nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2020‒08‒17
47 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Determinants of Islamic Bank Profitability: Evidence from Indonesia By Puji Sucia Sukmaningrum
  2. Dampak Komite Penanganan Covid-19 Dan Pemulihan Ekonomi Nasional Terhadap Berbagai Regulasi By Sarif, Noman
  3. Monitoring the impact of COVID-19 in Myanmar: Yangon peri-urban poultry farmers - Late June 2020 survey round By Fang, Peixun; Belton, Ben; Ei Win, Hnin; Zhang, Xiaobo
  4. Factors Affecting Family Business Succession In The Food Hawking Business In Malaysia By Ng, Jonathan Cho Kin
  5. Commercial Poultry and Pig Farming in Yangon's Peri-Urban Zone By Ben Belton; Ame Cho; Ellen Payongayong; Kristi Mahrt; Eric Abaidoo
  6. Updates of Empirical Estimates of Marxian Categories: The Philippines 1961-2012 By Victor S. Venida
  7. The impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on maternal and child malnutrition in Myanmar: What to expect, and how to protect By Headey, Derek D.; Cho, Ame; Goudet, Sophie; Oketch, Jecinter Akinyi; Oo, Than Zaw
  8. The Institutional Foundations of Religious Politics: Evidence from Indonesia By Samuel Bazzi; Gabriel Koehler-Derrick; Benjamin Marx
  9. Monitoring the impact of COVID-19 in Myanmar: Mechanization service providers – June 2020 survey round By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Win, Myat Thida; Masias, Ian
  10. Monitoring the impact of COVID-19 in Myanmar: Yangon peri-urban poultry farmers - Early June 2020 survey round [in Burmese] By Fang, Peixun; Belton, Ben; Ei Win, Hnin; Win, Khin Zin; Zhang, Xiaobo
  11. Monitoring the impact of COVID-19 in Myanmar: Agricultural equipment retailers [in Burmese] By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Win, Myat Thida; Masias, Ian
  12. Assessing Asia - Sub-Saharan Africa global value chain linkages By Tang, Heiwai; Zeng, Douglas Zhihua; Zeufack, Albert G.
  13. Assessing the impacts of COVID-19 on Myanmar’s economy: A Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) multiplier approach [in Burmese] By Diao, Xinshen; Aung, Nilar; Lwin, Wuit Yi; Zone, Phoo Pye; Nyunt, Khin Maung; Thurlow, James
  14. A scientometric study on depression among university students in East Asia: Research and system insufficiencies? By Minh Hoang Nguyen; Manh Tung Ho; Viet Phuong La; Quynh Yen Thi Nguyen; Manh Toan Ho; Thu Trang Vuong; Tam Tri Le; Manh Cuong Nguyen; Quan-Hoang Vuong
  15. An Exploration of the Social, Economic, and Political Inclusion of the Thai Lao, Thailand’s Largest Ethnic Minority Community By Draper, John; Kamnuansilpa, Peerasit; Streckfuss, David
  16. Monitoring the impact of COVID-19 in Myanmar: Yangon peri-urban poultry farmers By Fang, Peixun; Belton, Ben; Ei Win, Hnin; Win, Khin Zin; Zhang, Xiaobo
  17. Public goods and ethnic diversity: evidence from deforestation in Indonesia By Alesina, Alberto; Gennaioli, Caterina; Lovo, Stefania
  18. Coastal Development between Opportunity and Disaster Risk : A Multisectoral Risk Assessment for Vietnam By Braese,Johannes Michael; De Vries Robbe,Sophie Anne; Maruyama Rentschler,Jun Erik
  19. Analyses of Corruption and Productivity with Empirical Study in Vietnam By Nhan Buu Phany; Shino Takayamaz
  20. Socioeconomic effects of collectivist and individualist education: A comparison between North and South Vietnam By Hanna Adam
  21. PERTUMBUHAN INVESTASI Ditinjau dari Aspek Kualitas SDM dan Infrastruktur By Persada, Pena; , Ismaulina
  22. Inklusi Kesadaran Pajak dan Covid-19 By , Mujib
  23. Nonresident Capital Flows and Volatility: Evidence from Malaysia’s Local Currency Bond Market By David A. Grigorian
  24. América Latina y el Caribe y la Asociación de Naciones de Asia Sudoriental: experiencias comparadas en el ámbito de la facilitación del comercio By Herreros, Sebastián
  25. Pengenalan Statistika Bonus Pengenalan Software R By Budiaji, Weksi
  26. Monitoring the impact of COVID-19 in Myanmar: Agricultural commodity traders - May 2020 survey round By Goeb, Joseph; Boughton, Duncan; Maredia, Mywish K.; Zu, A. Myint; Synt, Nang Lun Kham
  27. On Time Trend of COVID-19: A Panel Data Study By Dong, C.; Gao, J.; Linton, O.; Peng, B.
  28. Using Remittance Transaction Data for Timely Estimation of the Foreign Worker Population in Malaysia By Binti Ali Ahmad,Zainab; Simler,Kenneth; Yi,Soonhwa
  29. tugas uas strategi By sakti, arjuna
  30. Monitoring the impact of COVID-19 in Myanmar: Agricultural input retailers - June 2020 survey round By Goeb, Joseph; Boughton, Duncan; Maredia, Mywish K.; Zu, A. Myint; Synt, Nang Lun Kham
  31. Maize and Pigeon Pea Production, Profitability, and Tied Credit in Southern Shan State By Peixun Fang; Ben Belton
  32. The Great Convergence. Skill Accumulation and Mass Education in Africa and Asia, 1870-2010 By Frankema, Ewout; Van Waijenburg, Marlous
  33. Globalization and Female Economic Participation in MINT and BRICS countries By Tolulope T. Osinubi; Simplice A. Asongu
  34. Myanmar; 2019 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Myanmar By International Monetary Fund
  35. The roles of data management and analytics in industry 4.0 ecosystems By Wicaksono, Hendro
  36. Mama Knows (and Does) Best : Maternal Schooling Opportunities and Child Development in Indonesia By Hasan,Amer; Nakajima,Nozomi; Rangel,Marcos A.
  37. Metodologi Riset Kuantitatif: Riset Bidang Kepariwisataan By , Santosa; Hermawan, Hary
  38. The Economics of the Manila Galleon By Javier Mejia
  39. Islam and the State: Religious Education in the Age of Mass Schooling By Samuel Bazzi; Masyhur Hilmy; Benjamin Marx
  40. The Geography of the Effectiveness and Consequences of Covid-19 Measures: Global Evidence By Simplice A. Asongu; Samba Diop; Joseph Nnanna
  41. Financial Market and Capital Flow Dynamics During the COVID-19 Pandemic By Beirne, John Beirne; Renzhi, Nuobu; Sugandi, Eric Alexander; Volz, Ulrich
  42. Educating the Out-of-school Youth on Entrepreneurship: Community Extension Program Impact Study By Baladjay, Rachel A.; Amparado, Mauro Allan Padua; Manatad, Jocelyn; Rosal, Micaela
  43. Governance Quality and Tourism: Moderation of Social Determinants of Crime By Sinha, Avik; Sengupta, Tuhin
  44. Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Technical Assistance Report-Risk-Based Banking Supervision By International Monetary Fund
  45. Development Practices: Building New Equilibriums within the Commons-State-Market System By Stéphanie LEYRONAS; Julien CALAS
  46. Shifting Pattern of Extraordinary Economic and Social Events in Relation to the Solar Cycle By Gorbanev, Mikhail
  47. Backwardness Advantage and Economic Growth in the Information Age: A Cross-Country Empirical Study By Khuong Vu; Simplice A. Asongu

  1. By: Puji Sucia Sukmaningrum (Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Kashan Pirzada Author-2-Workplace-Name: Asian Research Institute for Corporate Governance (ARICG) and Tunku Puteri Intan Safinaz School of Accountancy, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Malaysia Author-3-Name: Sylva Alif Rusmita Author-3-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, Author-4-Name: Fatin Fadhilah Hasib Author-4-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, Author-5-Name: Tika Widiastuti Author-5-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, Author-6-Name: Achsania Hendratmi Author-6-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - Islamic Banks have a distinct advantage that is not only conduct a commercial operation, but to also conduct social operations. Therefore, Islamic Banks plays an important role in developing the Indonesian economy. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of internal and external factors that affect the profitability of Islamic Banks in Indonesia. Methodology/Technique – The methodology of this research is multiple regression. The object of this research is the Islamic banking industry in Indonesia. Internal factors include size, liquidity, asset quality, management, and efficiency ratio. External factors include interest rate and inflation. Return on Assets is used to measure profitability. The monthly data is collected from the financial reports of Islamic Banks between 2011 to 2016. Findings – The findings show that size, liquidity, assets quality, management ratio, interest rate and inflation lead to a greater Return on Assets (profitability) in Islamic Banks in Indonesia. Efficiency however does not have a significant effect on profitability of Islamic Banks in Indonesia. Novelty – Based on the results of this research, it can be concluded that the Islamic banking industry can use those variables to improve the profitability of Islamic banks in the future. In addition, there are two variables that affect the profitability of Islamic banking industry. For the Islamic banking industry should anticipate the movement of inflation and interest to improve the profitability of Islamic banks. Type of Paper - Empirical paper.
    Keywords: Islamic Banks; Profitability; Internal Factors; External Factors; Indonesia.
    JEL: G21 G24
    Date: 2020–06–30
  2. By: Sarif, Noman
    Abstract: Virus corona telah berdampak atau telah berakibat pada berbagai aspek yakni aspek sosial, aspek ekonomi, aspek kesejahteraan bahkan aspek hukum. Sehingga sudah seyogianya dibuat suatu lembaga. Lembaga tersebut wajib ada dasar hukumnya. Dasar hukum yang dimaksud telah dimuat dalam Peraturan Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 82 Tahun 2020 Tentang Komite Penanganan Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) dan Pemulihan Ekonomi Nasional. Namun kehadiran daripada peraturan presiden ini telah berdampak pada berbagai aturan. Aturan yang dimaksud dalam hal ini yakni berbagai Peraturan Presiden dan Keputusan Presiden yang telah ada sebelumnya. Padahal regulasi yang telah ada ini telah berlaku jauh sebelum adanya virus corona. Aturan ini juga telah mengatur berbagai hal yang sangat fundamental terutama terkait dengan Transparansi Pendapatan Negara dan Pendapatan Daerah yang Diperoleh dari Industri Ekstraktif; Sadan Koordinasi Nasional Penyuluhan Pertanian, Perikanan, dan Kehutanan; Masterplan Percepatan dan Perluasan Pembangunan Ekonomi Indonesia 2011-2025; Pengembangan Kawasan Strategis dan lnfrastruktur Selat Sunda; Strategi Nasional Pengelolaan Ekosistem Mangrove; Sadan Peningkatan Penyelenggaraan Sistem Penyediaan Air Minum; Peta Jalan Sistem Perdagangan Nasional Serbasis Elektronik (Road Map e-commerce) Tahun 2017-20 19; Percepatan Pelaksanaan Berusaha; Koordinasi Pengelolaan Pinjaman Komersial Luar Negeri; Pembentukan Tim Nasional untuk Perundingan Perdagangan Multilateral Dalam Kerangka World Trade Organization; Tim Restrukturisasi dan Rehabilitasi PT (Persero) Perusahaan Listrik Negara; Komite Kebijakan Sektor Keuangan; Komite Antar Departemen Bidang Kehutanan; Tim Koordinasi Peningkatan Kelancaran Arus Barang Ekspor dan lmpor; Tim Nasional Peningkatan Ekspor dan Peningkatan Investasi; Tim Koordinasi Percepatan Pembangunan Rumah Susun di Kawasan Perkotaan; Komite Nasional Persiapan Pelaksanaan Masyarakat Ekonomi Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Semua peraturan dan keputusan daripada Presiden Republik Indonesia tersebut dicabut dan dinyatakan tidak berlaku.
    Date: 2020–08–09
  3. By: Fang, Peixun; Belton, Ben; Ei Win, Hnin; Zhang, Xiaobo
    Abstract: With increasing demand for chicken, the reopening rate of broiler farms in June has overtaken closures. Their challenges have switched from the demand side to the supply side due to a shortage of day-old-chicks. However, more layer farms closed in June than previously. The share of layer farms that are operational decreased from 90 to 85 percent with further decreases expected. Cash flow remains the main driver of poultry farms closures. Even though most operational farms did not have problems selling their products due to increasing demand, cash flow remains a problem for them. In the second half of June, cash flow slightly improved for boiler farms, while it slightly worsened for layer farms. The price of broilers peaked at 5,350 MMK/viss in early June due to a supply shortage. Since then, the price has fallen to around 4,000 MMK/viss with recent increases in supply. Supply shortages of day-old broiler chicks was the main problem that prevented broiler farms from fully recovering their operational capacity. Some broiler farms expect their total revenue to increase, while others expect a decrease. In the past two weeks, the number of hired regular workers in operational poultry farms has further decreased by approximately one worker per farm. Since March, total job losses among the 275 surveyed farms was 900 – 39 percent of the total labor on those farms.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, farmers, poultry, food prices, food consumption, poultry farming, urban farmers, broiler chickens, cash flow, livestock products, economic recovery, Covid-19
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Ng, Jonathan Cho Kin
    Abstract: Food hawking businesses around the world largely contribute to the economy of countries and provides much needed jobs that feed employment, even though earnings are low. The food hawking business in Malaysia is under threat of extinction due to the reluctance of the next generation in taking over the food hawking businesses from the elderships. As research in the area of family business succession is scarce, this study serves to add to the theoretical aspect of the area. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of vending environment, operating hours, successor willingness, relationship among family members and preparation level of heir on the intention of family succession in the food hawking business in Malaysia. Leader’s approval was also studied as a potential moderator. The methodology used was a questionnaire survey study design with a sample size of 208, respondents were obtained via convenience sampling from Kuala Lumpur and Penang as hawkers are abundant in these two locations. Findings show that vending environment, successor willingness, relationship among family members and preparation level of heir have a significant effect on the intention of family succession in the food hawking business in Malaysia. Leader’s approval was found to be insignificant as a moderator. Operating hours was not significant, possibly due to the difference in importance placed by Malaysian hawkers in succession.
    Date: 2020–06–20
  5. By: Ben Belton; Ame Cho; Ellen Payongayong; Kristi Mahrt; Eric Abaidoo
    Abstract: This report presents results from a comprehensive structured survey of medium and large-scale pig and poultry farms conducted in the peri-urban zone surrounding Yangon. The survey represented pig farms raising five or more breeding sows or 20 or more swine, and all broiler, semi-broiler, and layer farms raising 500 or more birds, in randomly selected villages from 83 village tracts with high concentrations of pig and chicken farms, in Ayeyarwady, Bago (East) and Yangon regions. Owners of 90 pig farms, and 423 poultry farms (290 broiler, 38 semi-broiler, 95 layer) were interviewed. The survey was supported by analysis of nationally representative data on poultry, meat, egg and dairy consumption for 2010 and 2015, poultry, meat, and egg retail prices from 2008 to 2017, and satellite images of peri-urban Yangon for 2014 and 2018. Together, these data sources allow us to characterize the economic and technical dimensions of medium and large-scale pig and poultry farming in Myanmar and recent trends in sectoral growth, to identify implications for policy and development programming. We summarize key findings and discuss their implications below. Consumption of meat, eggs, and dairy grew from 2010 to 2015. Combined consumption per capita of meat, eggs, and dairy increased 13% at the union level. Almost all this increase occurred in urban areas, where consumption jumped 41%, to 28 kg/capita. Consumption in rural areas remained almost unchanged, at 18.7kg/capita. The total quantity of meat, eggs, and dairy consumed by the poorest 20% of households fell by 1.8 kg over this period, while the quantity consumed by the wealthiest 20% increased by 9.8 kg. Increases in animal source food consumption were driven by chicken and eggs. Chicken consumption increased 72% from 2010-2015, to become the number one meat consumed (average 6.8 kg/capita). Consumption of chicken eggs increased 40%, to 4.0 kg/capita. These increases were partially offset by reduced consumption of pork, beef and mutton. Pork was the number one meat consumed in 2010, but consumption fell 22% to 4.3 kg in 2015. Beef consumption halved and mutton consumption fell by one-third over this period. The real price of chicken meat and eggs has fallen, as the price of other meats as risen. The inflation adjusted price of chicken meat and eggs fell 29% and 36%, respectively, between 2008 and 2017. The real price of pork, beef, and mutton increased 10%, 34%, and 34%, respectively over the same period. In 2008, chicken meat was 15% more expensive than beef. By the end of 2017, it was 35% cheaper. The number of integrated chicken-fish farms around Yangon doubled between 2014 and 2018. Integrated farms have animal houses built above or beside ponds to enable utilization of waste nutrients as inputs for fish culture. Analysis of satellite images shows the number of chicken houses integrated with fishponds in peri-urban Yangon grew from 1898 to 3868 from 2014-2018. The number of village tracts with integrated farms doubled from 121 to 230. Two-thirds of poultry farms surveyed are integrated with fishponds. Integrating livestock and fish production has several advantages. (1) Much of the nutrients consumed by fish in integrated farms are obtained from algal blooms, fertilized by manure from animal houses above or beside the pond. This allows production of fish using limited or no feed, substantially reducing costs compared to non-integrated fish farms. (2) Integration means that manure does not accumulate on site, so farms are free of unpleasant odors and flies, and there is no need organize manure disposal. (3) Land use productivity is maximized as farms simultaneously produce two high value crops from a single parcel of land. (4) Producing fish at low cost helps farms to reduce the risks of poultry production, for which margins are often slim and prices volatile. More than half of farms in our sample were established within the past five years. Average broiler and layer flock sizes per farm remained fairly constant since 2016, suggesting that increases in chicken and egg production among the strata of farms surveyed have been driven more by proliferation of new farms than by scale expansion. Most land use in pig and poultry farming contravenes Myanmar’s agricultural land use classification system. Most parcels of land used for livestock production (91%) have some form of land use document associated with them, of which 69% are formal land use rights certificates. However, among parcels with formal land use rights, only 17% have a document (La Ya 30/La Na 39) that allows the land to be utilized for livestock production. Obstacles to obtaining the correct land use classification documents prevent farms from using land as collateral for formal loans, can necessitate payment of bribes, and may make tenure security vulnerable to changes in the enforcement of land use regulations. Few farmers have received any formal training on pig or poultry farming. Only 11% of farms have received any formal training. Private companies are the main providers of extension services. Most information on farming is obtained from informal sources, with fellow farmers (mentioned by 63% of respondents) and relatives (30%) are most common. Social media plays an important role in the distribution of farming information (28%), as do staff of feed companies (32%). Formal government information sources were mentioned by 12% of respondents, and NGOs not at all. Knowledge about animal diseases is limited. An outbreak of African swine fever (ASF) - a severe viral disease – was occurring in Southeast Asia at the time of the survey. Half of pig farmers had no knowledge of the cause of ASF infections. Around 40% were not familiar with any ASF symptoms or means of prevention. Less than half of farms maintain records. Pig farming is undergoing rapid technological change. Improved breeds of boar and sow are much more common than local breeds. Improved ‘CP’ breed pigs account for half of the swine, with ‘local’ breeds accounting for about one-quarter. Local breeds have a longer production cycle and attract a lower price than improved breeds, but can be raised wholly or partly on a diet containing items such as kitchen scraps, whereas improved pig breeds must be raised using formulated feeds (commercially manufactured feeds that are formulated to meet the complete nutritional requirements of the animal farmed) for optimum performance. Until 2010, most farms used non-formulated feeds. The share of farms using formulated feeds overtook the share using non-formulated feeds around 2015, indicating a recent shift toward intensification and commoditization of production. Eighty-nine percent of pig farms use formulated feeds. The market for animal feed is diversifying and becoming more competitive. Thailand’s CP company dominates pig feed supply, with 48% of farms using their products. South Korea’s Sunjin company (16%) and China’s New Hope company (11%) are the two next largest suppliers. All broiler and semi-broiler farms use formulated feeds. The poultry feed market is more diverse than the pig feed market. One quarter of broiler farms use CP feed, with the same share using feed from Dutch company De Heus. Twenty percent of broiler farms use feed from Maykha (a Myanmar company that produces in partnership with Indonesian firm Japfa). A mix of Myanmar and foreign owned companies account for the remainder of the poultry feed market, with Myanmar companies among the top three suppliers of layer feed and semi-broiler feed. Five feed companies supply pelleted fish feeds, taking between 11% and 27% of market share each. A major change has occurred in Myanmar’s fish feed market structure since 2016, when a single Myanmar company dominated supply. Implications for policy and programming Chicken meat and eggs play an important role in Myanmar’s food and nutrition security, given the critical importance of animal source foods for combating undernutrition. Increasing production of chicken meat and eggs from 2010 to 2015 has made them much more affordable than in the recent past. This trend has helped to reduce, but not prevent, overall declines in animal source food consumption among poorer households. As of 2015, increases in pig production had not occurred on a sufficiently large scale make pork more affordable and avert declines in consumption, but pork prices have trended somewhat downward since then, and the steady growth and technological intensification of pig farms documented here suggests that this trend is likely to continue. From a nutrition perspective this dynamic represents a double-edged sword, as overconsumption of saturated fats from animal products is also associated with obesity and related negative health outcomes. Thus, there is a need for consumer education to promote adequate (but not excessive) levels of consumption, while encouraging healthier alternatives. Integrated livestock-fish production should be recognized as a beneficial form of food production. Integrated farming reduces economic risks to livestock producers, utilizes land efficiently, produces fish at low cost, facilitates reuse of excess nutrients from livestock production, and eliminates unpleasant odors and flies. There is no export market for the fish produced in integrated systems, so there is little risk of antibiotic residues in fish from these farms damaging Myanmar’s aquaculture export prospects. As such, policy should seek to regulate this economically and environmentally efficient practice (e.g. by managing discharge of eutrophic water from ponds and mandating antibiotic withdrawals prior to harvest) rather than to ban it, as advocated in some quarters. Land used for animal husbandry or aquaculture activities should be designated as agricultural land in the formal land classification system. This would strengthen the tenure security of the occupants, lessen opportunities for corruption, and reduce farmer vulnerability to changes in the enforcement of land use regulations. Private actors in upstream segments of the value chain and targeted social media campaigns provide entry points for training and information dissemination. These could be coordinated with carefully selected influential farmers with large networks to maximize the reach of key messages. The limited extent of government and NGO training activities suggests scope for their expansion, perhaps in coordination with, or support of, private extension agents. There are many opportunities to improve farm management and biosecurity. These include digital services such as dedicated record keeping apps, encouraging and promoting the expansion of artificial insemination services for pigs, improvements to the design of farm buildings, and instituting quarantine services for imported animals.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2020–06–04
  6. By: Victor S. Venida (Economics Department, Ateneo de Manila University)
    Abstract: The economies of developing countries have a dualist structure in which feudal and capitalist modes coexist and interact. For the Philippines, this dualism is evident. This paper analyzes the Philippines’s economic structure through a theoretical framework that draws on a Marxian theory interpreted by Wolff (1977, 1979): the model of social disarticulation and the creation of relative surplus value. Adding on to estimates for 1961–2000 for further analysis, this paper updates the estimated Marxian categories for the Philippines using the Input-Output tables from 1961 to 2012 and the formal model used by Venida (2007, 2011). Results of the estimates show labor productivity improvements from 2000 to 2012, which point to the possibility that the Philippine economy could have begun to transition to further capitalist expansion.
    Keywords: input-output, labor productivity, Marxian theory, Philippines, relative surplus value
    JEL: D57 E11 E24 J24
    Date: 2020–07
  7. By: Headey, Derek D.; Cho, Ame; Goudet, Sophie; Oketch, Jecinter Akinyi; Oo, Than Zaw
    Abstract: The COVID-19 crisis in Myanmar poses a very serious risk to the nutritional status of vulnerable populations, notably women and children, as well as poor urban populations and internally displaced persons. The COVID-19 crisis will hit vulnerable groups through multiple mechanisms.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, nutrition, child nutrition, maternal nutrition, malnutrition, Covid-19
    Date: 2020
  8. By: Samuel Bazzi (Boston University); Gabriel Koehler-Derrick (Harvard University); Benjamin Marx (Département d'économie)
    Abstract: Why do religious politics thrive in some societies but not others? This paper explores the institutional foundations of this process in Indonesia, the world’s largest Muslim democracy. We show that a major Islamic institution, the waqf, fostered the entrenchment of political Islam at a critical historical juncture. In the early 1960s, rural elites transferred large amounts of land into waqf —a type of inalienable charitable trust—to avoid expropriation by the government as part of a major land reform effort. Although the land reform was later undone, the waqf properties remained. We show that greater intensity of the planned reform led to more prevalent waqf land and Islamic institutions endowed as such, including religious schools, which are strongholds of the Islamist movement. We identify lasting effects of the reform on electoral support for Islamist parties, preferences for religious candidates, and the adoption of Islamic legal regulations (sharia). Overall, the land reform contributed to the resilience and eventual rise of political Islam by helping to spread religious institutions, thereby solidifying the alliance between local elites and Islamist groups. These findings shed new light on how religious institutions may shape politics in modern democracies.
    Keywords: Religion; Institutions; Land reform; Islam; Sharia Law
    JEL: D72 D74 P16 P26 Z12
    Date: 2020–05
  9. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Win, Myat Thida; Masias, Ian
    Abstract: Mechanization service providers in Myanmar were originally interviewed by telephone in early May 2020 in order to determine how their businesses were being affected by COVID-19 related restrictions. The results of that survey were published in Myanmar Strategy Support Program Policy Note 07. To trace the continuing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their economic activities, a second phone survey of mechanization service providers was done in mid-June 2020. This Policy Note reports on the results of this second survey.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, mechanization, monitoring, non-pharmaceutical interventions
    Date: 2020
  10. By: Fang, Peixun; Belton, Ben; Ei Win, Hnin; Win, Khin Zin; Zhang, Xiaobo
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, farmers, poultry, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, food prices, food consumption, poultry farming, urban farmers, broiler chickens, cash flow, livestock products, economic recovery, Covid-19
    Date: 2020
  11. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Win, Myat Thida; Masias, Ian
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, equipment, farm equipment, supply chains, policies, sales, arid zones, Covid-19, retailers, agricultural equipment retailers (ERs), agricultural equipment sales, equipment availability, equipment price
    Date: 2020
  12. By: Tang, Heiwai; Zeng, Douglas Zhihua; Zeufack, Albert G.
    Abstract: This paper studies the relationship between Asia's economic engagements in Africa and individual African nations' participation in global value chains (GVC) over the past two decades. We find that while overall exports from Africa to Asia are still highly concentrated in resource-intensive sectors, a few African countries have exploited the emerging opportunities to diversify export portfolios through exporting to Asia. Each African nation has a distinct main trade partner in Asia, in contrast to the common view that China has become the dominant trade partner of most African nations. Using a panel data set for 46 African countries over 16 years from 2000 and 2015, we find that exports to Asia are positively correlated with exports to the rest of the world, suggesting that in contrast to trade diversion, trade with Asia complements exports to other countries. Asian economic engagement in the continent is associated with countries' exports 'moving up the value chain', as measured by the upstreamness index proposed by Antras et al. (2012). However, such process was accompanied by a reduction in the length of their production chains, implying that fewer stages and countries are now involved in the production of exported goods.
    Keywords: Global Value Chains,Trade,Industrialization,Asia,Africa,Economic Development
    JEL: F1 L6 O1
    Date: 2020
  13. By: Diao, Xinshen; Aung, Nilar; Lwin, Wuit Yi; Zone, Phoo Pye; Nyunt, Khin Maung; Thurlow, James
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, agriculture, service industry, secondary sector, policies, tourism, mining, economic impact, trade, remittances, agrifood systems, gross national product, Covid-19, SAM multipliers, Social Accounting Matrix (SAM), lockdown
    Date: 2020
  14. By: Minh Hoang Nguyen; Manh Tung Ho; Viet Phuong La; Quynh Yen Thi Nguyen; Manh Toan Ho; Thu Trang Vuong; Tam Tri Le; Manh Cuong Nguyen; Quan-Hoang Vuong
    Abstract: Given that mental health issues are acute in Asian countries, particularly Japan and Korea, and university students are more vulnerable to depression than the general population, this study aims to examine the landscapes of scientific research regarding depressive disorders among university students and evaluate the effectiveness of international collaboration and funding provision on the scientific impact in Korea, Japan, and China. Based on articles retrieved from the Web of Science database during the period 1992-2018, we found that the number of scientific publications, international collaborations, and allocated funds regarding depressive disorder among university students in China (97 articles, 43 international collaborations, and 52 funds provided, respectively) overwhelmingly surpassed the case of Korea (37 articles, 12 international collaborations, and 15 funds provided, respectively) and Japan (24 articles, 5 international collaborations, and 6 funds provided, respectively). The differences in collaboration patterns (p-value
    Keywords: China; Depressive disorder; Funding; International collaboration; Japan; Korea; Scientific impact; Scientific output; Scientific quality; University student
    Date: 2020–02
  15. By: Draper, John; Kamnuansilpa, Peerasit; Streckfuss, David
    Abstract: Thailand is known to exhibit extreme horizontal structural inequalities by ethnicity. While these differences are not publicly recognised because Thailand’s 62 ethnic groups are not legally recognised, they nonetheless affect state-minority relations, particularly the relationship between the dominant Central Thai ethnic community and the Thai Lao, Thailand’s largest ethnic community, which generally votes as a bloc against Central Thai-dominated political parties. To promote greater social, economic, and political inclusion, UN Sustainable Development Goal 10 advocates policies to address inequalities by ethnicity. As the Thai government does not recognise the Thai Lao, this is problematic. This study analyses opinions obtained from ‘establishment’ and ‘local elite’ samples on how to promote greater inclusion for the Thai Lao. It illustrates some of the barriers towards promoting greater socio-economic and political inclusion, including the lack of recognition, as well as opportunities, such as campaigning against racial discrimination and disaggregating data by ethnicity.
    Date: 2020–06–22
  16. By: Fang, Peixun; Belton, Ben; Ei Win, Hnin; Win, Khin Zin; Zhang, Xiaobo
    Abstract: Between 2010 and 2015, consumption in Myanmar of chicken and eggs increased by 72 percent and 40 percent, respectively. Whereas consumption of most other meats fell during this period, chicken had become the most common meat consumed in Myanmar by 2015. An important reason for this growth is that chicken and eggs were the only major animal-source foods for which real retail prices decreased in recent years. In addition, chicken and egg production is of growing importance to human nutrition in Myanmar - chicken and chicken eggs, together with fresh milk, were the only animal-source foods for which consumption by low income households increased substantially between 2010 and 2015. However, demand for chicken suffered a double hit in 2020 - first from a salmonella outbreak in January that reduced consumer demand, followed immediately by the COVID-19 pandemic. To shed light on the impact of these shocks to this critical sector, a series of phone surveys were conducted. This research note seeks to help the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation of the Government of Myanmar and agricultural sector stakeholders to (1) understand the challenges that poultry farms have faced since the outbreak of COVID-19; (2) learn about adaptations and changes poultry farms are making in response to those challenges; and (3) track input procurement and marketing activities, including quantities and prices.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, farmers, poultry, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, food prices, food consumption, poultry farming, urban farmers, broiler chickens, cash flow, livestock products, economic recovery, Covid-19
    Date: 2020
  17. By: Alesina, Alberto; Gennaioli, Caterina; Lovo, Stefania
    Abstract: This paper shows that the level of deforestation in Indonesia is positively related to the degree of ethnic fractionalization. To identify a causal relation we exploit the exogenous timing of variation in the level of ethnic heterogeneity due to the creation of new jurisdictions. We provide evidence consistent with a lower control of politicians, through electoral punishment, in more ethnically fragmented districts. Our results are consistent with the literature on (under) provision of public goods in ethnically diverse societies.
    Keywords: deforestation; ethnic diversity; corruption; Indonesia
    JEL: D73 L73 O10
    Date: 2019–01
  18. By: Braese,Johannes Michael; De Vries Robbe,Sophie Anne; Maruyama Rentschler,Jun Erik
    Abstract: This paper presents a multisectoral risk assessment, analyzing natural risks faced by key drivers of socioeconomic development in coastal Vietnam. The analysis quantifies the exposure of assets and economic activity to the following natural hazards: riverine flooding, coastal flooding, typhoon winds, coastal erosion, and saline intrusion. These hazards are analyzed according to their impact on agricultural production, aquaculture, human settlements, industrial zones, tourism, health care facilities, schools, and the electricity transmission network. Overall, the results show the complex nature of natural risk in Vietnam, with significant exposure of key economic sectors, public services and assets. The estimates suggest that exposure varies greatly between hazards, sectors, and provinces. This paper provides detailed technical descriptions of the methodologies, data sources, and analytical assumptions employed to obtain the estimates, and acts as a technical background paper to Resilient Shores: Vietnam's Coastal Development between Opportunity and Disaster Risk (Rentschler et al., 2020).
    Date: 2020–08–05
  19. By: Nhan Buu Phany (School of Economics, University of Queensland); Shino Takayamaz (School of Economics, University of Queensland)
    Abstract: This paper develops a model to analyze bribery under heterogeneous firms’ productivity. In the static setting, we show that there are four possible regimes in equilibrium where firms’ bribery depends on their productivity and fundamental variables, including the state capacity. In the dynamic setting, we show that the regime in which more productive firms pay bribes converges to the regime with no bribery, while the regime where all firms pay bribes does not change. We also show that, unlike in the latter case, output increases over time in the former case. Finally, to test the validity of our theoretical results, we apply the methodology in Ackerberg et al. (2015) while including a bribery variable to a dataset of Vietnamese manufacturing firms between 2005 and 2015. We find a statistically significant and positive relationship between productivity and the likelihood of paying bribes, coinciding with one of the equilibrium regimes shown in our theoretical analysis.
    Keywords: corruption, productivity.
    JEL: D21 D24 D73
    Date: 2020–06–19
  20. By: Hanna Adam
    Abstract: This working paper analyses the socioeconomic effects of education in two different political systems by investigating whether individuals educated in a collectivist education system are less likely to become entrepreneurs than individuals educated in an individualist system. It exploits the separation of Vietnam into a communist northern and a capitalist southern part between 1954 and 1975 to identify education in the respective systems, keeping factors such as national culture or historical background fixed. A Probit regression using survey data on 1,164 individuals suggests that being educated in the North makes it 8.6 percent less likely to become an entrepreneur than being educated in the South. This demonstrates that education in different systems may have an effect on entrepreneurial activity, although challenges such as necessity-driven entrepreneurship remain unresolved.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Education, Vietnam, Survey data, Probit regression
    JEL: L26 N35 O12 P30 R2
    Date: 2020–07
  21. By: Persada, Pena; , Ismaulina
    Abstract: Galeri Investasi Bursa Efel Indonesia (BEI) merupakan salah satu sarana dan prasarana yang ditarwarkan BEI dalam menyebarluaskan informasi dan sosialisasi tentang pasar modal syariah di Indonesia. Program-program sosialisasinya diarahkan kepada pengenalan pasar modal pada dunia akademis, baik pasar modal syariah maupun pasar modal konvensional dan pengembangan serta peningkatan pengetahuan masyarakat tentang pentingnya berinvestasi di pasar modal syariah sejak dini.
    Date: 2019–06–10
  22. By: , Mujib
    Abstract:, Pontianak - Corona Virus Disease 19 (Covid-19) bukan hanya sekedar ancaman kesehatan semata, namun saat ini sudah menjadi ancaman dalam bidang ideologi, politik, ekonomi, sosial, budaya, pertahanan dan keamanan. Bidang paling merasakan dampak dari Covid-19 ini adalah bidang ekonomi, dimana hampir seluruh sektor ekonomi merasakan dampaknya dari yang mikro sampai yang makro. Untuk mewujudkan keadilan sosial bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia melalui proses distribusi pajak yang dilandasi semangat anti korupsi, kolusi dan nepotisme dapat diwujudkan melalui inklusi kesadaran pajak
    Date: 2020–06–20
  23. By: David A. Grigorian
    Abstract: Malaysia’s local currency debt market is one of the most liquid public debt markets in the world. In recent years, the growing share of nonresident holders of debt has been a source of concern for policymakers as a reason behind exchange rate volatility. The paper provides an overview of the recent developments in the conventional debt market. It builds an empirical two-stage model to estimate the main drivers of debt capital flows to Malaysia. Finally, it uses a GARCH model to test the hypothesis that nonresident flows are behind the observed exchange rate volatility. The results suggest that the public debt market in Malaysia responds adequately to both pull and push factors and find no firm evidence that nonresident flows cause volatility in the onshore foreign exchange market.
    Keywords: Debt markets;Capital flows;Exchange rates;Foreign exchange market volatility;Bond markets;Asset prices;International financial markets;Currencies;Exchange markets;Supply and demand;Financial crises;Exchange risk;Economic growth;nonresident investors,volatility,Asset Pricing,MGS,debt market,market volatility,investor base
    Date: 2019–01–25
  24. By: Herreros, Sebastián
    Abstract: En este documento se comparan los niveles de implementación de un conjunto de medidas de facilitación del comercio de 18 países de América Latina y el Caribe con los de los 10 Estados miembros de la Asociación de Naciones de Asia Sudoriental (ASEAN). El análisis se basa en los resultados de la tercera Encuesta Mundial de las Naciones Unidas sobre Facilitación del Comercio Digital y Sostenible, una iniciativa conjunta de las cinco comisiones regionales de las Naciones Unidas. La encuesta se llevó a cabo en todo el mundo durante el primer semestre de 2019, por lo que sus resultados proporcionan una imagen relativamente reciente de los niveles de implementación actuales en ambas regiones.
    Date: 2020–07–28
  25. By: Budiaji, Weksi
    Abstract: Buku ini dapat digunakan bagi pembaca baik siswa, mahasiswa, atau pun kalangan umum yang ingin mengetahui apa itu statistika, statistika deskriptif, dan peluang. Tidak ada pembahasan tentang statistika inferensia, karena buku ini fokus pada deskripsi statistik. Pengenalan software R adalah bonus dari buku ini, sehingga tidak melewatkannya akan memberikan nilai lebih bagi pembaca. Latihan-latihan penulisan kode di bagian bonus akan meningkatkan keterampilan pembaca dalam mempresentasikan data. Email penerbit:
    Date: 2020–08–03
  26. By: Goeb, Joseph; Boughton, Duncan; Maredia, Mywish K.; Zu, A. Myint; Synt, Nang Lun Kham
    Abstract: Crop traders comprise the mid-stream of Myanmar’s food supply chain. They form important links between farms and food processors, exporters, and other downstream actors. Because they are close to the farmgate on the supply chain – many purchase agricultural commodities directly from farmers – any additional challenges to traders presented by the COVID-19 crisis and corresponding policy responses have important implications for the crop marketing channels farmers use and for the prices they receive for their crops. Further, challenges or changes to crop trading will have effects on the food system downstream and, ultimately, on consumers. Traders either carry out or facilitate the sales, transport, and purchases of raw agricultural commodities. Thus, they may be negatively affected by the travel and transport restrictions imposed to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 as well as other policy measures that restrict exports or affect food retail channels to consumers. This research note seeks to help the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation (MOALI) of the Government of Myanmar and agricultural sector stakeholders understand the effects of recent COVID-19 shocks on Myanmar’s agri-food marketing system through the perspective of crop traders. We conducted a phone survey with 154 crop traders to understand the challenges of COVID-19 shocks to both their upstream and downstream operations, (ii) learn about adaptations and changes they are making in response to those challenges, and (iii) track recent (two weeks) and longer-term (last year) changes in the buying and selling prices of the commodities they trade.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, trade, supply chain, commodities, marketing, agricultural prices, prices, movement restrictions, agricultural products, Covid-19, crop marketing, traders
    Date: 2020
  27. By: Dong, C.; Gao, J.; Linton, O.; Peng, B.
    Abstract: In this paper, we study the trending behaviour of COVID-19 data at country level, and draw attention to some existing econometric tools which are potentially helpful to understand the trend better in future studies. In our empirical study, we find that European countries overall flatten the curves more effectively compared to the other regions, while Asia & Oceania also achieve some success, but the situations are not as optimistic as in Europe. Africa and America are still facing serious challenges in terms of managing the spread of the virus and reducing the death rate. In Africa, the rate of the spread of the virus is slower and the death rate is also lower than those of the other regions. By comparing the performances of different countries, our results on the performance of different countries in managing the speed of the virus agree with Gu et al. (2020). For example, both studies agree that countries such as USA, UK and Italy perform relatively poorly; on the other hand, Australia, China, Japan, Korea, and Singapore perform relatively better.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Deterministic time trend, Panel data, Varying-coefficient
    JEL: C23 C54
    Date: 2020–06–23
  28. By: Binti Ali Ahmad,Zainab; Simler,Kenneth; Yi,Soonhwa
    Abstract: Malaysia has been grappling with understanding how many foreign workers reside in the country and thus faces challenges in formulating evidence-based foreign worker policies. This paper uses micro-level remittance transaction data collected from money transfer service providers to estimate the number of foreign workers. Most foreign workers remit a large portion of their earnings to support family members back home. They are low-income earners, sensitive to remittance costs, and opt for money transfer service providers to remit money rather than regular banks, where transfer services are more expensive. Therefore, the remittance data provide a useful source to conduct the investigation. Existing estimates range from two million to five million foreign workers; our results narrow that range to between 2.99 million and 3.16 million foreign workers in Malaysia as of 2017-18. The estimated state and nationality distributions of foreign workers are consistent with the Ministry of Home Affairs data, lending support to the validity of the estimates. Nevertheless, the Bank Negara Malaysia remittance data could potentially underestimate the number of workers in states with low access to money service providers and nationalities that have access to alternative money transfer mechanisms such as commercial banking and informal transfer channels.
    Date: 2020–07–23
  29. By: sakti, arjuna
    Abstract: Menurut Pratono dan Arli (2020) terjadi pengaruh antara global consumer culture dan ethnocentric terhadap global citizenship, temuan dari penelitian ini berbeda dengan penelitian lainnya yaitu terjadi hubungan negatif antara global consumer culture terhadap global citizenship serta hubungan positif antara ethnocentrism terhadap global citizenship. Penelitian ini memfokuskan pada perilaku konsumen dari golongan anak muda di Indonesia. Dalam strategi bisnis internasional pemahaman suatu perusahaan terhadap budaya suatu negara sangatlah penting bagi perusahaan dalam menentukan strateginya.
    Date: 2020–06–22
  30. By: Goeb, Joseph; Boughton, Duncan; Maredia, Mywish K.; Zu, A. Myint; Synt, Nang Lun Kham
    Abstract: Agricultural input retailers play a key role in Myanmar’s agri-food system by supplying farmers with fertilizer, seed, pesticides, and other inputs necessary for successful harvests. Because farm-level input use is an important driver of yields for all major food crops, shocks to the input retail sector have major implications for the welfare of rural households, as well as for their food security. This policy note presents results from round two of a five-round phone survey of agricultural input retailers. Our purpose is to provide data and insights to the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Irrigation (MOALI) and other agricultural sector stakeholders to assist them in better understanding COVID-19 related shocks to Myanmar’s agricultural input retailers. The round one results emphasized (i) widespread disruptions from the COVID-19 to both input supply and demand, (ii) higher transportation costs leading to higher input prices, and (iii) dramatically lower revenue expectations for retailers in 2020 compared to 2019.1 This note builds on the round one results by (i) exploring the effects of the COVID-19 crisis since the first-round interviews, (ii) tracking sales changes since the first round of the survey, and (iii) providing more detailed information on retailer credit and transportation.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, farm inputs, retail markets, seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, Covid-19
    Date: 2020
  31. By: Peixun Fang; Ben Belton
    Abstract: This report presents results from by far the most comprehensive survey of maize cultivators ever conducted in Myanmar. This research was designed to test characterizations of hybrid maize farming in the literature on Myanmar empirically, and identify implications for development policy and programming. A study by the World Bank (2016) suggests that returns from maize farming are very high in comparison to other major crops grown in Myanmar, whereas two studies by Woods (2015a; 2015b) list a host of negative impacts associated with hybrid maize cultivation, including reduced food security, widespread and severe indebtedness among the smallest farmers, and deepening inequality. Our survey represented the population of all maize growing village tracts in the nine major maize growing townships of southern Shan where the security situation at the time of the survey permitted access. A total 884 maize growing and 678 non-maize growing rural households were interviewed. We summarize key survey results and their implications below.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2020–06–02
  32. By: Frankema, Ewout; Van Waijenburg, Marlous
    Abstract: While human capital has gained prominence in new vintages of growth theory, economists have struggled to find the positive externalities of mass education in developing economies. We shed new light on the economic significance of the global 'schooling revolution' by looking at a different indicator of human capital accumulation - the relative price of skilled labor -, and placing it in a long-term global perspective. Based on a new wage dataset we constructed for various blue- and white-collar occupations in 50 African and Asian countries between 1870-2010, we reveal that skill-premiums have fallen dramatically everywhere in the course of the 20th century, and that they have now converged with levels that dominated in the West already for centuries. While such a 'great convergence' in skill-premiums is not a sufficient condition for Schumpeterian growth by itself, the growing availability of affordable skills is a necessary condition. Our findings, therefore, shed a more optimistic light on the long-term economic gains of mass education in the global South than standard growth regressions have hitherto done.
    Keywords: Africa; Asia; History; mass education; skill premium
    JEL: J24 J31 N30
    Date: 2019–11
  33. By: Tolulope T. Osinubi (Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This study examines the effect of globalization on female economic participation (FEP) in MINT (Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria & Turkey) and BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China & South Africa) countries between 2004 and 2018. Four measures of globalization are employed and sourced from KOF globalization index, 2018, while the female labour force participation rate is a proxy for FEP. The empirical evidence is based on Pooled Mean Group (PMG) estimators. The findings of the PMG estimator from the Panel ARDL method reveal that political and overall globalization in MINT and BRICS countries have a positive impact on FEP, whereas social globalization exerts a negative impact on FEP in the long-run. It is observed that economic globalization has no long-run effect on FEP. Contrarily, all the measures of globalization posit no short-run effect on FEP in the short-run. This supports the argument that globalization has no immediate effect on FEP. Thus, it is recommended that both MINT and BRICS countries should find a way of improving the process of globalization generally to empower women to be involved in economic activities. This study complements the extant literature by focusing on how globalization dynamics influence FEP in the MINT and BRICS countries.
    Keywords: Globalization; female; gender; labour force participation; MINT and BRICS countries
    JEL: E60 F40 F59 D60
    Date: 2020–08
  34. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This 2019 Article IV Consultation focuses on Myanmar’s near- and medium-term challenges and policy priorities and was prepared before COVID-19 became a global pandemic and resulted in unprecedented strains in global trade, commodity and financial markets. It, therefore, does not reflect the implications of these developments and related policy priorities. These developments have greatly amplified uncertainty and could heighten downside risks around the outlook. The IMF staff is closely monitoring the situation, including related policy responses from the authorities, and will continue to work on assessing its impact in the Myanmar economy. Although long-term prospects remain favorable, near-term growth is likely to remain below potential as the correction in real estate market and continued uncertainty weighs on investor sentiment in the runup to the 2020 elections. Starting FY2020/21, bank deleveraging will further slow credit and constrain gross domestic product growth as borrower’s true ability to repay is revealed with term loans coming due and banks restructure in earnest.
    Keywords: Balance of payments;Economic indicators;Central banks;Financial institutions;Financial and Monetary Sector;ISCR,CR,CBM,percent of GDP,PPPs,Proj,investor sentiment
    Date: 2020–03–26
  35. By: Wicaksono, Hendro
    Abstract: The presentation introduces the technologies associated with the fourth industrial revolution which rely on the concept of artificial intelligence. Data is the basis of functioning artificial intelligence technologies. The presentation also explains how data can revolutionize the business by providing global access to physical products through an industry 4.0 ecosystem. The ecosystem contains four pillars: smart product, smart process, smart resources (smart PPR), and data-driven services. Through these four pillars, the industry 4.0 can be implemented in different sectors. The presentation also provides some insights on the roles of linked data (knowledge graph) for data integration, data analytics, and machine learning in industry 4.0 ecosystem. Project examples in smart city, healthcare, and agriculture sectors are also described. Finally, the presentation discusses the implications of the introduced concepts on the Indonesian context.
    Date: 2020–07–22
  36. By: Hasan,Amer; Nakajima,Nozomi; Rangel,Marcos A.
    Abstract: This paper leverages quasi-experimental variation in increased access to basic formal education, introduced by a large-scale school construction program in Indonesia in the 1970s, to quantify the benefits to the children of women targeted by the program. Novel and rich data allow the analysis of a range of health, cognitive and socio-emotional development outcomes for children ages 6 to 8 in 2013. The paper finds that increased maternal access to schooling has positive and multidimensional effects on children. The effects are particularly salient at the bottom of the distributions of outcomes. Drawing on insights from economics, psychology, and sociology, the paper examines pathways for these impacts. Evidence suggests that mothers who were exposed to more schooling opportunities during childhood demonstrate less hostility toward their children when parenting and also invest more in their children's preschool education.
    Keywords: Educational Sciences,Health Care Services Industry,Early Childhood Development,Nutrition,Early Child and Children's Health,Reproductive Health,Children and Youth,Social Protections&Assistance
    Date: 2020–08–11
  37. By: , Santosa; Hermawan, Hary (Sekolah Tinggi Pariwisata AMPTA Yogyakarta, Indonesia)
    Abstract: Metode penelitian dengan pendekatan kuantitatif masih cukup jarang digunakan oleh para mahasiswa pariwisata. Padahal sangat banyak hal yang bisa dikaji dengan menggunakan metode kuantitatif, terutama terkait penelitian yang mengkaji hal-hal yang bersifat manajerial. Sebagai contoh, penelitian untuk mengevaluasi “Apakah keputusan meningkatkan kualitas daya tarik wisata akan berpengaruh terhadap kepuasan wisatawan?” Nyatanya dalam hal manajemen destinasi, mengkaji setiap upaya manajerial yang berdampak langsung pada wisatawan sangat penting untuk dilakukan. Minimnya buku metodologi penelitian kuantitatif yang dikhususkan untuk ilmu atau bidang kepariwisataan menjadi kendala tersendiri bagi mahasiswa. Buku metodologi penelitian kuantitatif yang beredar saat ini lebih banyak membahas kasus-kasus terkait bidang ekonomi dan manajemen, sehingga mahasiswa ilmu pariwisata sering mengalami kesulitan untuk mengadaptasikanya dalam penelitian pariwisata. Ditambah banyaknya rumus-rumus statistik yang rumit namun kurang implementatif untuk dianalogikan dalam kasus pariwisata menjadi tantangan tersendiri bagi mahasiswa pariwisata untuk mempelajari penelitian kuantitatif. Oleh karena itu, penulis mempersembahkan buku dengan judul “Metode Kuantitatif untuk Riset Bidang Kepariwisataan” menjawab berbagai persoalan diatas. Buku ini didesain lengkap untuk belajar dasar-dasar penelitian kuantitatif namun dengan bahasa yang sederhana disertai contoh kasus dalam bidang keparwisataan, sehingga sangat mudah untuk dipahami. Selain itu, rumusan-rumusan masalah khas penelitian kuantitatif seperti rumusan masalah deskriptif, komparatif, korelatif, asosiatif serta analisis jalur akan dibahas dengan menggunakan sofware statistik yang sudah umum digunakan seperti sofware SPSS dan Partial Least Square (PLS) untuk memudahkan proses pengolahan dan analisis data statistik. Melalui buku ini, kami berusaha membantu memberikan pencerahan kepada pembaca bahwa penelitian kuantitatif itu mudah
    Date: 2020–06–24
  38. By: Javier Mejia (Division of Social Science)
    Abstract: The Manila Galleon was a commercial route that existed from 1565 to 1815. It connected Asia and America through the Pacific Ocean. It was a fundamental step in the history of globalization. The objective of this essay is to offer an economic framework to interpret the existing evidence on the Manila Galleon. Based on this framework, the essay identifies that the Manila Galleon was only possible thanks to the coincidence of a quite singular set of international circumstances and favorable market conditions at the local level. Additionally, the essay explores the experience of New Granada as a way to highlight the large asymmetry in the role and impact of the Manila Galleon trade across regions.
    Date: 2019–01
  39. By: Samuel Bazzi (Boston University); Masyhur Hilmy (Boston University (BU)); Benjamin Marx (Département d'économie)
    Abstract: Public schooling systems are an essential feature of modern states. These systems often developed at the expense of religious schools, which undertook the bulk of education historically and still cater to large student populations worldwide. This paper examines how Indonesia’s longstanding Islamic school system responded to the construction of 61,000 public elementary schools in the mid-1970s. The policy was designed in part to foster nation building and to curb religious influence in society. We are the first to study the market response to these ideological objectives. Using novel data on Islamic school construction and curriculum, we identify both short-run effects on exposed cohorts as well as dynamic, long-run effects on education markets. While primary enrollment shifted towards state schools, religious education increased on net as Islamic secondary schools absorbed the increased demand for continued education. The Islamic sector not only entered new markets to compete with the state but also increased religious curriculum at newly created schools. Our results suggest that the Islamic sector response increased religiosity at the expense of a secular national identity. Overall, this ideological competition in education undermined the nation-building impacts of mass schooling.
    JEL: H52 I25 N45 P16 Z12
    Date: 2020–05
  40. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Samba Diop (Alioune Diop University, Bambey, Senegal); Joseph Nnanna (The Development Bank of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria)
    Abstract: This study has: (i) analysed the economic impact of the Covid-19 pandemic, (ii) evaluated the effectiveness and relevance of different measures against the pandemic and (iii) examined nexuses between the corresponding measures and economic outcomes. The study uses a sample of 186 countries divided into four main regions, notably: Asia-Pacific and the Middle East, Europe, Africa and America. 34 preventing and mitigating measures against the Covid-19 pandemic are classified into five main categories: lockdown, movement restrictions, governance and economic, social distancing, and public health measures. The empirical evidence is based on comparative difference in means tests and correlation analyses. The findings show how the effectiveness and consequences of the Covid-19 measures are different across regions. In adopting the relevant policies to fight the ongoing pandemic, the comparative insights from the findings in the study are worthwhile. Inter alia: (i) from a holistic perspective, only European countries have favourably benefited from the Covid-19 measures; (ii) lockdown measures at the global level have not been significant in reducing the pandemic; (iii) the restriction of movement measure has been relevant in curbing the spread in the American continent; (iv) social distancing has been productive in Europe and counter-productive in Africa; (v) governance and economic measures have exclusively been relevant in Europe and (vi) overall public health measures have not had the desired outcomes in flattening the infection curve probably because most of the underlying measures are awareness decisions or oriented toward people already infected.
    Keywords: Novel Coronavirus, Social Distance, Macroeconomics effects
    JEL: E10 E12 E20 E23 I10 I18
    Date: 2020–07
  41. By: Beirne, John Beirne (Asian Development Bank Institute); Renzhi, Nuobu (Asian Development Bank Institute); Sugandi, Eric Alexander (Asian Development Bank Institute); Volz, Ulrich (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: We examine empirically the reaction of global financial markets across 38 economies to the COVID-19 outbreak, with a special focus on the dynamics of capital flow across 14 emerging market economies. Using daily data over the period 4 January 2010 to 30 April 2020 and controlling for a host of domestic and global macroeconomic and financial factors, we use a fixed effects panel approach and a structural VAR framework to show that emerging markets have been more heavily affected than advanced economies. In particular, emerging economies in Asia and Europe have experienced the sharpest impact on stocks, bonds, and exchange rates due to COVID-19, as well as abrupt and substantial capital outflows. Our results indicate that fiscal stimulus packages introduced in response to COVID-19, as well as quantitative easing by central banks, have helped to restore overall investor confidence through reducing bond yields and boosting stock prices. Our findings also highlight the role that global factors and developments in the world’s leading financial centers have on financial conditions in EMEs. Importantly, the impact of COVID-19 related quantitative easing measures by central banks in advanced countries, which helped to lower sovereign bond yields and prop up stock markets at home, extended to EMEs, notably in relation to stabilizing capital flow dynamics. While the ultimate resolution of COVID-19 may be expected to lead to a market correction as uncertainty declines, our impulse response analysis suggests that there may be some permanent effects on financial markets and capital flows as a result of COVID-19, particularly in EMEs.
    Keywords: COVID-19; financial markets; capital flows
    JEL: F32 F41 F62
    Date: 2020–06–26
  42. By: Baladjay, Rachel A.; Amparado, Mauro Allan Padua (University of Cebu); Manatad, Jocelyn; Rosal, Micaela
    Abstract: This descriptive qualitative study explored the efforts of the College of Business and Accountancy faculty and non-teaching staff of the university as they educate 15 Out-of-school young adults on entrepreneurship. Narratives revealed the experiences of the beneficiaries in the community extension program and its impact to the informants. One-on-one interviews were conducted to 15 Out-of-school youth of the Life Project for Youth. The interviews were conducted for 4 consecutive Saturdays with one hour of interview per young adult. Findings revealed two common themes: I have learned new lessons; and I will be an entrepreneur in the future. With interviews conducted in one month, the researchers recommend the continuation of the program to fully equip the out-of-school youth on this endeavor. It is also recommended by the researchers that students should take part in the dissemination of information and knowledge to LP4Y beneficiaries. A follow up study is highly recommended after 2 years of teaching the beneficiaries under the entrepreneurship program. Keywords: Life Project for Youth, Philippines, Entrepreneurship Program, New lessons learned, Out-of-school Youth, Impact study
    Date: 2018–12–31
  43. By: Sinha, Avik; Sengupta, Tuhin
    Abstract: Researchers have identified the impact of crime rates on tourism development, and in this study, we intend to look into the possible social causes behind those impacts. In this pursuit, we analyse the moderating role of social determinants of crime in shaping the association between tourism development and governance for 30 Asia-pacific countries over 1990-2017. In methodological terms, we have employed principal component analysis (PCA) for index building and generalized method of moments (GMM) for the estimation of long run elasticities. Using PCA, we have built separate indices for tourism development and social indicators. Results of GMM indicate that incidents of unemployment and increase in refugee population can diminish the positive impact of education on the association between tourism development and governance. The policymakers need to focus more on capacity building and job creation for internalizing the social imbalances, which might hamper the governance quality for fostering the development of tourism sector.
    Keywords: Tourism development; Refugee; Crime; Governance; GMM
    JEL: L83
    Date: 2020
  44. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: The Banking Supervision Department (BSD) of the BoL is implementing risk-based supervision (RBS) methods. BoL staff are showing favorable results in understanding and applying RBS, recognizing that they are still in the early stages of capacity development. A new commercial banking law became effective in June 2019. The law incorporates expectations that financial institutions establish appropriate risk management systems and maintain adequate capital and liquidity. The law also gives the BoL purview over the adequacy of risk management in banks.
    Keywords: Financial institutions;Financial systems;Banking systems;Banking law;Commercial banks;ISCR,CR,mission team,RAS,RBS,ROX,onsite
    Date: 2020–06–18
  45. By: Stéphanie LEYRONAS; Julien CALAS
    Abstract: For ten years (1998 – 2008), the Cambodian government rehabilitated the Prey Nup polders, a 90 km of earth dikes system protecting 10,500 hectares of rice paddies from seawater intrusion. This French Development Agency-funded project provides a clear illustration of an “administered commons”, where the administration aims to delegate its responsibility to new or previously-existing informal “communities” which it seeks to structure. This article relates the rehabilitation of the polders and explores the different commons-State-market systems that are generated. It brings to attention the weaknesses of this administered commons, and the tremendous challenges that it faces in order to turn into a “neo-commons”. This latter notion refers to an original creation in time which combines the typical requirements of traditional commons (community, resource, consolidation of management rules) with some degree of reinterpretation, giving way to hybrid governance forms that associate public administration and commodification. Based on this experience, the article re-examines the role of public authorities in promoting and supporting the emergence, consolidation and growth of neo-commons.
    Keywords: Cambodge
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2019–02–08
  46. By: Gorbanev, Mikhail
    Abstract: Most notable claims linking events on Earth with solar cycle phases relate to solar maximums. Cyclical maximums of solar activity could be associated with economic recessions (W.S.Jevons) or revolutions (A.L.Chizhevsky). However, both the diminishing magnitude of solar cycles and the recent crisis events warrant closer attention to solar minimums. The ongoing global economic and financial crisis—caused by the “great lockdown” response to the new COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic—coincided with cyclical minimum of solar activity, as did the previous Global Financial Crisis of 2007-09. And before that, Asian crisis of 1997-98 began shortly after solar minimum. These events point to the new emerging pattern of global economic and financial crises coinciding with cyclical minimums of solar activity.
    Keywords: revolution, recession, business cycle, sunspot, solar cycle
    JEL: E32 F44 Q51 Q54
    Date: 2020–07–31
  47. By: Khuong Vu (National University of Singapore, Singapore); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This paper seeks to gain insights into whether developing countries benefit more from the backwardness advantage for economic growth in the Information Age. The paper examines this concern through three complementary approaches. First, it derives theoretical grounds from the existing economic models to support the hypothesis that the internet, inter alia, enables developing countries to reap greater growth gains from technology acquisition and catch-up. Second, the paper uses descriptive evidence to show that the growth landscape has indeed shifted decisively in favor of developing countries in the Internet Age in comparison to the pre-internet period. Third, using rigorous econometric techniques with data of 163 countries over a 20-year period, 1996-2016, the paper evidences that developing countries on average reap significantly greater growth gains from internet adoption in comparison to the average advanced country. The paper discusses policy implications from the paper’s findings.
    Keywords: backwardness advantage; developing countries; internet; technology catch-up; GMM
    JEL: O40
    Date: 2020–01

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