nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2020‒08‒24
fifty-one papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Testing methods to increase consumption of healthy foods: Evidence from a school-based field experiment in Viet Nam By Nguyen, Trang; de Brauw, Alan; van den Berg, Marrit; Phuong Ha, Do Thi
  2. Vietnam country brief By Harris, Jody; Huynh, Phuong; Nguyen, Hoa T.; Hoang, Nga; Mai, Lan Tran; Tuyen, Le Danh; Nguyen, Phuong Hong
  3. Philippines; Selected Issues By International Monetary Fund
  4. Bankruptcy Risk among Indonesian Stock Exchange Listed Companies By Zuliani Dalimunthe
  5. Anomalies of Banking Intermediation and Profit Growth (Study on the 10 Largest Banks in Indonesia) By Herry Achmad Buchory
  6. A Review of Access to Finance by Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises and Digital Financial Services in Selected Asia-Pacific Least Developed Countries By Nitin Madan
  7. Mainstreaming the Sustainable Development Goals into national planning, budgetary and financing processes: Indonesian experience By Alin Halimatussadiah
  8. Local-foreign technology interface, resource-based development, and industrial policy: how Chile and Malaysia are escaping the middle-income trap By Lebdioui, Amir; Lee, Keun; Pietrobelli, Carlo
  9. Myanmar; Technical Assistance Report-External Sector Statistics Mission By International Monetary Fund
  10. Government budget and the Sustainable Development Goals: the Philippine experience By Rosario G. Manasan
  11. Development of Integrated Zakat, Infaq and Shadaqoh Information System: Evidence in Amil Zakat Institutions By Sri Dewi Anggadini
  12. Can Training Enhance Adoption, Knowledge and Perception of Organic Farming Practices? Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in Indonesia By Grimm, Michael; Luck, Nathalie
  13. Project-level Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture: Results from cognitive testing in Myanmar By Lambrecht, Isabel; Sproule, Katie; Synt, Nang Lun Kham; Ei Win, Hnin; Win, Khin Zin
  14. Flypaper Effect in Indonesia: The Case of Kalimantan By Yarlina Yacoub
  15. Coastal Development between Opportunity and Disaster Risk : An Assessment of the Coastal Protection System in Vietnam By van Ledden,Mathijs; Tung,Tran Thanh; Nguyen,Dzung Huy; Nguyen,Long Thanh
  16. Malaysia; Selected Issues By International Monetary Fund
  17. Public-Private Partnership Systems and Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific By Rui Almeida; Amaury Cassang; Daniel Lin; Masato Abe
  18. The Involvement of Firms in Helping Fight the Pandemic of COVID-19: Evidence from Indonesia By Abbas, Ahmad; Ilham, Mohamad; Triani, Neks; Arizah, Ainun; Rayyani, Wa Ode
  19. Shopping and cross-shopping practices in Hanoi Vietnam: An emerging urban market context By Van Hai Tran; Lucie Sirieix
  20. The Impact of the new Senior High School Program on the School Participation of 16 and 17-year old learners in the Philippines By Geoffrey Ducanes; Dina Joana Ocampo
  21. Effects of dynamic capability and marketing strategy on the organizational performance of the banking sector in Makassar, Indonesia By Akhmad Muhammadin; Rashila Ramli; Syamsul Ridjal; Muhlis Kanto; Syamsul Alam; Hamzah Idris
  22. Asia-Pacific Small Island Developing States: Development challenges and policy solutions By Andrzej Bolesta
  23. Money from Wastes (Pera sa Basura) Program of a University in Central Visayas, Philippines: An Impact Study By Amparado, Mauro Allan Padua; Saladaga, Mark Keneth A.
  24. Malaysia; 2020 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Malaysia By International Monetary Fund
  25. Securing the commons in India: Mapping polycentric governance By Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Rao, Jagdeesh Puppala; Chaturvedi, Rahul; Rao, Kaushalendra; Bruns, Bryan Randolph; Kandikuppa, Sandeep; ElDidi, Hagar
  26. Risk attitude, risky behavior, and price determination in the sex market: A case study of Yangon, Myanmar By Hiroyuki Yamada; Yuki Kanayama; Kanako Yoshikawa; Kyaw Wai Aung
  27. The Effect of Ownership Structure, Cash Holding and Tax Avoidance on Income Smoothing By Nico Alexander
  28. Evaluation of sustainability performance in supply chain management: an empirical research of Vietnam producers’ coordinates suppliers' By Nguyen, Van Phuoc
  29. An empirical assessment of organizational commitment and job performance vietnam small and medium-sized enterprises By Tung, Dao Duy
  30. Philippines; 2019 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; and Staff Report By International Monetary Fund
  31. Recent Global Developments and Central Bank Responsibilities in a Changing Risk Landscape By Daleep Singh
  32. Addressing the impact of the pandemic on tourism in Asia-Pacific small island developing States By Yusuke Tateno; Andrzej Bolesta
  33. Factors Affecting Savings Deposit Decision of Individual Customers: Empirical Evidence from Vietnamese Commercial Banks By Tung, Dao Duy
  34. The Geography of Technology Legitimation. How multi-scalar legitimation processes matter for path creation in emerging industries By Jonas Heiberg; Christian Binz; Bernhard Truffer
  35. Infrastructure financing for sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific: A new ESCAP publication on financing for Development By Tientip Subhanij; Masato Abe; Alberto Isgut; Nick Freeman
  36. Religion in Economic History: A Survey By Sascha O. Becker; Jared Rubin; Ludger Woessmann
  37. Nudges as a tool for promoting sustainable consumer behavior in Asia-Pacific By Shuvojit Banerjee
  38. Deconstructing Sustainable Livelihood Framework (SLF) for Equitable Living in Crisis of Global Pandemic By Jackson, Emerson Abraham
  39. Raising the level of ambition on carbon pricing in Asia and Pacific By Daniel Jeong-Dae Lee
  40. The Geography of the Effectiveness and Consequences of Covid-19 Measures: Global Evidence By Simplice A. Asongu; Samba Diop; Joseph Nnanna
  41. Move from GDP to comprehensive indicator frameworks in Asia and the Pacific By Zhenqian Huang
  42. Sovereign Credit and Exchange Rate Risks: Evidence from Asia-Pacific Local Currency Bonds By Mikhail Chernov; Drew D. Creal; Peter Hördahl
  43. Setting sustainability standards for the financial system in Asia-Pacific By Jyoti Bisbey
  44. Bargaining Leverage in Family Planning: A Gender-based Analysis of Filipino Couples' Reproductive Choices By Cristina M. Baustista
  45. Moving businesses towards decarbonization By Jyoti Bisbey
  46. Myanmar; Technical Assistance Report-External Sector Statistics Mission By International Monetary Fund
  47. Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Pemilihan Model Bagi Hasil Pada Sektor Pertanian di Wilayah Karesidenan Madiun By Arief, Suyoto; Susilo, Adib; Dede, Moh.
  48. Agricultural productivity, inter-sectoral labor shift, and economic growth in India By Balaji, S. J.; Babu, Suresh Chandra
  49. Sustainable Supply Chain Management Framework in a Higher Education Laboratory using Intuitionistic Fuzzy Cognitive Map By Muhammad Ridwan Andi Purnomo; Adhe Rizky Anugerah; Bella Taradipa Dewipramesti
  50. Backwardness Advantage and Economic Growth in the Information Age: A Cross-Country Empirical Study By Khuong Vu; Simplice A. Asongu
  51. ICT specialists in employment. Methodological note By Montserrat Lopez Cobo; Ibrahim K. Rohman; Giuditta De Prato; Melisande Cardona; Riccardo Righi; Sofia Samoili; Miguel Vazquez-Prada Baillet

  1. By: Nguyen, Trang; de Brauw, Alan; van den Berg, Marrit; Phuong Ha, Do Thi
    Abstract: Schools are an attractive entry point to improve children’s diets, as their eating habits can be shaped during childhood and the information disseminated from school can reach adults through children. We implemented a cluster-randomized trial in 12 schools in peri-urban Viet Nam to assess if two school-based interventions increased knowledge of healthy diets among children and their parents, as well as children’s consumption of healthy foods. First, children were given lessons about food before school lunch and encouraged to share the lessons with their parents. Second, children were provided with healthy snacks for five weeks to reinforce messages about healthy eating. We found that in the short term, the nutrition lessons raised the knowledge index score of the children by 0.35 standard deviation. After six months, this intervention retained its effectiveness only for the children who also received free access to fruit, emphasizing the linkage between knowledge and practice. By itself, free access to fruit at school increased the children’s daily fruit consumption by half a portion, but not at the expense of home fruit consumption. Access to healthy foods at school can therefore be an effective measure to raise children’s healthy consumption. Child-parent communication was not a reliable channel for knowledge dissemination in our setting.
    Keywords: VIET NAM; VIETNAM; SOUTH EAST ASIA; ASIA; health; food consumption; health foods; nutrition; school feeding; school children; diet; child nutrition; consumption of healthy foods; fruit and vegetable consumption; healthy diets; child nutrition and health; school-based nutrition education
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Harris, Jody; Huynh, Phuong; Nguyen, Hoa T.; Hoang, Nga; Mai, Lan Tran; Tuyen, Le Danh; Nguyen, Phuong Hong
    Abstract: Vietnam has achieved significant progress in reducing undernutrition over the past several decades, but ethnic minority groups are being systematically left behind and this is limiting progress on national reductions. The Vietnam Story of Change in Nutrition study aims to understand the history, contemporary treatment, and future of nutrition in Vietnam, including policy and practice in relation to undernutrition with a focus on equity for Vietnam’s 53 ethnic minority groups. This brief aims to highlight the main findings and give recommendations on how to tackle the remaining pockets of high malnutrition in Vietnam.
    Keywords: VIET NAM; VIETNAM; SOUTH EAST ASIA; ASIA; nutrition; malnutrition; undernutrition; health; ethnic minority communities; stunting
    Date: 2020
  3. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This Selected Issues paper on the Philippines explores export performance in the context of global trade tensions. Unlike many Asian countries, the Philippines’ exports of goods have remained stable through the ongoing period of global trade tensions. Its low participation in global trade as well as in global value chains relative-to-peers seems to explain why the Philippines has not yet been negatively impacted by the trade tensions. On the other hand, despite its close trade ties with the United States, the Philippines has not benefitted much from trade diversion originated from the US–China bilateral tariffs, unlike Vietnam and Mexico. Philippines’ exports have slightly increased in dollar terms since 2017, but they have remained broadly stable in GDP terms. The Philippines does not appear to have benefitted much from the US–China trade tensions, but it has performed better than many of its peers at the aggregate level. The comparative advantages of the Philippines in terms of exports reside in high tech industries, which constitute its main exports. The Philippines has a revealed comparative advantage in exporting from high technology industries. In sum, the disaggregated trade data evidence suggests that the Philippines was not able to scale-up its exports to the United States as much as Vietnam and Mexico in many high- to medium-tech goods included in the US tariff lists.
    Keywords: Financial markets;Financial crises;Credit;Gross domestic product;Economic sectors;ISCR,CR,IMF,Bangko Sentral,inflation expectation,estate loan,U.S.-China
    Date: 2020–02–06
  4. By: Zuliani Dalimunthe (Universitas Indonesia, Faculty of Economics and Business, 16424, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Anton Setiawan Author-2-Workplace-Name: Universitas Indonesia, Faculty of Economics and Business, 16424, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Eko Rizkianto Author-3-Workplace-Name: Universitas Indonesia, Faculty of Economics and Business, 16424, Indonesia Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - This research analyses whether there was a change in bankruptcy risk of companies in Indonesia for the period between 2015–2018, during the first presidency period of Joko Widodo, when Indonesia experienced tremendous dynamic economic, political and technological change. Previous research generally discusses the predictability of bankruptcy models, whereas this study analyses how the dynamics of the bankruptcy risk of companies in Indonesia using the most widely known and recognized models.Methodology/Technique – We employed a Wilcoxon-rank test to evaluate whether there are differences in the bankruptcy risk of companies year to year for the overall company and for each sector. We evaluated 154 companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange.Findings – We found that the number of companies categorized in the bankruptcy zone increased every year and almost doubled during the studied time period (49 companies in 2013 compared to 90 companies in 2018). Novelty – The analysis shows that there is a significant number of companies that experienced bankruptcy risk each year, except for the periods between 2013 to 2014 and 2016 to 2017. On average, when we look at more detail for sectors and each year, the results show statistically significant increasing bankruptcy risk in all sectors except the transportation sector. Type of Paper - Empirical.
    Keywords: Bankruptcy Risk; Corporate Bankruptcy Prediction; Altman Z-score; Wilcoxon Rank-test; Indonesia.
    JEL: G32 G33 E66
    Date: 2019–12–31
  5. By: Herry Achmad Buchory (Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Ekuitas, Jln. PHH. Mustopa No. 31, 40124, Bandung, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Author-2-Workplace-Name: Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - One of the bank's main goals is to obtain profit mainly from the intermediation process. The implementation of the Indonesian banking intermediary function in the year 2017 is not optimal, as indicated by credit growth in the year 2017 which only reached 8,35%. This phenomenon also occurs in the 10 largest banks in Indonesia. In 2017 the intermediation function has decreased but profits have increased. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of banking intermediation on profit growth and whether credit quality and operational efficiency affect profit growth. An indicator of banking intermediation is a loan to deposits ratio (LDR), credit quality with non-performing loans (NPLs), the operating efficiency with the ratio of operating expense to operating income (OEOI) and profit growth is measured by the amount of profit. Methodology – Descriptive and verification methods will be used in this study, with data from the 10 largest banks financial statements in Indonesia for the period 2016-2017 while data analysis uses multiple linear regression. Findings – The findings of this study show that partially LDR has a positive effect although the effect is not significant on Profit; NPLs have a negative effect on Profit and the effect is significant; OEOI has a negative effect even though the effect is not significant on Profit; Simultaneously, the variable LDR, NPLs, OEOI have a significant effect on profit. Novelty – Compared to previous studies, bank profit growth is not only influenced by banking intermediation, but if banks can maintain credit quality and improve operational efficiency, bank profits will grow Type of Paper - Empirical.
    Keywords: loan to deposit ratio, non-performing loans, the ratio of operating expenses to operating income, profit growth.
    JEL: G21 G32
    Date: 2020–06–30
  6. By: Nitin Madan
    Abstract: Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) are key to the economies of various countries. Their numbers and contribution towards employment is well documented and there is acceptance amongst policy makers that these enterprises are critical for economic development. Increasingly, access to finance has been recognised as a major hurdle in their development or growth. Amongst, the countries reviewed in this paper - Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, and Nepal – Bhutan is the only target country where the supply of finance to MSMEs is favourable with nearly 68% of the demand being met. Cambodia has the highest finance gap followed closely by Lao Peoples Democratic Republic and Nepal. While examining the finance gap of microenterprises and SMEs, the gap revealed in Bhutan, Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Nepal are not substantial. However, in Bangladesh the differences are much larger between microenterprises and SMEs with only 14% of microenterprise demand being met. The review also explores the number of women owned MSMEs (WMSMEs) in the countries and the access to finance for such enterprises. It shows that the finance gap is amongst the lowest in Bangladesh (6%), Bhutan (19%) and Nepal (9%). In Cambodia and Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the share is higher at 32% and 42% respectively. But in both South East Asian countries women owned MSMEs also are a larger proportion of MSMEs.
    Keywords: MSMEs, digital finance, least developed countries, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Nepal
    JEL: G21 G23 G28 G32 O12
    Date: 2020–05
  7. By: Alin Halimatussadiah (Head of Environmental Economics Research Group, Institute for Economic and Social Research, Faculty of Economics and Business – Universitas Indonesia)
    Abstract: Indonesia has made substantial progress in adopting the SDGs into national agendas of planning, budgeting and financing. The Government’s commitment was confirmed through the Presidential Decree and the SDGs Roadmap with a concrete mandate to mainstream the Goals into national development frameworks, at both central and subnational levels. Continuous effort in establishing budget tagging system for SDG-related programmes and activities ensures that planning is translated into proper fiscal allocation for prioritized Goals, which also leads to effective public spending. Issues on financing gaps have been addressed through the introduction of innovative financing instruments, such as the issuance of sovereign green sukuk and the establishment of SDG Indonesia One, aimed at leveraging private financing. Despite considerable number of achievements recorded, there is room for improvement, particularly by: reconciling interrelated features of the Goals and targets through policy integration across sector and coordination enhancement among actors; improving the supporting system for better implementation of performance-based budgeting; and upscaling innovative sustainable financing instruments organized by the Government and non-State actors.
    Keywords: SDGs, national development planning, budgeting processes, Indonesia
    JEL: Q01 O21 O23
    Date: 2020–05
  8. By: Lebdioui, Amir; Lee, Keun; Pietrobelli, Carlo
    Abstract: This paper starts by showing that Chile and Malaysia are on the path of escaping the middle-income trap in terms of their income level relative to that of the USA. In contrast to the conventional view, we find that the leading export sectors are not manufacturing (such as electronics) in Malaysia or mining alone in Chile. Instead, the engines of growth have been (i) resource-based sectors (petroleum, rubber and palm oil) in Malaysia; and (ii) non-mining resource-based sectors (salmon, fruits, wine and wood-based) in Chile.Furthermore, the sustained growth of these sectors is not the result of free-markets, as frequently argued, but also of specific industrial policy measures, that have enabled the accumulation of productive and innovation capabilities through R&D support, fiscal incentives, export assistance, and quality control. We also find that the emergence of locally-controlled firms has been an important aspect of this long- term success, although the sources of the initial learning included foreign actors and FDI.The cases of Chile and Malaysia consequently show the possibility of escaping the middle-income trap not through manufacturing but instead through resource-based development. Such strategy differs from the so-called short cycle technology-based catch-up by the East Asian tigers and from the unsustainable commodity rent-extraction in resource-rich countries, but is consistent with the view that emphasizes the need to specialize in sectors with low entry barriers, and to promote investments in innovation and technological capabilities.
    Keywords: resource-based development; industrial policy; Chile; Malaysia; middle-income trap; salmon; palm-oil
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2020–06–20
  9. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This Technical Assistance Report paper highlights that the work on verifying reasonable size of coverage adjustments for Myanmar’s imports was addressed during the mission, using bilateral trade data from Thailand and China. The mission illustrated how granular data can be used to help determine proper adjustments to improve the coverage of the International merchandise trade statistics, using Thailand’s data on exports to Myanmar cross-classified by border checkpoint and 2-digit HS code. The data indicated potential under-coverage of Myanmar imports for a few checkpoints sharing land border with Thailand. Although the actual travel expenditure per person per day for certain years is likely to be lower than the time series published by the Ministry of Hotels and Tourism given continuous depreciation of Kyat over the past five years, this factor should unlikely outweigh the effect of growing numbers of inbound tourists. Balance-of-payments compilation file used by the Central Bank of Myanmar Balance of Payments Section has now been modified to accommodate suggested coverage adjustments for imports, and the new estimation model for freight and insurance on imports proposed during March 2019 mission.
    Keywords: Accounting;Balance of payments;Bilateral trade;Central banking;Central banks;Commodities;Credit;Current account balances;Data collection;Depreciation;Development;Emigration and immigration;Employment;Expenditures;Exports;External debt statistics;External sector statistics;Financial institutions;Foreign exchange;Goods;Imports;Insurance;International trade;Investment;Labor force;Merchandise trade;Monetary policy;Private sector;Production;Small open economies;Social security;Statistics;Time series;Tourism;Travel;ISCR,CR,BPS,ESS,CBM,CSO,travel expenditure
    Date: 2020–02–18
  10. By: Rosario G. Manasan
    Abstract: The Philippine planning and budgeting systems are well placed in terms of their capacity to support the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and could serve as a useful reference for other countries. First, all the SDGs can be mapped into the priorities of the Philippines Development Plan (PDP). Greater congruence between the SDG indicators, on the one hand, and the PDP Results Matrices indicators, on the other, improves the integration of SDG implementation and PDP implementation. Second, the considerably improved and fairly strong emphasis on results and performance of the existing government budgeting system provides a solid foundation for linking the annual budget with the PDP and the SDGs so that limited resources are allocated and spent on programmes that achieve the desired societal goals and outcomes. Given the breadth and scope of the SDGs, however, this study supports incipient efforts to put in place an SDG expenditure tagging exercise to assist policy makers in evaluating the effectiveness of the SDG-related programmes of various government agencies and in prioritizing its limited resources. At the same time, it recommends that current efforts towards SDG localization be intensified given that recent Supreme Court ruling on the Mandanas-Garcia IRA petitions which will effectively increase the share of local governments in national taxes.
    Keywords: budget reform, medium-term expenditure framework, public expenditure management. SDGs, tax reform
    JEL: E62 H50
    Date: 2020–05
  11. By: Sri Dewi Anggadini (Department of Accounting, Indonesia Computer University, Indonesia Jl. Dipati Ukur 112- 116 Bandung West Java - Indonesia Author-2-Name: Deden A.Wahab Author-2-Workplace-Name: Department of Master of Management, Indonesia Computer University, Indonesia Jl. Dipati Ukur 112- 116 Bandung West Author-3-Name: Rio Yunanto Author-3-Workplace-Name: Department of Computerized Accounting, Indonesia Computer University, Indonesia Jl. Dipati Ukur 112- 116 Bandung West Java -Indonesia Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - The purpose of this study is the development of integrated information systems and models, developing and developing information systems of zakat, infaq, and shadaqoh (ZIS) which are integrated in the Amil Zakat District / City Institution in West Java, Indonesia. Indonesia's West Java Province has the potential for zakat collection, but it is still not effective. Methodology – This research program was conducted to measure the effect of ZIS information systems on the quality of accounting information as measured by the quality of financial statements, in order to establish a strategy for obtaining muzakki satisfaction in West Java Province. This study will identify the relationship model between them. The research program was conducted in 27 cities/regencies in West Java Province of Indonesia Findings – The research used a series of different research approaches such as structured review and qualitative work with interviews or focus group discussions to develop key factors for the success of information systems and Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling as an analysis method. Novelty – The results of this study indicate that an integrated ZIS information system has an impact on the quality of accounting information measured by the quality of financial statements. Type of Paper - Empirical.
    Keywords: information systems, zakat, infaq, shodaqoh, information.
    JEL: E6 H2 H3
    Date: 2020–06–30
  12. By: Grimm, Michael (University of Passau); Luck, Nathalie (University of Passau)
    Abstract: In many parts of the world, several decades of intensively applying Green Revolution technologies came at environmental costs, i.e. degraded water and soil quality as well as a loss of biodiversity. This has led to an increased interest in alternative farming systems such as organic farming, which is commonly perceived as more sustainable. Despite many initiatives to promote organic farming, it remains a marginal activity in many countries. Widespread uptake of organic farming requires a better understanding of the drivers for and barriers to its adoption. Previous studies highlighted information as an important driver of agricultural technology adoption. Yet, despite the variety of programs studied, little is known about the role of removing information constraints in the context of organic farming. In this paper, we focus on the role of information provision and training as one driver for the adoption of organic farming practices in Indonesia. We use a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to identify the impact of a three-day hands-on training in organic farming on smallholder farmers' adoption and knowledge of such practices as well as on their perception towards organic farming. We find that the training intervention had a positive and statistically significant effect on the use of organic inputs. We further find positive and statistically significant treatment effects with respect to knowledge about and perception of organic farming. Overall, our findings suggest that intense training is a promising instrument to increase the uptake of organic farming.
    Keywords: organic farming, technology adoption, RCT, Indonesia
    JEL: C93 O12 O33 Q12 Q16
    Date: 2020–06
  13. By: Lambrecht, Isabel; Sproule, Katie; Synt, Nang Lun Kham; Ei Win, Hnin; Win, Khin Zin
    Abstract: When designing and evaluating policies and projects for women’s empowerment, appropriate indicators are needed. This paper reports on the lessons learned from two rounds of pretesting and cognitive testing of the project-level Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro-WEAI) in a total of five States/Regions in Myanmar. We assess if respondents understand the modules as intended and which questions require modification based on the cultural context. We find that the questions also present in the abbreviated WEAI are generally well understood, particularly on instrumental and group agency. The challenge to respond to hypothetical and abstract questions did become apparent in the domains representing intrinsic agency, and was problematic for questions on autonomy and self-efficacy. Also, the internationally validated questions on attitudes towards domestic violence were too abstract, and responses depend on the scenario envisioned. We also suggest including an adapted version of the module on speaking up in public, to reinforce the domain on collective agency. Our findings provide an encouraging message to those aspiring to use pro-WEAI, but emphasize the need for continued attention for context-specific adjustments and critical testing of even those instruments that are widely used and deemed validated.
    Keywords: MYANMAR; BURMA; SOUTHEAST ASIA; ASIA; empowerment; gender; women; women's empowerment; indicators; households; income; domestic violence; violence; agriculture; Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index; cognitive testing; intimate partner violence against women; violence against women
    Date: 2020
  14. By: Yarlina Yacoub (Faculty of Economics and Business, Tanjungpura University, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Nindya Lestari Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Economics and Business, Tanjungpura University, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - Changes in financial authority as a result of decentralization are expected to make provinces in Indonesia become more flexible in approving their finances. However, it goes beyond central government transfers which make local governments more consumptive, which impacts on the phenomenon of the effect of flypaper. This study aims to identify the influence of the government's fiscal on regional expenditure and identify the effect of flypaper on the regional expenditure in Kalimantan.Methodology/Technique – The research uses panel data from 56 regencies and cities on Kalimantan Island. Pooled least square method is used.Findings – The results show that intergovernmental fiscal revenue has a significant relationship with expenditure. Further, the flypaper effect occurs in regional expenditure which means that districts and cities in Kalimantan are still dependent on the central government to finance regional expenditures. They are not able to maximize their respective regional income.Novelty – These results indicate that the existence of local revenue derived from taxes has not been able to be optimally absorbed. Thus, dependence on intergovernmental transfers is very high. In addition, the flypaper effect also indicated that the intervention of the central government came into regional development planning programs.Type of Paper - Empirical.
    Keywords: Flypaper Effect; Intergovernmental Transfer; Fiscal; Grants.
    JEL: B22 D02 H21 H3
    Date: 2019–12–31
  15. By: van Ledden,Mathijs; Tung,Tran Thanh; Nguyen,Dzung Huy; Nguyen,Long Thanh
    Abstract: This paper provides a high-level assessment of Vietnam's sea dike system and its prescribed dike safety standards. The assessment estimates that 65 percent of the sea dike system does not meet the safety standards and that about $2 billion in capital investment is necessary to meet the standards, mainly in the Red River Delta. It also shows that current safety standards need finetuning, especially in areas with high risk and growth. This paper acts as a technical background paper to the report Resilient Shores: Vietnam's Coastal Development between Opportunity and Disaster Risk (Rentschler et al. 2020).
    Date: 2020–08–05
  16. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This Selected Issues paper investigates impact of financial technology (FinTech) on Malaysia’s financial sector. Malaysia is digitally enabled to seize the opportunities brought by FinTech. Malaysian banks continue to dominate in deposits, lending and capital raising, but they have been gradually reducing their emphasis on physical distribution networks. The top five Malaysian banks have increased their technology-related spending over the past three years. Regulators have been mindful of developments outside of the traditional regulatory perimeter that could pose financial stability risks. Rapidly evolving technology is likely to bring multiple challenges to the financial sector. Regulatory requirements are an important component of operating in the FinTech space. Regulators must strike a balance between ensuring financial stability and consumer protection, while promoting innovation and competition. In order to address the lack of regulatory acumen among FinTech industry players, Bank Negara Malaysia has spearheaded various initiatives. A key challenge for Malaysian regulators is to strike a balance between reaping the benefits of FinTech and mitigating potential downside risks in both conventional and Islamic finance. Frequent refinements to regulations and supervision are required to keep pace with the highly dynamic nature of FinTech to balance benefits and risks.
    Keywords: Islamic finance;Financial services;Macroprudential policies and financial stability;Financial institutions;Financial systems;ISCR,CR,e-money,sandbox,FTEG,mobile bank,capital raise
    Date: 2020–02–28
  17. By: Rui Almeida (Consultants at the Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, UNESCAP); Amaury Cassang (Consultants at the Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, UNESCAP); Daniel Lin (Consultants at the Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, UNESCAP); Masato Abe (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, UNESCAP)
    Abstract: Engaging the private sector in infrastructure financing through public-private partnership (PPP) can contribute significantly to the achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. However, PPP has yet to realize its potential fully in several Asia-Pacific economies. To promote this blended financing modality, a more conducive environment for PPP need to be ensured by establishing an efficient eco-system in a country. This may include, among others, policy and legal frameworks, institutional arrangements and financial support mechanisms for PPP implementation. This paper examines the findings of a survey conducted among 20 member States of the Infrastructure Financing and Public-Private Partnership Network of Asia and the Pacific and discusses the common strategies and practices adopted by developing countries in Asia and the Pacific regarding PPP systems. The paper also highlights the role of an effective PPP system in the pursuit of Sustainable Development Goals.
    Keywords: Asia and the Pacific; Infrastructure financing, Public-private partnerships; Sustainable Development Goals
    JEL: G18 G38 F55 H54
    Date: 2020–06
  18. By: Abbas, Ahmad; Ilham, Mohamad; Triani, Neks; Arizah, Ainun; Rayyani, Wa Ode
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the magnitude of firms socially involved in helping fight the pandemic of COVID-19. This study highlights 680 go public firms in Indonesia. The content analysis is used to find the information of firms’ social involvement. The result point of this study demonstrates that from 680 go public firms listed during the pandemic, there are only seven and one-half percent of companies involved in combating the coronavirus outbreak. Firms provide the donation including funds, free internet services, nutrition products, masks, and medical supplies. They have recognized their social involvement as the form of corporate social responsibility
    Date: 2020–06–16
  19. By: Van Hai Tran (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes, Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Lucie Sirieix (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes, Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier)
    Abstract: The process of supermarketization in emerging countries does not imply convergence in shopping practices. Based on a qualitative study in Hanoi, Vietnam, this paper adopts a shopping-as-practice approach with a specific focus on factors influencing practices. Seventy-night interviews were conducted in six urban districts of Hanoi. The results allowed to identify five types of shopping practices of differing natures and degrees of cross-shopping, and different strategies used to accomplish these practices, dominated by constraints or based on trust. The analysis showed the relationships between the factors and (1) shopping and cross-shopping strategies and (2) the dimensions of shopping practices. These findings deepen the current understanding of shopping and cross shopping practices in the context of emerging markets. This paper also provides recommendations regarding retail policy and development in Vietnam.
    Keywords: Vietnam,Food industry,Shopping as practice,Cross-shopping,Fresh vegetable,Qualitative study,Trust
    Date: 2020
  20. By: Geoffrey Ducanes (Economics Department, Ateneo de Manila University); Dina Joana Ocampo (University of the Philippines College of Education and UP Center for Integrative and Development Studies)
    Abstract: The study measures the impact on the school participation of 16 to 17-year-old learners in the Philippines of the implementation of the Senior High School program (SHS), which came into full effect in school year 2017–2018. The SHS program, which extended secondary education in the country from four to six years, was the most ambitious education reform action in the country in recent memory. The study found that the SHS program resulted in an increase in overall school participation rate of at least 13 percentage points among 16 to 17-year-olds. Perhaps more importantly, the increase in school participation rate was found to be highly progressive with those 16 to 17-year-olds in the two bottom income quintiles experiencing the highest increase in school participation rates by a wide margin. The study also found that both male and female students benefited from the program, although the gains appear to be higher for female students. Most of the gains in school participation were also found to occur outside Metro Manila.
    Keywords: education inequality, education reform, senior high school, gender in education
    JEL: I21 I24 I28
    Date: 2020–08
  21. By: Akhmad Muhammadin; Rashila Ramli; Syamsul Ridjal; Muhlis Kanto; Syamsul Alam; Hamzah Idris
    Abstract: The dynamic capability and marketing strategy are challenges to the banking sector in Indonesia. This study uses a survey method solving 39 banks in Makassar. Data collection was conducted of questionnaires. The results show that, the dynamic capability has a positive yet insignificant impact on the organizational performance, the marketing strategy has a positive and significant effect on organizational performance and, dynamic capability and marketing strategy have a positive and significant effect on the organization's performance in the banking sector in Makassar. Keywords : dynamic capability, marketing strategy, organizational performance, banking
    Date: 2020–07
  22. By: Andrzej Bolesta (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, UNESCAP)
    Abstract: Asia-Pacific small island developing States (SIDS), are a diverse group, despite the broad perception to the contrary. Nevertheless, although they differ in size of landmass, population, national economies and the level of development, they share common development challenges. Those challenges can be classified as economic (small sized, undiversified economies, remotely located and exposed to external shocks), environmental (existential threats related to climate change and environmental degradation), political (ethnic conflicts and political instability) and social (violence towards vulnerable groups). Some of the challenges – such as environmental and economic vulnerabilities – cannot be addressed without concerted efforts and the support of the international community. This support is framed within the United Nations’ programmes of action, and more specifically, the SAMOA Pathway for SIDS (2014-2024) and the Istanbul Programme of Action for Least Developed Countries (LDCs) (2011-2021). The solution to the development predicaments of SIDS also lies in a particular type of structural economic transformation, which does not follow the traditional path from agriculture to industry and then to services. As building a manufacturing base in remote islands located far away from global markets is not a viable option, structural transformation in SIDS must be well targeted and aimed at productive, niche services and modernised agriculture and fishery, and at utilising the resources of their exclusive economic zones. This sectoral development of both sectors, if accompanied by productivity gains, will effectively enhance the development trajectory. Subsequently, these actions must be underpinned by economic policies to build economic resilience, create productive capacities and productive employment, and to utilise new mechanisms to finance developmental advancements.
    Keywords: development, economic policies, structural transformation, small island developing States, Asia and the Pacific, UN programmes of action
    JEL: O10 O20 E60
    Date: 2020–03
  23. By: Amparado, Mauro Allan Padua (University of Cebu); Saladaga, Mark Keneth A.
    Abstract: This study ascertained the impact of the Money from Wastes (Pera sa Basura) Program of a University in Central Visayas, Philippines, under the Department of Environment and Natural Resources’ National Ecosavers Program. This descriptive quantitative study was conducted at the Materials Recovery Facility of a University. On a monthly basis, faculty and students of the 13 academic departments are requested to identify recyclables in their department. These recyclables are temporarily stored in the Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) with 5 compartments: white paper, colored paper, plastic bottles, boxes and tin cans. These items are measured in terms of kilos. These are recorded by the Program CARES Coordinator and submitted to the UCLM CARES Director. The UCLM MRF is an income-generating section of the university. Sales on a weekly basis are recorded after the compartments of the MRF are inspected and weighed. Findings reveal that the total sales from recyclables is 161,211.50 Philippine Pesos. Sales were highest in the months of July, August, October, November, January and February. In the university, midterms examinations are scheduled on August, January and April. Final examinations are scheduled on October, March and May. Based on the sales of recyclables, the researchers have seen an increase of sales during these periods. Test questionnaires, plastic bottles of water and tin cans are the most consumed items. With total sales of 161,211.50 Philippine Pesos, the UCLM MRF supports the scholarship of the university and implies that the one school year sales may support 2 scholars to cover for one year tuition and miscellaneous fees (given that the tuition and miscellaneous fees is 35,000.00 Philippine pesos per semester). The university has sold 14,489.5 kilos of colored paper. This is followed by white paper at 10,997.5 kilos. Boxes ranks third at 5,383 kilos. When data was highlighted as to top six sales per item, it reveals that the months of June, August, November and January were peak seasons for recyclables. Colored paper was basically coming from test papers, test questionnaires and used forms from the departments. On the other hand, sources of white paper were sourced from inter-office communications, memos, school projects and undergraduate theses. Boxes were observed to come from the packaging of equipment and supplies used in offices such as desktop computers, printers, and ink cartridges. This also implies that bigger compartments should be allocated for white paper, colored paper and boxes. At present, the Materials Recovery Facility is considered one of the youngest centers of profit for the university. It continues to monitor the influx of recyclables from the different academic and non-academic departments of the school. Solid Waste Management has been a pressing issue not only for the university but to the entire province of Cebu. With the institution of the Materials Recovery Facility, the researchers have seen improvements in the behavior of faculty, students, staff and parents on waste segregation. The recyclables which they separate from their departments contribute much to the profits of the MRF and supports the Eco Scholarship of the university. Keywords: Solid Waste Management, Materials Recovery Facility, Eco Scholarship, Money from Wastes, Philippines Recommended citation: Amparado, M. A. P. & Saladaga, M. K. A. (2020). Money from Wastes (Pera sa Basura) Program of a University in Central Visayas, Philippines: An Impact Study. Cebu Journal of Business & Accountancy, 2(1), 74-87, 2020.
    Date: 2019–12–31
  24. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This 2020 Article IV Consultation highlights that the Malaysian economy is stable despite domestic and external challenges. The authorities are making progress on their reform agenda including governance reforms and measures to improve the transparency and management of public finances. Policies should focus on medium-term fiscal consolidation, while safeguarding growth and financial stability. Structural reforms are needed to enshrine in law main governance measures, and to boost productivity to achieve high income status and inclusive growth. Growth has held up and inflation has remained subdued. Domestic demand is expected to be the main driver of growth over the medium term. Risks to the outlook are, on balance, to the downside. It is recommended to that medium-term fiscal consolidation plans should be underpinned by well-identified revenue and spending measures. Pushing ahead with structural fiscal reforms, including the adoption of a Fiscal Responsibility Act, as well as improvement in debt management, public procurement, and the public investment framework is important.
    Keywords: International investment position;Real sector;Balance of payments;Economic indicators;Macroprudential policies and financial stability;ISCR,CR,percent of GDP,percent,tax refund,medium-term,governance reform
    Date: 2020–02–28
  25. By: Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Rao, Jagdeesh Puppala; Chaturvedi, Rahul; Rao, Kaushalendra; Bruns, Bryan Randolph; Kandikuppa, Sandeep; ElDidi, Hagar
    Abstract: Common pool land and water resources in India play vital, but often overlooked, roles in livelihoods and ecosystem services. These resources are subject to the authority of various government departments and are often managed in ways that result in uncertain tenure for the people who depend on these resources for fodder, fuel, water, and other products. An Indian NGO, the Foundation for Ecological Security (FES), has developed a process for “commoning†—assisting communities to secure the commons by forming inclusive local institutions to manage the resources, and to work with different government departments to gain stronger rights to the commons. This paper applies polycentricity theory to examine the institutional arrangements that govern the commons in FES sites in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states and assesses relationships that may affect commons management. It draws on key informant interviews and village-level social network mapping exercises (Net-mapping) to show the complex flows of resources, information, and influence related to the commons among habitation-level organizations, local government, resource agencies, the rural employment guarantee program (MGNREGA), and NGOs. This paper discusses the potential of this methodology as a diagnostic tool to help understand community perceptions of the role of various stakeholders in overall governance of the commons, and can provide guidance for interventions to help communities to strengthen their tenure on the commons and management of those resources.
    Keywords: INDIA; SOUTHEAST ASIA; ASIA; governance; water; natural resources; resource management; commons; network mapping
    Date: 2020
  26. By: Hiroyuki Yamada (Faculty of Economics, Keio University); Yuki Kanayama (Faculty of Economics, Keio University); Kanako Yoshikawa (Osaka School of International Public Policy, Osaka University); Kyaw Wai Aung (STI Myanmar University)
    Abstract: Commercial sex is a prevalent but risky profession in many countries, including Myanmar. While risk attitude is a potentially important factor in determining risky behavior of female sex workers (FSWs), few studies have explicitly investigated the issue. This is one of the first studies to elicit the risk attitude of FSWs using a simple risk game. We conducted the risk game with FSWs in Yangon, Myanmar, where the average GDP per capita is very low, to study how risk attitude is related with observable characteristics and with risky behavior related to the use of condoms in the commercial sex market. We found that risk attitude is relatively independent of observable characteristics and the decision to use a condom. However, transaction prices were directly associated with risk attitude.
    Keywords: Commercial sex work, female sex worker, risk attitude, transaction price, Myanmar
    JEL: D81 E26 J46 O53
    Date: 2020–07–21
  27. By: Nico Alexander (Trisakti School of Management, Kyai tapa No. 20, 11440, Jakarta, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Author-2-Workplace-Name: Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - This study aims to undertake an empirical study of the influence of ownership structure, cash holding, and tax avoidance on income smoothing. Methodology/Technique – Ownership structure in this research is measured by public ownership and managerial ownership. The population of this research are manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX) between 2015-2017 and there are 50 companies that meet the criteria and serve as the research sample. The sample selection in this study uses purposive sampling and the hypotheses were tested using binary logistics. Findings – The results of this study show that managerial ownership and public ownership, cash holding by companies and tax avoidance do not have influence on income smoothing. These results show that managerial ownership and public ownership do not affect income smoothing because there are same interest, to improve their wealth. Similarly, neither how much cash is held by a company nor tax avoidance behavior effect income smoothing. Type of Paper - Empirical.
    Keywords: Income Smoothing; Ownership Structure; Cash Holding; Tax Avoidance.
    JEL: G23 G28
    Date: 2019–12–31
  28. By: Nguyen, Van Phuoc
    Abstract: Our research argued the adequacy of sustainability performance in supply chain management (i.e., evaluation and coordinated effort). Based on survey result from 96 Vietnam producers, the paper determines the effect that the two practices have on the producer company’s and the provider’s social performances. SmartPLS was utilized to test the hypothesized connections among practices and execution. Our outcomes propose that while surveying providers adds to improve the purchasing company’s social execution, teaming up with them upgrades the providers’ social execution. However, the paper gives some extra of knowledge on the most proficient method to evaluate sustainability performance.
    Keywords: Sustainable supply chains, coordinated effort, Vietnam producers’, social responsibility performance
    JEL: M1 M11 M16 O32
    Date: 2020–06–11
  29. By: Tung, Dao Duy (Tay Do University)
    Abstract: Research on employee commitment to the organization is necessary for human resource management, and the result is applied in practice to improve organizational effectiveness. The aim of the present study is to explore factors affecting organizational commitment at the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Vietnam. Besides, the relationship between organizational commitment and job performance is examined as well. The research was conducted on a sample consisting of 67 white-collar workers and 260 blue-collar workers at SMEs. A total of 327 valid complete questionnaires were input into SPSS 20 database for processing to provide evidence. The research model and hypotheses were tested using the technique of the hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The research results revealed that income, reward and welfare, direct manager, working environment, coworker, and promotion opportunity tended to associate positively with organizational commitment. Besides, the fnding also showed that, when the employee has a high organizational commitment, it would lead to high job performance. The main fndings of this study provided some managerial implications for SMEs, in general, and managers, in particular. It implies that Vietnam’s small and medium-sized enterprises should improve these six factors to retain employees as well as enhance their job performance.
    Date: 2020–05–06
  30. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This 2019 Article IV Consultation with Philippines highlights that the economic performance remains strong. The discussions focused on macroeconomic policies to keep the economy close to balance under the baseline outlook and risk scenarios; strategies for macroprudential policies to address risks from a potential renewed acceleration in credit growth; and policies and reforms to foster stronger and inclusive growth. Growth regained momentum in the second half of 2019 following a slowdown in the first half. The latter primarily reflected budgetary developments, with some temporary government underspending in the early part of the year. A decisive monetary policy tightening in response to the inflation spike and overheating risks in 2018 and weaker external demand also contributed. The structural reform momentum and infrastructure push remain strong. Gross domestic product growth is projected to rise further in the near term, underpinned by government spending acceleration and the recent monetary policy easing. Risks to the outlook are to the downside, reflecting risks to the global economy from increased trade tensions, shifts in global financial conditions, and natural disasters.
    Keywords: Balance of payments;Financial statistics;Real sector;Economic indicators;National accounts;ISCR,CR,BSP,IMF,percent,GDP,percent of GDP
    Date: 2020–02–06
  31. By: Daleep Singh
    Abstract: Remarks at the Official Sector Service Providers (OSSP)-Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM)-South East Asian Central Banks (SEACEN) Research and Training Centre Forum on Central Bank Foreign Currency Operations.
    Keywords: central banks; payments; operations; standards; liquidity; markets; controls; central bank digital currencies (CBDCs); Official Sector Service Providers (OSSPs); COVID-19; reserve currency service providers
    Date: 2020–08–05
  32. By: Yusuke Tateno (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific); Andrzej Bolesta (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific)
    Abstract: The collapse of tourism resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic will have a profound impact on the Asia-Pacific small island developing States because of their high reliance on tourism rents. The pandemic will disproportionally influence the lives and well-being of the poorest and the most vulnerable, including workers in the informal sector. Addressing this challenge requires both broad mitigation measures to counteract the consequences of the outbreak as well as specific policies to support local tourism-related businesses and affected communities. For Governments that do not have the fiscal space, adequate concessional assistance from the international community will be critical. At the same time, however, long-term efforts for the sustainable development of the tourism sector should not be undermined, particularly by taking full advantage of their blue economy potential – a concept depicting sustainable use of vast oceanic resources – to foster their development.
    Date: 2020–05
  33. By: Tung, Dao Duy (Tay Do University)
    Abstract: Capital mobilization is a traditional business of commercial banks and is one of the core foundations for the development of a bank. Capital mobilization is the main input in the operation of a bank, and this is also the basis for generating output for credit activities as well as other banking activities. This study aims to determine the main factors that affect the decisions of individual customers to put savings deposit in Vietnamese commercial banks. Survey data collected from 403 individual customers were analyzed to provide evidence. The results from the multiple regression analysis by using SPSS software revealed that all scales in this study were reliable, and there were six components impacting the savings deposit decision of individual customers from the strongest to the weakest in the following order: the form of promotion, bank brand, service quality, interest rate policy, and employee knowledge and attitude. Besides, the fnding showed customers who have high income tend to have a stronger decision on savings deposits in commercial banks. The main fndings of this article provide some empirical implications for marketers in banks and serve as a suggestion to improve these factors in order to retain and attract individual customers’ savings deposit decisions
    Date: 2020–06–06
  34. By: Jonas Heiberg; Christian Binz; Bernhard Truffer
    Abstract: Research in economic geography has recently been challenged to adopt more institutional and multi-scalar perspectives on industrial path development. This paper contributes to this debate by integrating insights from (evolutionary) economic geography, as well as transition and innovation studies into a conceptual framework of how path creation in emerging industries depends on the availability of both knowledge and legitimacy. Unlike the extant literature, we argue here, that not only the former but also the latter may substantially depend on non-local sources, which hithero have largely been overseen. Conceptually, we distinguish between multi-scalar export, attraction and absorption of legitimacy. Coupled with conventional knowledge indicators, this approach enables us to reconstruct how not only external knowledge sourcing but also multi-scalar institutional dynamics contribute to countries’ ability to leverage the potential of different path creation constellations in an emerging industry. Methodologically, we develop legitimation indicators from a global media database, which was built around the case of modular water technologies. Cross-comparing the evidence from six key countries (India, Israel, Singapore, South Africa, UK, USA) with differing path creation constellations allows us to hypothesize how multi-scalar legitimation influences a country’s prospects for creating a radically new industrial path.
    Keywords: Evolutionary economic geography, path creation, legitimation, institutional dynamics, multi-scalarity, modular water technologies
    JEL: O33 O31 D85 L95
    Date: 2020–08
  35. By: Tientip Subhanij (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific); Masato Abe (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific); Alberto Isgut (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific); Nick Freeman (Consultant of the Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific)
    Abstract: Sustainable infrastructure development through proper and adequate financing is one of the most significant elements impacting the achieving of the Sustainable Development Goals, or SDGs. in Asia and the Pacific. However, significant challenges and risks around the financing of infrastructure projects – many of which are large, complex and sometimes span sovereign borders – often mean that hesitations and bottlenecks occur. Taking stock of the infrastructure financing landscape in the region, this policy brief advocates a strategic shift in mindset to a more efficient and effective use of resources for infrastructure development, focusing on leveraging additional funds from both public and private sectors, through adopting a more holistic approach to infrastructure financing.
    Date: 2020–01
  36. By: Sascha O. Becker; Jared Rubin; Ludger Woessmann
    Abstract: This paper surveys the recent social science literature on religion in economic history, covering both socioeconomic causes and consequences of religion. Following the rapidly growing literature, it focuses on the three main monotheisms—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—and on the period up to WWII. Works on Judaism address Jewish occupational specialization, human capital, emancipation, and the causes and consequences of Jewish persecution. One set of papers on Christianity studies the role of the Catholic Church in European economic history since the medieval period. Taking advantage of newly digitized data and advanced econometric techniques, the voluminous literature on the Protestant Reformation studies its socioeconomic causes as well as its consequences for human capital, secularization, political change, technology diffusion, and social outcomes. Works on missionaries show that early access to Christian missions still has political, educational, and economic consequences in present-day Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Much of the economics of Islam focuses on the role that Islam and Islamic institutions played in political-economy outcomes and in the “long divergence” between the Middle East and Western Europe. Finally, cross-country analyses seek to understand the broader determinants of religious practice and its various effects across the world. We highlight three general insights that emerge from this literature. First, the monotheistic character of the Abrahamic religions facilitated a close historical interconnection of religion with political power and conflict. Second, human capital often played a leading role in the interconnection between religion and economic history. Third, many socioeconomic factors matter in the historical development of religions.
    Keywords: religion, economic history, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, economic development, education, persecution, political economy, finance, specialization, trade
    JEL: Z12 N00 J15 I25
    Date: 2020
  37. By: Shuvojit Banerjee (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific)
    Abstract: Making consumption more sustainable is particularly important in Asia-Pacific given the dramatic trends being witnessed in the region. The region is expected to be at the forefront of worldwide consumption by 2030, with consumer spending projected to reach $32 trillion and constitute about 42 per cent of global consumption, carrying with it implications for the environment. Nudging can be part of the toolkit to support consumers in making sustainable purchasing decisions. It is particularly attractive because of its ability to predictably change behavior without forbidding any options or without the need to provide economic incentives. Nudges are positive reinforcements, small suggestions, or changes in choice architecture intended to influence the behavior of consumers.
    Date: 2020–04
  38. By: Jackson, Emerson Abraham
    Abstract: In a more skillful parlance, sustainable livelihood thinking can be likened to the reality of sustainability agenda, which according to Mores et al. (2009) incorporate: (i) A set of guiding principles for development intervention within communities or directed at individuals, which should be evidence-based through meaningful involvement of those directly affected; and (ii) An appreciation of available assets and their vulnerability, and the role of institutions in regulating access to assets, capable of helping thought stimulation on what ‘is’ and what ‘can’ be done in pursuit of livelihood needs analysis. As the incidence of COVID-19 unveil itself in the world economy, there is a need to focus attention in deconstructing discourses pertaining to the Sustainable Livelihood Framework (SLF) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in a bid to address ways of minimising human vulnerabilities in the world economy. The concept of sustainable livelihoods has dominated developmental efforts in under-developed economies, typically in Africa, Latin America and some parts of Asia (Cline-Cole and Robson, 2016; Clarke and Carney, 2008; Amalric, 1998; Cline-Cole, 1998). Decent living condition has been a challenge for people in the under-developed economies; this is partly due to the peculiarity of structural bottlenecks experienced by individual economies, which include poor management of state owned enterprises and institutionalized corruption that impede citizens’ access to essential livelihood assets (Jackson and Jabbie, 2020; Jean, 2002; Thompson and Porter, 1997). In cognisance of these issues, poor people are mostly left to settle in shanty locations, usually associated with poverty, while the means of access to livelihood assets like arable land and social capital are almost nonexistent for the poor to utilise (DFID, 2000).
    Keywords: Sustainable Livelihood Framework (SLF), Global Crisis, Deconstruction
    JEL: I00 I31 I38 O1
    Date: 2020–04–06
  39. By: Daniel Jeong-Dae Lee (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific)
    Abstract: Climate change is a fundamental threat to development; significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are needed to avert a climate crisis. While no single instrument will achieve this goal, there is broad agreement that carbon pricing is an integral part of climate action. This policy brief shows that carbon tax and emissions trading system are gaining momentum across the world, including in Asia and the Pacific, but current rates are too low to shift behaviour, capital and technology towards low-carbon development. While recognizing the need to raise ambition, governments are naturally concerned about the potential impacts of carbon pricing on industries, jobs and low-income households. This policy brief discusses ways to alleviate the concerns, including through effective use of carbon pricing revenues and regional cooperation.
    Date: 2020–04
  40. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Samba Diop (Alioune Diop University, Bambey, Senegal); Joseph Nnanna (The Development Bank of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria)
    Abstract: This study has: (i) analysed the economic impact of the Covid-19 pandemic, (ii) evaluated the effectiveness and relevance of different measures against the pandemic and (iii) examined nexuses between the corresponding measures and economic outcomes. The study uses a sample of 186 countries divided into four main regions, notably: Asia-Pacific and the Middle East, Europe, Africa and America. 34 preventing and mitigating measures against the Covid-19 pandemic are classified into five main categories: lockdown, movement restrictions, governance and economic, social distancing, and public health measures. The empirical evidence is based on comparative difference in means tests and correlation analyses. The findings show how the effectiveness and consequences of the Covid-19 measures are different across regions. In adopting the relevant policies to fight the ongoing pandemic, the comparative insights from the findings in the study are worthwhile. Inter alia: (i) from a holistic perspective, only European countries have favourably benefited from the Covid-19 measures; (ii) lockdown measures at the global level have not been significant in reducing the pandemic; (iii) the restriction of movement measure has been relevant in curbing the spread in the American continent; (iv) social distancing has been productive in Europe and counter-productive in Africa; (v) governance and economic measures have exclusively been relevant in Europe and (vi) overall public health measures have not had the desired outcomes in flattening the infection curve probably because most of the underlying measures are awareness decisions or oriented toward people already infected.
    Keywords: Novel Coronavirus, Social Distance, Macroeconomics effects
    JEL: E10 E12 E20 E23 I10 I18
    Date: 2020–07
  41. By: Zhenqian Huang (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific)
    Abstract: Too much focus on economic growth has come at costs of persistent inequality and rising environmental pressure in Asia and the Pacific. It is urgent to widen the measurement of progress from a single focus on GDP to comprehensive indicator frameworks. To achieve so, countries should enhance capacity of data producers and users to develop broader development indicators and to use them in policymaking. Cross-Government agency coordination is essential to use such indicators in an integrated approach to address development issues.
    Date: 2020–04
  42. By: Mikhail Chernov; Drew D. Creal; Peter Hördahl
    Abstract: We study the dynamic properties of sovereign bonds in emerging markets and their associated risk premiums. We focus on the properties of credit spreads, exchange rates, and their interaction. Relying on the term structure of local currency bonds issued by Asia-Pacific sovereigns, we find that local variables are significant in the dynamics of currency and credit risk, and the components of bond risk premiums reflecting these risks. Local currency bonds dramatically improve the investment frontier.
    JEL: F31 G12 G15
    Date: 2020–07
  43. By: Jyoti Bisbey (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific)
    Abstract: In the face of a mounting climate-emergency, the Asia-Pacific region needs to raise ambitions and accelerate actions towards transitioning to a low-carbon economy. While there is limited information about greenhouse emissions (GHG) from production activities, the region’s status as the engine of the world’s economy suggests that production contributes significantly to GHG emissions. This implies that businesses are key stakeholders in the decarbonization process. Indeed, to facilitate the transformation to a low-carbon economy, businesses need to take action and step up their commitments towards decarbonization.
    Date: 2020–04
  44. By: Cristina M. Baustista (Economics Department, Ateneo de Manila University)
    Abstract: At the heart of the Philippines’ population problem is the high fertility rate among low-income households. The country’s total fertility rate remains the highest in Southeast Asia, averaging 2.7 births per woman as of 2017. Numerous studies have established the positive association between poverty and large family size. Most economic studies point to inadequate women’s education and lack of access or ineffective use of family planning methods as the main reasons behind high fertility. Less studied is the effect of the distribution of “power†or influence between the spouses. This research examined the problem using the collective household model as theoretical framework. The model recognizes individual preferences of spouses, thereby allowing a gender-based analysis of intrahousehold decision-making. This research utilized the 2003 Philippine national demographic data because, to date, this is the only survey where men were surveyed separately from women on a national scale, with a data subset of matched husbands and wives. The method of analysis employed independent multinomial probit regression, utilizing three dependent variables representing three categories of family planning based on the level of involvement of one or both spouses. These are (1) women-only methods, (2) couple participation method, and (3) irreversible methods that required consent of both spouses. The econometric results reveal the gender-based differences in the way some power-related factors affected the probability of the man or the woman using certain types of method: (1) support from extended family lowers the probability of using women-only contraception; (2) women’s discussion of family planning with other people—which can indicate some social capital— raises the probability of family planning use across categories; (3) exposure to family planning media messages affects men and women differently; and (4) difference in the couple’s education matters only in the use of women-based contraception. Interestingly, in contrast to the finding on women, the men’s discussion of family planning did not appear as a significant factor in the use of any type of family planning method.
    Keywords: intrahousehold bargaining; collective household model; family economics; family planning; fertility
    JEL: D1 J13
    Date: 2020–08
  45. By: Jyoti Bisbey (Macroeconomic Policy and Financing for Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific)
    Abstract: In the face of a mounting climate-emergency, the Asia-Pacific region needs to raise ambitions and accelerate actions towards transitioning to a low-carbon economy. While there is limited information about greenhouse emissions (GHG) from production activities, the region’s status as the engine of the world’s economy suggests that production contributes significantly to GHG emissions. This implies that businesses are key stakeholders in the decarbonization process. Indeed, to facilitate the transformation to a low-carbon economy, businesses need to take action and step up their commitments towards decarbonization.
    Date: 2020–04
  46. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This Technical Assistance (TA) report on Myanmar presents outcomes and priority recommendations of mission on external sector statistics (ESS) for the Directorate of Investment and Company Administration (DICA). Intensive hands-on training provided to the DICA through peripatetic TA missions have effectively contributed to building up capacity for DICA compilers, which have gradually materialized and translated into successful foreign direct investment surveys (FDIS) conducted last year. Data coverage has significantly improved through inclusion of FDI in oil and gas sector, which is one of the largest FDI recipients for Myanmar. In order to further enhance the coverage of Myanmar’s FDI statistics, the mission advised the DICA to extend the coverage of FDIS to incorporate new companies and FDI in power generation sector. The mission also assisted DICA officials in updating the annual FDIS survey forms, making alterations to the previous year’s survey forms to capture additional information as requested by DICA management.
    Keywords: External sector statistics;International investment position;Foreign investment;Foreign banks;Oil sector;ISCR,CR,DICA,FDIS,awareness workshop,FDI,gas sector
    Date: 2020–02–18
  47. By: Arief, Suyoto; Susilo, Adib; Dede, Moh. (Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether socioeconomic factors, production factors, religiosity factors, and transparency factors influence the selection of agricultural production sharing models in the Residency of Madiun. This research is quantitative with multiple regression analysis. Based on the T-test, socioeconomic factors partially have a significant influence on the selection of agricultural production sharing models in the Madiun Residency of 3.701. Meanwhile, the factor of religiosity has a significant effect on the selection of agricultural production sharing models in the Madiun Residency with a significance level of 0.039. Furthermore, the factor of production does not have a significant effect with a significance level of 0.778. Finally, it is a factor that has a significant influence on the selection of revenue sharing models with a significance level of 0.008. While based on ANOVA test results, the F count of 10.288 with a significance level of 0.000 is smaller than 0.05, which means that socioeconomic, religiosity, production, and transparency factors simultaneously have an influence on the selection of revenue sharing models.
    Date: 2019–11–13
  48. By: Balaji, S. J.; Babu, Suresh Chandra
    Abstract: In this paper, we study the transformation process Indian agriculture exhibited in the recent past, studying its policy implications. Between the years 2005-06 and 2015-16, more than 52 million workers left agriculture, which did not have any effect on agricultural output due to productivity improvements. We estimate the contribution of productivity growth and structural change in agriculture to national productivity growth during 1981-2016. We estimate differentials in agricultural productivity and in their ability to contribute to the structural change process for 21 major states of India. Using revised employment estimates, we trace major changes during the pre-reforms (before 1991) and post-reforms periods. Results show that in the pre-reforms period, the impact of productivity improvements in agriculture on agricultural output was equated by the new workforce entering into this sector, leading to a stagnant labor productivity trend. The labor-shift from agriculture during the early years of the post-reforms period, which increased further in the next decade, has led to a consistent rise in agricultural productivity. In the absence of reforms and the associated labor shift, the productivity growth in Indian agriculture would have been much lower. A similar labor shift during the last decade has not affected agricultural output, which has risen more rapidly. This result holds true for almost all states studied. There exists a positive relation between labor-shift and agricultural output in a cluster of states. Decomposition results indicate ‘within-sector’ productivity growth is the major source of overall growth, with a rising contribution of ‘structural change’. Studying the sources of growth across states offers new scope to achieve inter-sectoral productivity convergence.
    Keywords: INDIA; SOUTHEAST ASIA; ASIA; agriculture; agricultural productivity; labour; economic growth; productivity; structural change; degradation; agricultural growth; labor productivity
    Date: 2020
  49. By: Muhammad Ridwan Andi Purnomo; Adhe Rizky Anugerah (UPR Forêts et Sociétés - Forêts et Sociétés - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, INTROP - Institute of Tropical Forestry & Forest Products - Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia); Bella Taradipa Dewipramesti
    Abstract: Purpose: This research aims to develop framework in the sustainable supply chain management (SCM) and to provide causal model of service industry specifically in higher education laboratory. Design/methodology/approach: The concepts of sustainable SCM in higher education laboratory were obtained by in-depth interviews and organized using Delphi method. While to identify the relationship between concepts, intuitionistic fuzzy cognitive map was utilized. Findings: As many as 15 concepts were identified to assess sustainability in the higher education laboratory SCM. These 15 concepts were classified into four categories according to its importance level, and there are two most important concepts: legal requirement and social responsibility. It is recommended for higher education laboratories to constantly obey national and regional government regulations and to satisfy current and prospective employers by providing work-ready graduates. This suggestion is expected to make higher education achieving its sustainability goals. Originality/value: this research has identified factors that can help university laboratories achieve their sustainability by using combined methods. Greater and more accurate insight in determining the most important factor in the sustainable education can be identified.
    Keywords: causal model,intuitionistic fuzzy cognitive map,laboratory,service supply chain,sustainable
    Date: 2020–07–27
  50. By: Khuong Vu (National University of Singapore, Singapore); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This paper seeks to gain insights into whether developing countries benefit more from the backwardness advantage for economic growth in the Information Age. The paper examines this concern through three complementary approaches. First, it derives theoretical grounds from the existing economic models to support the hypothesis that the internet, inter alia, enables developing countries to reap greater growth gains from technology acquisition and catch-up. Second, the paper uses descriptive evidence to show that the growth landscape has indeed shifted decisively in favor of developing countries in the Internet Age in comparison to the pre-internet period. Third, using rigorous econometric techniques with data of 163 countries over a 20-year period, 1996-2016, the paper evidences that developing countries on average reap significantly greater growth gains from internet adoption in comparison to the average advanced country. The paper discusses policy implications from the paper’s findings.
    Keywords: backwardness advantage; developing countries; internet; technology catch-up; GMM
    JEL: O40
    Date: 2020–01
  51. By: Montserrat Lopez Cobo (European Commission – JRC); Ibrahim K. Rohman (University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia); Giuditta De Prato (European Commission - JRC); Melisande Cardona (European Commission - JRC); Riccardo Righi (European Commission - JRC); Sofia Samoili (European Commission - JRC); Miguel Vazquez-Prada Baillet (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The digital transformation of the economy and society has intensified the need for digitally skilled labour force. Recent studies inform about expected increased demand, and skill shortages in the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector, with a widening gap between supply and demand of ICT specialists. The need for accurate data on the number of ICT specialists in employment becomes more pertinent due to the development of policy initiatives aimed at increasing digital skills. Eurostat and the OECD define ICT specialists and propose a statistical definition using the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) 2008. Based on the Labour Force Survey, Eurostat provides an estimated 8.9 million persons working as ICT specialists in 2018 in the EU. This indicator annually feeds the Digital Economy and Society Indicator, a composite indicator that assesses the digital performance of EU Member States. This paper shows that this value underestimates the actual number of ICT specialists and proposes a more accurate method for the estimation. The list of ICT occupations includes both 3-digit (3d) and 4-digit (4d) codes. The number of EU Member States not reporting 4d data was 12 in 2011 and 6 in 2018. Therefore, the direct implementation of the definition is not possible, and a method is needed to estimate the missing 4d values and produce complete estimates for the EU. Eurostat developed an estimation method based on education data (EF method) to provide estimates for ICT in employment. This paper proposes the Ratio method for the estimation of missing data, compares its performance with the EF method, and produces estimates on ICT specialists in employment for 2004-2018, for the EU and its Member States. The results show that the Ratio method provides more accurate estimates than the EF method. We test the performance with two error measures by means of a cross-validation algorithm; in both cases, all six variants of the Ratio method tested reduce the error of the EF method between 35% and 55% when measured on countries reporting 4d data. The new proposed method estimates 9.2 million ICT specialists are working in the EU in 2018, 2% above the value with the old estimation method (the difference reached 26% in 2004). At country level, for countries with missing data, the new method implies an average increase of 34% in 2004-2010 and 17% in 2011-2018 with respect to the estimate with the current method. According to our estimations, the number of ICT specialists in employment followed an increasing trend over the two analysed periods (2004-2010 and 2011-2018), with an overall increase of 19% in the first period, and of 35% in the second one. The share over total employment also increases, with a grow from 3.2% in 2011 to 4.0% in 2018. These results are in line with other studies that show that the ICT sector was more resilient to the economic crisis that started in 2008 than the whole economy.
    Keywords: ICT specialists, employment, estimation, error measure, cross-validation
    Date: 2020–08

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