, harvesters, harvesting, supply balance
    Date: 2020
  3. By: Prema-chandra Athukorala; Nguyen Trung Kien
    Abstract: This chapter examines emerging patterns of foreign direct investment and trade in the Vietnamese economy in the context of its transition from central planning to a market economy over the past three decades. Following a stage-setting overview of policy reforms, it analyses the role of foreign direct investment in outward orientation of the manufacturing sector by linking it to the rapidly-evolving East-Asia-centred global production networks. The indications are specialisation in labour intensive talks within global production networks of electronics and electrical goods is going to play the dominant role in expanding manufacturing exports from Vietnam in years to come. The analysis brings into sharp relief the pivotal role of concurrent liberalisation of foreign investment and trade policy regimes, albeit in a constrained fashion, in the process of economic transition in this era of economic globalisation.
    Keywords: Vietnam, economic transition, foreign direct investment, export performance
    JEL: F13 F23 O14
    Date: 2020
  4. By: , AISDL
    Abstract: This thesis aims to examine the causal relationship between the stock market and economic growth in Vietnam in the period from 2000 to 2015. In order to examine the potential impact of the financial crisis and develop a well-functioning stock market in Vietnam, this study also undertakes a critical comparative quantitative research of a selected developing country in the South-East Asian region to identify potential policy implications. This analysis utilises the Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model to investigate the causal linkage in the long and short-run between the stock market and economic growth. The determinant vectors present in the stock market are the price index and the size of market capitalisation. This study defines economic growth as a real increase in gross domestic product per capita. Then, to develop the well-functioning stock market in Vietnam, this study undertakes a critical comparative quantitative research of a selected developing country in the South-East Asian region for the implications.
    Date: 2019–08–01
  5. By: , AISDL
    Abstract: Keajaiban ekonomi Vietnam adalah peristiwa yang menjelaskan kebangkitan ekonomi Vietnam semenjak adanya reformasi ekonomi bernama Doi Moi yang dimulai sejak tahun 1986. Keajaiban tersebut ditandai dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi Vietnam yang mencapai angka 7,5% per tahun. Pertumbuhan tersebut melampaui pertumbuhan ekonomi salah satu negara dengan kekuatan ekonomi terbesar di Asia, yaitu Tiongkok.
    Date: 2020–12–01
  6. By: Oo, Than Zaw; Lambrecht, Isabel; Headey, Derek D.; Goudet, Sophie
    Abstract: To continue monitoring the economic and social impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on Myanmar’s diverse rural and urban communities, a multi-round large-scale community telephone survey is being conducted. This report focuses on key findings from the fourth round of the survey conducted in October 2020. This survey round obtained information from community respondents that had participated in the June/July, August, and September rounds, as well as from additional communities. In total, the fourth round obtained responses from 190 townships across Myanmar: 57 from the Dry Zone, 67 from the Delta, 19 from Southeast Myanmar, 35 from North Myanmar, and 12 from West Myanmar.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, COVID-19, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, economic impact, rural areas, urban areas, surveys, social protection, agricultural production, health, health services, trade, policies, households, phone surveys, Covid-19 prevention measures
    Date: 2020
  7. By: Elms, Deborah
    Abstract: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has become one of the most important players in the global trading system. Comprising 10 countries with very diverse income levels, ASEAN is now the world’s fifth largest economy and plays a central role in the so-called “Factory Asia”. This document begins with an overview of the history and institutions of ASEAN, before focusing on one of its three pillars: the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), including a critical assessment of outcomes in the areas of trade in goods, trade in services and investment, among others. The document draws best practices from the experience of ASEAN that may be relevant to other regional arrangements pursuing similar goals, and concludes by considering aspects of importance to Latin America’s ongoing economic integration initiatives.
    Date: 2020–12–17
  8. By: Hoa-Thi-Minh Nguyen; Huong Do; Tom Kompas
    Abstract: Increasing productivity in agriculture is often deemed necessary to enhance rural in come and ultimately narrow the urban-rural disparity in transitional economies. However, the objectives of social equity and economic e?ciency can contradict each other, especially in the context of ?erce competition for resources between agriculture and non-agricultural sectors and given the inherently redundant and unskilled aging rural population that of ten occurs during the economic transition to a market economy. We investigate the case of Vietnam during its high economic growth period (2000-2016), over which the country introduced policies to increase e?ciency in rice production and income for farmers. Con trary to expectations, we ?nd a steadily decreasing trend in the terms of trade for rice, indicating regression in farm income. At the same time, the Malmquist productivity in dex has been falling in most regions due to a decline in technical change, along with little improvement in technical e?ciency. We further examine the causes of ine?ciency using data from two household surveys in 2004 and 2014 (with plot-level information) along with semi-structured interviews with farmers in 2016-2017. The high ratio of aging farm workers who are unable to ?nd alternative employment during the transition emerges as an essential impediment to rice productivity, in addition to previously documented land use related issues. This demographic feature, along with government equity-targeting measures, hinders the farm amalgamation progress, further limiting e?orts to enhance productivity. Thus, the goals of economic e?ciency and social equity appear contradictory features of Vietnam’s rice policies, posing a signi?cant development challenge for the country’s current and likely future development.
    Keywords: greying agriculture, productivity, rice, Vietnam, Data Envelopment
    JEL: O12 O13 Q12 Q15
    Date: 2020
  9. By: Ulfah, Ojah Nasiah
    Abstract: Leadership atau bisa kita kenali dengan nama kepemimpinan yang dimana setiap orang harus memiliki suatu kepemimpinannya guna mengatur jalan hidupnya,terutama dalam hal mempimpin diri sendirinya,jika didiri kita sudah bisa memimpin atau sudah bisa mengatur jalan hidup kedepannya maka kita akan bisa mengatur jalan nya jalan orang lain,dan akan dipercayai untuk mengatur ataupun memimpin suatu pondasi dalam hal pondasi apapun itu,maka Leadership disini perlu kita miliki perlu kita pahami,dan Bisa saya ambil dari contoh kepemimpinan di suatu Negara yaitu Negara kita Indonesia,yang dimana suatu kepemimpinan nya diterapkan dengan tersusun nya suatu struktur-struktur yang terancang rapih itu berkat orang-orang hebat yang berhasil akan memimpin dan mampu mengatur dirinya sendiri sehingga bisa mengatur suatu Negara yang berhasil menjadi Negara sejahtera yang diterapkan dalam rancangan nya itu dari Rakyat oleh rakyat untuk Rakyat. Dengan tersusunya sistem tersebut dimana suatu kepemimpinan akan berjalan dengan baik,akan tetapi kita sebagai warga Indonesia sendiri harus mampu terlebih dahulu dalam hal memimpin secara individual terlebih dahulu baru setelah itu mampu memimpin secara kelompok,Salah satu memimpin individual yaitu memimpin diri sendiri,mempin keluarga,baru setalah itu memimpin masyarakat disekitar nya.
    Date: 2020–11–30
  10. By: Diao, Xinshen; Masias, Ian; Lwin, Wuit Yi
    Abstract: Agri-food exports are important for Myanmar’s economic takeoff, in particular for the transformation of agri-food systems. This paper analyzes the past performance of key agri-food exports and assess their role and future potential to contribute to the transformation of Myanmar’s agri-food system and the overall economy.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, trade, agrifood sector, exports, maize, rice, grain legumes, rubber, groundnuts, sesame seed, fishery byproducts, cattle, fruit, palm oils, policies, trade policies, gross national product, agrifood systems, agri-food exports
    Date: 2020
  11. By: , AISDL
    Abstract: El año 2015 fue importante para Vietnam por tres cuestiones: se cumplió el 40 aniversario de la finalización de la Guerra de Vietnam (1955-1975), el 85 aniversario de la creación del Partido Comunista de Vietnam (pcv), y fue un año políticamente agitado para el país asiático.
    Date: 2019–12–09
  12. By: Devanto Shasta Pratomo; Chris Manning
    Abstract: The study provides evidence on the transition and growth of the formal sector in the Indonesian economy. It utilizes data from the National Labour Force Survey (SAKERNAS) for tracking the previous work status of workers as formal or informal workers. The study also examines the implication of formalization of employment for the different rates of earnings of formal sector workers, given their human capital characteristics and different industries of employment. The study finds that the growth of employment in the formal sector is mainly the result of entry of younger and better educated new entrants. Although there is some mobility from the informal to the formal sector, the results show that individuals who were previously working in the informal sector are less likely to move into formal sector. In terms of earnings, there is evidence of scarring effects: individuals who are initially in the formal sector earn more than individuals who are initially in the informal sector.
    Keywords: informal sector, job mobility, human capital, earnings differentials
    JEL: J24 J31 J46 J62 O17 O47
    Date: 2020
  13. By: , AISDL
    Abstract: Bangladesh and Vietnam have been the largest garments exporters to the world in recent decades after China. Therefore, competition between Bangladesh and Vietnam in the textile industry is getting intense day-by-day. Nonetheless, both the country shared some of the similar traits in policy reformation. Such as, both the nations became independent during the 1970s and reformed export-oriented policies during the 1980s. However, except for the apparel industry, Bangladesh had not gained any extraordinary success that can be comparable to Vietnam. Moreover, Vietnam’s trade competitiveness had always been better than Bangladesh in most of the period. The paper aims to identify the areas where Bangladesh is lagging behind Vietnam in terms of trade. In this regard, the various international index had been compared. From the comparisons, it has been linked with the trade scenario associated with both the nations. The findings are Vietnam’s policy has always been investing more in human capital, infrastructure and chances of export diversification. Additionally, Vietnam had been prosperous in attaining FDI inflows in different sectors of the economy. Hence, the country gained strong trade competitiveness through diversified export basket especially in electronics. In Bangladesh, FDI inflows and export growth rates had increased over the years. Then again, most of the foreign investments go towards the textile industry. Therefore, the export basket is highly concentrated around the garments sector. Moreover, Bangladesh had not been able to produce productive human capital and economic infrastructure. As a result, competitiveness did not improve noticeably. For a successful export diversification, increasing FDI inflows in other sectors rather than garments is necessary for Bangladesh to achieve akin success like Vietnam.
    Date: 2019–12–14
  14. By: , AISDL
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of innovation on the performance of manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam. Innovation is measured by product innovation (3 observed variables), technology innovation (8 observed variables), and organization innovation (6 observed variables) while firm performance is measured by revenue and profit. The OLS regression model was used with data collected from 806 enterprises in four industrial sectors. The results show that innovation has a positive effect on firm performance. From the results, some implications are proposed to improve the performance of manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam.
    Date: 2020–10–19
  15. By: Dalton, Patricio (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research); Rüschenpöhler, Julius (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research); Uras, Burak (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research); Zia, Bilal
    Keywords: Business Growth; Efficiency Gains; Small-scale Enterprises; Peer Knowledge; Self- Learning; Social Learning
    Date: 2020
  16. By: Helle Buchhave; Viet Cuong Nguyen; Tam Giang Nguyen; Thi Mong Hoa Pham
    Keywords: Communities and Human Settlements - Land Administration Communities and Human Settlements - Land Use and Policies Rural Development - Rural Land Policies for Poverty Reduction Gender - Gender and Rural Development Poverty Reduction - Inequality Poverty Reduction - Rural Poverty Reduction
    Date: 2020–03
  17. By: Nova, Vinitasari
    Abstract: Kopi Luwak is a popular coffee among people in the world and it is originated from Indonesia. The uniqueness and rareness of Kopi Luwak create a great oppurtunity in coffee business. However, what kind of competition Kopi Luwak is? Therefore, this article explains what kind of competition does Kopi Luwak has, why Kopi Luwak is included in that competition, is the price high or low, and how is the competition in Indonesia.
    Date: 2020–12–01
  18. By: , AISDL
    Abstract: Desde el ano 1986, Vietnam se vio involucrado en un proceso de renovación para promover el desarrollo socioeconómico y una integración adecuada con el resto del mundo.
    Date: 2020–12–03
  19. By: Dalton, Patricio (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management); Rüschenpöhler, Julius (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management); Uras, Burak (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management); Zia, Bilal
    Date: 2020
  20. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: The main purpose of the mission was to continue TA to assist with upgrading the compilation and dissemination of fiscal data and GFS in Vietnam in line with the international standard, the Government Finance Statistics Manual 2014 (GFSM 2014).
    Keywords: Government finance statistics;Expenditure;Financial statements;Budget planning and preparation;Government asset management;ISCR,CR,GFS data,TA mission,data from TABMIS,GFS project,final accounts
    Date: 2020–08–05
  21. By: Donny Harrison Pasaribu
    Abstract: According to the Dutch disease theory, natural resource extractions can have an adverse effect on the manufacturing sector. However, the empirical evidence for the total effect of natural resources extraction on manufacturing has been inconclusive. Other factors such as backward and forward linkages and productivity spillover can also affect the manufacturing sector. This topic is important because many developing countries are still reliant on natural resources extraction while unable to develop their manufacturing sector. This study measures the total impact of natural resource rents on manufacturing value added in a cross-country setting. This is done using an instrumental variable method that utilises fluctuations in world resource prices, weighted by each country’s resource exports. The estimates use data from 149 countries over the period 1970-2014, covering the last two global resource booms (1970s oil boom and 2000s China-driven commodity boom). The study finds that increases in natural resource rent have a mild positive impact on manufacturing value added. The findings are then compared with the experience of resource-dependent Asia-Pacific countries such as Indonesia and Australia.
    Keywords: Dutch disease, natural resources, manufacturing
    JEL: Q32 Q33 O13 O14 O57
    Date: 2020
  22. By: World Bank
    Keywords: International Economics and Trade - Foreign Direct Investment Private Sector Development - Legal Regulation and Business Environment Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Investment and Investment Climate
    Date: 2020–04
  23. By: World Bank
    Keywords: International Economics and Trade - Foreign Direct Investment Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Investment and Investment Climate Private Sector Development - Legal Regulation and Business Environment
    Date: 2020–04
  24. By: Jacques Morisset
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development - Financial Crisis Management & Restructuring Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Economic Conditions and Volatility Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Taxation & Subsidies Social Protections and Labor - Employment and Unemployment Social Protections and Labor - Labor Policies
    Date: 2020–03
  25. By: World Bank
    Keywords: International Economics and Trade - Foreign Direct Investment Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Investment and Investment Climate Private Sector Development - Competition Policy Private Sector Development - Legal Regulation and Business Environment
    Date: 2020–04
  26. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Education - Tertiary Education Education - Access & Equity in Basic Education Education - Education Finance Education - Education For All Public Sector Development - Public Sector Expenditure Policy
    Date: 2020–04
  27. By: Zhao, Tiantian; Institute of Research, Asian
    Abstract: During Modi administration, India has attached more importance on maritime diplomacy. With Act East policy, India starts to focus more on Indo-Pacific area and tries to build closer relation with Southeast Asian states. Also, India pays more attention on small island states in South Asia, such as Sri Lanka and Maldives. In this research, I will base on the previous studies about maritime diplomacy and conclude the changes of Indian maritime diplomacy during Modi administration. Economic interdependence makes it difficult to ignore neighbouring states’ impact on energy transportation and regional cooperation. Also, non-traditional maritime security problems are increasing, and it is extremely important for littoral states to cooperate to fight against piracy and maritime terrorism. Modi chooses to adopt co-operative maritime diplomacy policy which is beneficial for regional development and the stability of regional order.
    Date: 2020–12–12
  28. By: Peter Warr; Waleerat Suphannachart
    Abstract: Raising agricultural productivity in developing countries is often said to reduce poverty, though the empirical evidence is more nuanced. Productivity growth generates additional income and must benefit someone, though not necessarily the poor. It is conceivable that most, or even all of the benefits go to others. Using region-level data from Thailand, we study the relationship between agricultural productivity growth and rural poverty incidence. Our dependent variable is the annual rate of change in rural poverty incidence at the regional level between the years for which poverty data are available. Agricultural productivity is measured as the annual rate of change in regional agricultural productivity, covering the same time intervals as the poverty observations, but lagged one calendar year. Other control variables include regional nonagricultural incomes and the real price of food. The estimated coefficient on the change in agricultural productivity is negative and highly significant, implying that agricultural productivity growth does reduce rural poverty, holding other variables constant. Nevertheless, the poverty-reducing contribution of recent productivity growth is small. The poverty-reducing effects of long-term drivers of agricultural productivity growth are also studied using simulations based on the estimated model.
    Keywords: Agricultural productivity, Poverty incidence, Thailand
    JEL: I32 O13 O15 Q01 Q18
    Date: 2020
  29. By: World Bank
    Keywords: International Economics and Trade - Foreign Direct Investment Private Sector Development - Legal Regulation and Business Environment Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Investment and Investment Climate
    Date: 2020–04
  30. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Environment - Forests and Forestry Environment - Sustainable Land Management Rural Development - Forestry Rural Development - Rural Land Policies for Poverty Reduction
    Date: 2020–04
  31. By: Keiko Inoue; Jacques Morisset
    Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies - Digital Divide Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Economic Conditions and Volatility Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Fiscal & Monetary Policy Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Macroeconomic Management Social Protections and Labor - Labor Markets
    Date: 2020–04
  32. By: World Bank
    Keywords: International Economics and Trade - International Migration Poverty Reduction - Migration and Development Social Protections and Labor - Labor Markets
    Date: 2020–04
  33. By: Syahputra, Ray Dwiki
    Abstract: The development of online shops in Indonesia is growing vey rapidly with a variety of available platfoms making producers compete to sell in the marketplace by providing various goods or services. This study aims to re-analyze relate consumer decsions in making purchases in the marketplace by looking at reviews and price. The method uses in reasearch is a qualitative method which is correlated with the type of literature study.
    Date: 2020–12–03
  34. By: Paul D. Kenny; Rashesh Shrestha; Edward Aspinall
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationships between agrarian commodity booms and the incidence of group con?ict and criminality in the context of Indonesia’s expanding oil palm sector. It theorizes that commodity boom violence takes two main forms: low level but organized criminal violence involved in the extortion of “rents” produced by a given commodity extraction and production process (extortion); and violent competition among a range of groups, including “ma?as”, youth gangs, landholders, and commercial producers for control of these rents (competition). Extortion and competition violence are associated with distinct temporal distributions consistent with our theory. Criminality–especially theft–is higher in villages with established and productive oil palm plantations (extortion), whereas villages undergoing planation expansion have a higher incidence of group con?ict (competition). Dynamic analyses utilizing panel data at the sub-district level support our causal interpretation, as the relationship between the area under oil palm cultivation and resource con?ict (competition) changes over time and with prevailing commodity prices. Our results are robust to the use of instrumental variable analysis to account for the potential endogeneity of plantation expansion. Our theorized mechanism is given further support by a targeted primary survey of 1,920 respondents in oil palm producing and non-producing villages, which shows that villages experience di?erent rates of extortion and competition violence depending both on if, and when, oil palm production commenced.
    Keywords: political economy; ma?a; organized crime; violence; con?ict; natural resources; oil palm
    JEL: D74 L73 O13 Q33 Q34
    Date: 2020
  35. By: Hanna Berkel; Finn Tarp
    Abstract: Using a novel panel survey of enterprises in Myanmar, we compare the performance of manufacturing firms by three different informality definitions. The first is binary, based on whether firms pay taxes. The second captures five categories of registration with the authorities, and the third definition relates to three groupings of the informality status of a firm's workers. Depending on the informality concept used, formalization has positive, insignificant, and negative performance outcomes.
    Keywords: firms, Informality, Myanmar, Business, business registration, Manufacturing
    Date: 2020
  36. By: Martin Wiegand (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)
    Abstract: Participatory wealth rankings (PWRs) present an inclusive and inexpensive targeting method to identify poor households. They tend to be well received by participants but point to a systematically different understanding of welfare than implied by consumption-based rankings. This suggests that PWRs could be used as the basis for alternative welfare measures that aim to reflect local perceptions of poverty. This paper demonstrates how such a measure can be constructed, using data from a field experiment on poverty targeting in Indonesia. It then explores the potential impact of using this welfare measure as targeting goal on participants’ and village leaders’ satisfaction. I find that higher targeting accuracy—using the PWR-based measure as benchmark—increases satisfaction with the program. However, after controlling for targeting accuracy, the PWR does not lead to discernibly higher satisfaction than a proxy means targeting mechanism. The PWRs thus seem to be appreciated for their resulting allocations rather than valued intrinsically. I also find that targeting accuracy explains satisfaction outcomes better when it is measured against PWR-based welfare rather than predicted consumption. This holds true even for communities where no actual PWRs had been conducted. The results suggest that the information contained in PWRs can be used as a meaningful basis for targeting and poverty measurement.
    Keywords: poverty, targeting preferences, welfare measures, participatory wealth ranking
    JEL: C8 D63 I32 I38 O1
    Date: 2020–12–28
  37. By: Mateane, Lebogang
    Abstract: I use a transition probability matrix associated with different global market conditions and I assume that it captures switches in central bank preferences between approximated constant relative risk aversion (CRRA) expected utility and approximated increasing relative risk aversion (IRRA) expected utility. I approximate CRRA and IRRA expected utility, to construct and propose constrained portfolio selection frameworks with skewness, for the currency composition of FX reserves over different global market conditions that influence central bank preferences. These portfolio selection frameworks account for portfolio rebalancing, they satisfy Pratt-Arrow measures of risk aversion and are constrained by the country's currency composition of foreign debt. Thus, for these portfolios, the currency composition of FX reserves is motivated by its country's currency composition of foreign debt. I propose these frameworks for 6 emerging market economies (EMEs) and this is only for a small portion of the total portfolio of FX reserves. These EMEs are Brazil, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa and Turkey and five of these EMEs have been denoted as the "Fragile Five". Using different methods of computing expected FX reserves returns and different maturity structures on FX reserves, I validate my proposal using data over the 2010-2018 period on these EMEs by simulating optimal FX reserve weights for each EME; where each country's actual currency composition of foreign debt is a constraint.
    Keywords: IRRA and CRRA Expected Utility,Global Market Conditions,Currency Composition of FX Reserves,Foreign Debt,Portfolio Selection,Skewness,Emerging Market Economies
    JEL: E58 F31 G11 G15
    Date: 2020
  38. By: Lwin Lwin Aung; Peter Warr
    Abstract: We study the determinants of changes in the distribution of household expenditures in Myanmar, using a large, nationwide panel household survey data set covering 2005 and 2010. These data, compiled by the United Nations Development Program and the Myanmar government, constitute the only panel household survey data currently available for Myanmar. They show that although there was no statistically significant change in mean real consumption expenditures between these years, the distribution of that consumption across households became significantly less unequal. The sources of this large decline in measured inequality have not been systematically investigated. The paper attempts that, using the above panel data set and applying the regression-based inequality decomposition developed by Fields and its subsequent extension by Yun. The results indicate that region-specific variables, occupational changes and changes in education were the main contributors to the narrowing of expenditure inequality, but that road development expenditures had the opposite effect. On the methodology of decomposition, we argue first that the Yun extension of Fields’ approach promises enhanced policy relevance, by distinguishing between changes in household characteristics and changes in their impact on expenditures, as reflected in the estimated regression coefficients. Second, we show that the decomposition described by Yun entails arbitrary sequencing of the distributions being compared, influencing the decomposition obtained. We explain the underlying reason for this problem and illustrate a simple solution.
    Keywords: Expenditure inequality, panel data, regression-based decompositions, Myanmar
    JEL: C51 D31 D63
    Date: 2020
  39. By: Shoka Hayaki (Graduate School of Business Administration, Kobe University and Junior Research Fellow, Research Institute for Economics and Business Administration, Kobe University, Japan)
    Abstract: This paper examines whether developed markets are more internationally integrated than emerging markets. A new bivariate regime switching model is constructed in order to take into account both international integration regime and segmentation regime, capture the endogenous and interactive effects between large markets, and pay attention to the economic structure of the price of variance risk. We estimated such regime switching model for 24 large stock markets and the US market as a reference market. That is, the regime reflects whether each of the 24 markets is integrated with the US. As a result, the structures of representative investor's risk attitude, or that of the price of variance risk, in each of the following 15 markets are almost the same; Canada, France, Italy, Australia, Hong Kong, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Brazil, South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia, Mexico and Saudi Arabia. In such markets, these "international integration measures" defined as the (smoothed) probability of international integration regime are on average high, declining before the 2008 global financial crisis, but rising again after the crisis. This means that non-home-biased strategies such as an international diversification have advantages over home-biased strategies such as a domestic concentration except just before the crisis. In addition, the difference between the international integration measures of developed and emerging markets included in these markets is extremely small. In other words, being an emerging market does not mean that the market is segmented. Summing up the above results, it can be concluded that the international diversification is strongly recommended in these markets regardless of country or period.
    Date: 2020–12
  40. By: Marecki, Krzysztof; Wójcik-Czerniawska, Agnieszka
    Abstract: The purpose of the article is to show how to use relatively new and very innovative Blockchain technology to improve the food supply chain. In countries such as the United States or Thailand is starting to be an indispensable element in the agri-food sector. At the outset, it should be said what the Blockchain technology is, the use of which is becoming very broad in many sectors of the economy, including in the area of monetary policy of the state. It is used when creating virtual money, i.e. cryptocurrencies, which, despite the controversy they arouse, as well as the world of virtual finance in the COVID-19 era, begin to play a significant role. Blockchain (BCT) in the case of the food supply chain, despite the fact that it is a relatively new digital technology, may revolutionize its functioning. This technology is designed to provide the possibility of storing information in a database of transactions and products, which is decentralized and distributed and not susceptible to changes and manipulations. BCT believes it can play a positive role in ensuring food safety and quality. The main benefit of using this technology is the increased transparency of food supply chains. BCT makes it possible to increase the efficiency of tracking systems and identification of agri-food products in the supply chain. This means that thanks to BTC, it is possible to reduce the number of cases of food adulteration and the unauthorized use of food quality certificates. Nevertheless, BCT, due to the fact that it is a new technology, is not fully developed, i.e. the possibility of scaling BCT may turn out to be ineffective in more extensive and complex supply chains including multi-component products. In addition, it should be remembered that this technology is associated with barriers of a social, economic, legal and financial nature, which may adversely affect the further use of BCT in food supply chains. Despite the growing interest of agri-food sector enterprises in using BCT, its implementation in food supply chains may progress slowly.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Crop Production/Industries, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2020–09–25

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