nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2020‒07‒27
29 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Climate change and bank stability: The moderating role of green financing and renewable energy consumption in ASEAN By Kamran, Hafiz Waqas; Haseeb, Muhammad; Nguyen, Thu Thuy; Nguyen, V.C.
  2. Recent Characteristics of FX Markets in Asia \A Comparison of Japan, Singapore, and Hong Kong SAR \ By WASHIMI Kazuaki; KADOGAWA Yoichi
  3. The cost of COVID-19 on the Indonesian economy: A Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) multiplier approach By Pradesha, Angga; Amaliah, Syarifah; Noegroho, Anang; Thurlow, James
  4. Causes of haze and its health effects in Singapore: a replication study By Jan F. Kiviet
  5. The Role of Satisfaction in Mediating the Effect of e-Service Convenience, Security, and Trust on Repurchase Intention in the Marketplace Case study: Shopee Marketplace By Juniwati
  6. Examining the Mediation of Job Satisfaction in the Relationship between Work Stress and Turnover Intention in Textile Company By Romat Saragih
  7. The Institutional Foundations of Religious Politics: Evidence from Indonesia By Samuel Bazzi; Gabriel Koehler-Derrick; Benjamin Marx
  8. How Destination Image Factors Affect Domestic Tourists Revisit Intention to Ba Ria-Vung Tau Province, Vietnam By Giao, Ha Nam Khanh; Ngan, Nguyen Thi Kim; Phuc, Nguyen Pham Hanh; Tuan, Huynh Quoc; Hong, Ha Kim; Anh, Huynh Diep Tram; Nhu, Duong Thi Huynh; Lan, Ngo Thi
  9. Vietnam's Development Success Story and the Unfinished SDG Agenda By Anja Baum
  10. Analisis kohesi dan koherensi pada teks prosedur, Teks cerpen, teks lingkungan hidup dan kemungkinan pembelajaran disekolah By Agustina, Huteri Dea
  11. Recent Issues in Capital Flows \Trends in Capital Inflows to Japan & Asia and Challenges Ahead \ By WASHIMI Kazuaki
  12. Data Governance, AI, and Trade: Asia as a Case Study By Susan Ariel Aaronson
  13. The changing structure of financial intermediation in Asia: Benefits and risks By Caroline Roulet
  15. Refugees and Foreign Direct Investment: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from U.S. Resettlements By Mayda, Anna Maria; Parsons, Chris; Pham, Hannah; Vezina, Pierre-Louis
  16. An Empirical Assessment of Organizational Commitment and Job Performance: Vietnam Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises By Vuong, Bui Nhat; Tung, Dao Duy; Giao, Ha Nam Khanh; Chau, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Tushar, Hasanuzzaman
  18. Supermarkets and their impacts on the relationship between food acquisition patterns and socio-economic and demographic characteristics of households: empirical evidence from Vietnam By Thi Huong Trinh; Dharani Dhar Burra; Michel Simioni; Stef de Haan; Tuyen Thi Thanh Huynh; Tung Van Huynh; Andrew D. Jones
  19. How does Information about Inequality Shape Voting Intentions and Preferences for Redistribution? Evidence from a Randomized Survey Experiment in Indonesia By Christopher Hoy; Russell Toth; Nurina Merdikawati
  21. ‘Send Them a Shipload of Rice’: Australia’s Food Aid to Indonesia, 1960s-1970s By Pierre van der Eng
  22. Flexible Microcredit: Effects on Loan Repayment and Social Pressure By Kristina Czura; Anett John; Lisa Spantig
  23. Data Governance, AI, and Trade: Asia as a Case Study By Susan Ariel Aaronson
  24. A Review on Employee's Voluntary Turnover: A Psychological Perspective By Zuraina Dato Mansor
  25. Voluntary adoption of environmental standards and limited attention: Evidence from the food and beverage industry in Vietnam By Massimo Filippini; Suchita Srinivasan
  26. Information and the Acquisition of Social Network Connections By Toman Barsbai; Victoria Licuanan; Andreas Steinmayr; Erwin Tiongson; Dean Yang
  27. Suplemen Materi Statistik Terapan dalam Ilmu Kesehatan By Jusmiana, Andi; , HERIANTO
  28. La planète laitière et la place de l’Afrique de l’Ouest dans la consommation, la production et les échanges de produits laitiers By Vincent Chatellier
  29. Discrimination and Jobs Reservation in India By Borooah, Vani

  1. By: Kamran, Hafiz Waqas; Haseeb, Muhammad; Nguyen, Thu Thuy; Nguyen, V.C.
    Abstract: The present investigation empirically determines the comparative as well as combine panel estimations for the relationship between climate change and bank stability in three selected ASEAN countries; Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand with the moderation of green financing and renewable energy. Five leading banks were chosen from each country based on green financing usage. The dependent variable was bank stability, which was proxies by z-score of ROA and ROE along with SDROA and SDROE. Climate change was the main independent variable, which was proxies by CO2 emission while the control variable was organization quality. Panel data estimation was applied using a fixed effect, random effect and pooled OLS technique along with the Hausman test and LM test. Both Hausman and LM tests were not significant which conformed pooled data estimation as the appropriate modelling. The comparative findings indicate that bank stability strongly decreased by climate change in Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand. The Green financing strongly enhances bank stability in the case of Malaysia and Thailand while renewable energy is a less important factor to enhance the bank stability for all the three countries. The moderation effect of green financing significantly enhances bank stability in the case of Malaysia and Thailand while the moderation effect of renewable energy enhances bank stability in the case of Malaysia and Indonesia only. The combined estimates conclude that climate changes strongly decreases the bank stability in the ASEAN region while the green financing and renewable energy positively influences the bank stability in this region with low significance. The moderation effect of green financing, as well as renewable energy positively, enhances the bank stability measures of ZROA and ZROE only in this region. The policy implication for this empirical investigation concludes that the policymakers in ASEAN region should promote green financing in all the banks with renewable energy in their economies as the source of alternative energy consumption to control to devastating changes in climate so that bank stability in this region is insured.
    Date: 2020–06–05
  2. By: WASHIMI Kazuaki (Bank of Japan); KADOGAWA Yoichi (Bank of Japan)
    Abstract: In recent years, turnovers of Foreign Exchange (FX) trading in Singapore and Hong Kong SAR have outweighed those of Japan, and the gap between the two cities and Japan continues to stretch. The two cities consolidate trading of G10 currencies by institutional investors and others by advancing electronic trading. Additionally, a number of treasury departments of overseas financial/non-financial firms are attracted to the two cities, contributing to the increasing trading of Asian currencies in tandem with expanding goods and services trades between China and the ASEAN countries. At this juncture, FX trading related to capital account transactions is relatively small in Asia partly due to capital control measures. However, in the medium to long term, capital account transactions could increase, which would positively affect FX trading. Thinking ahead on post-COVID-19, receiving such capital flows would positively impact on revitalizing the Tokyo FX market, thereby developing Japan fs overall financial markets including capital markets.
    Keywords: Foreign exchange; Market structure
    JEL: F31 G15
    Date: 2020–07–02
  3. By: Pradesha, Angga; Amaliah, Syarifah; Noegroho, Anang; Thurlow, James
    Abstract: Sustained economic growth and a declining trend in poverty over the years in Indonesia potentially will come to a halt this year. This development cost comes as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak that recently hit the country. Like in many other countries, one of the largest costs of COVID-19 comes from the social distancing policy, which is a proven public health measure to reduce the spread of the virus by limiting people’s movements and interactions for a certain period of time. The government of Indonesia adopted this approach by gradually introducing in certain regions the Large-scale Social Restriction (PSBB) policy from early April 2020. PSBB restricts non-essential economic activities and people’s movement in order to contain the virus. IFPRI, the National Development Planning Agency of Indonesia (BAPPENAS), and IPB University used a SAM multiplier model to measure the economic impact of PSBB if restrictions were to be in place for four weeks and to explore potential recovery processes after the policy ends. Some of the key findings were: • National GDP is estimated to fall by 24 percent during the four-week PSBB period, • External sector shocks – reduced export demand, lower remittances, and lower foreign investments – contribute around one-third of total GDP losses; • The GDP of Indonesia’s agri-food system falls by 13 percent despite agriculture activities being excluded from restrictive measures; • National poverty is expected to jump by 13 percentage points – an additional 36 million people will fall into poverty during the four-week PSBB period; and • By the end of 2020, due to COVID-19 the annual GDP growth is expected to be between 5.3 and 7.3 percent lower than under a baseline scenario without COVID-19.
    Keywords: INDONESIA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, Coronavirus, coronavirus disease, Coronavirinae, economics, poverty, poverty alleviation, policies, gross national product, agrifood systems, food systems, models, Covid-19, SAM multipliers, Social Accounting Matrix (SAM)
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Jan F. Kiviet (University of Amsterdam and Stellenbosch University)
    Abstract: Intermittently Singapore suffers from severe air pollution in periods of intense forest and peatland fires on neighboring South-Asian islands. A recent American Economic Review article modeled the causal relationships between fire intensity in Indonesia and air pollution (PSI) in Singapore, and between PSI and health clinic visits in Singapore. We find serious flaws in the quantitative assessment of these relationships. Attempts are made to repair these using the same classic methodology and data, but also by alternative methods requiring less speculative assumptions. Although actually more detailed data are required, also some results are produced which seem more credible.
    Keywords: endogeneity robust inference, environmental economics, health economics, instrument invalidity, sensitivity analysis
    JEL: C12 C13 C26 I1 Q53
    Date: 2020
  5. By: Juniwati (Faculty Economic and Business. Universitas Tanjungpura, Pontianak, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Sumiyati Author-2-Workplace-Name: Universitas Muhammadiah Pontianak, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - The development of information technology that encourages the rise of online buying and selling has opened opportunities for market participants. This requires satisfying services for customers by every market participant. Shopee is one of the biggest marketplace actors in Indonesia. The purpose of the study is to estimate the factors that influence consumers' intention to buy back at Shopee's marketplace. Methodology/Technique - The mediation variable used is satisfaction. The research sample consists of 200 respondents, who are Shopee consumers in Pontianak, Indonesia. Findings - The findings of this study are there is a positive and significant effect between E-Service convenience and Satisfaction variables (ß = 0.390) and Repurchase Interest (ß = 0.355), E-Trust variables also have a positive and significant effect on Satisfaction (ß = 0.437) and Interest Repurchase (ß = 0.386). Satisfaction has a positive and significant effect on Repurchase Intention with (ß = 0.483). Type of Paper - Empirical
    Keywords: Satisfaction; e-Service Convenience; Security; Trust; Repurchase Intention.
    JEL: M31 M13 M39
    Date: 2020–06–30
  6. By: Romat Saragih (School of Communication & Business, Telkom University, Jl Telekomunikasi, 40257, Bandung, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Arif Partono Prasetio Author-2-Workplace-Name: School of Economic & Business, Telkom University, Jl Telekomunikasi, 40257, Bandung, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Bachruddin Saleh Luturlean Author-3-Workplace-Name: School of Communication & Business, Telkom University, Jl Telekomunikasi, 40257, Bandung, Indonesia Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - This study investigates the mediation role of job satisfaction in the relationship between work stress and turnover intention. A study about turnover intention in the textile company is still rarely done in Indonesia. This study can fill the gap regarding the topic. Methodology/Technique - A nonprobability sampling method with an accidental sampling technique was used, and we get 110 usable responses from a textile company in West Java, Indonesia. Macro Process with SPSS was used to measure the regression and the mediation. Findings - The study found that work stress has a negative effect on job satisfaction. Work stress significantly related to turnover intention in a positive direction. Job satisfaction did not have a significant relation with turnover intention. Thus, in this study, we found no mediation role in job satisfaction. Novelty - Evidently, work stress solely took part in shaping the turnover intention. Type of Paper - Empirical
    Keywords: Work stress, Job satisfaction, Turnover intention, Textile Company, Mediation
    JEL: J28 J29 M19
    Date: 2020–06–30
  7. By: Samuel Bazzi (Boston University); Gabriel Koehler-Derrick (Harvard University); Benjamin Marx (Département d'économie)
    Abstract: Why do religious politics thrive in some societies but not others? This paper explores the institutional foundations of this process in Indonesia, the world’s largest Muslim democracy. We show that a major Islamic institution, the waqf, fostered the entrenchment of political Islam at a critical historical juncture. In the early 1960s, rural elites transferred large amounts of land into waqf —a type of inalienable charitable trust—to avoid expropriation by the government as part of a major land reform effort. Although the land reform was later undone, the waqf properties remained. We show that greater intensity of the planned reform led to more prevalent waqf land and Islamic institutions endowed as such, including religious schools, which are strongholds of the Islamist movement. We identify lasting effects of the reform on electoral support for Islamist parties, preferences for religious candidates, and the adoption of Islamic legal regulations (sharia). Overall, the land reform contributed to the resilience and eventual rise of political Islam by helping to spread religious institutions, thereby solidifying the alliance between local elites and Islamist groups. These findings shed new light on how religious institutions may shape politics in modern democracies.
    Keywords: Religion; Institutions; Land reform; Islam; Sharia Law
    JEL: D72 D74 P16 P26 Z12
    Date: 2020–05
  8. By: Giao, Ha Nam Khanh; Ngan, Nguyen Thi Kim; Phuc, Nguyen Pham Hanh; Tuan, Huynh Quoc; Hong, Ha Kim; Anh, Huynh Diep Tram; Nhu, Duong Thi Huynh; Lan, Ngo Thi
    Abstract: This research examines the affect of destination image factors on revisit intention of domestic tourists at Ba Ria Vung-Tau (BRVT), by questioning directly 510 domestic tourists. The convenient sampling method is used in dividing the crowds into four groups; the four main surveyed areas in BRVT are: Vung Tau, Long Hai-Phuoc Hai, Xuyen Moc and Con Dao. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies were utilized. A focus group of 10 domestic tourists was set up to review and explore the various factors as well as the conceptual model. An in-depth interview with 12 participants was developed to fine-tune measurement items. The questionnaire applied a 5-point Likert scale. Checking the reliability by Cronbach’s Alpha, exploratory factor analyzing and linear multiple regression were used with the SPSS program. The results show that there are eight main destination image factors affecting domestic tourists revisit intention to BRVT using linear regression and arranged by decreasing importance: Infrastructure, Variety Seeking, Accessibility, Local food, Atmosphere, Environment, Price Value, Leisure and Entertainment. From that, the research offers some suggestions and policy recommendations for the tourism business and provincial policy-makers to identify the main issues and develop better customer services to increase domestic tourists’ revisit intention.
    Date: 2020–06–17
  9. By: Anja Baum
    Abstract: Despite starting as one of the poorest countries in the mid-1980s, Vietnam has achieved rapid developmental progress, reaching lower middle-income status in 2010. In line with rapid economic growth, Vietnam has achieved impressive progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) during this time. This paper sheds light on some elements of Vietnam’s success story, highlighting crucial policies in education and electricity sectors. It undertakes a forward-looking costing exercise that focusses on five sectors – education, health, roads, water, and electricity infrastructure. Achieving the remaining SDGs in Vietnam will be a challenge, with total annual additional spending needs in the 5 subsectors estimated at 7 percent of GDP by 2030.
    Keywords: Economic reforms;Economic stabilization;Economic growth;Poverty;Age-related spending;Vietnam,economic policies,SDGs,education,electricity,infrastructure,health.,WP,Doi Moi,SDG,EVN,VNR,capital spend
    Date: 2020–02–14
  10. By: Agustina, Huteri Dea
    Abstract: Menurut Poerwadarminta ( dalam Buryadi 1976:1144) Kata wacana berasal dari kata vacana ‘bacaan’ dalam bahasa sanskerta. Kata vacana itu kemudian masuk kedalam bahasa jawa baru kemudian diserap kedalam bahasa indonesia wacana ‘ucapan, percakapan, kuliah. Kata wacana dalam bahasa Indonesia dipakai sebagai padanan atau terjemahan, kata discourse dalam bahasa Inggris. Secara etimologis kata discourse itu berasal dari bahasa latin discursus ‘ lari kian ke mari’. Baryadi. P (2002). Pada Analisiss wacana mengenai kohesi dan koherensi telah dilakukan menelitian terdahulu sebagai berikut, menurut Arista (2012), kohesi adalah keserasian hubungan anatara unsur yang satu dan unsur yang lain dalam wacana, koherensi merupakan pertalian semantis antara unsur yang satu dan unsur lainnya dalam wacana. Menurut (Yeti Diyan, 2012), hubungan yang ditandai suatu bentuk lingual yang dampak disebut kohesi. Hubungan yang diwujudkan melalui hubungan makna disebut koherensi. Menurut Fina (dalam Zaimar & Harapan 2015:19), kohesi merupakan keterkaitan unsur-unsur lahiriah suatu teks, misalnya kata-kata yang kita lihat atau saling berkaitan dalam suatu sekuen. Menurut Goziyah (dalam Alwi 2003:427), kohesi merupakan hubungan perkaitan antar proposisi yang dinyatakan secara eksplisit oleh unsur-unsur gramatikal dan semantik dalam kalimat-kalimat yang membentuk wacana, koherensi merupakan hubungan perkaitan antarproposisi.
    Date: 2020–07–01
  11. By: WASHIMI Kazuaki (Bank of Japan)
    Abstract: While international capital transactions can improve economic welfare through the efficient allocation of resources across borders, they can also lead to the destabilization of an economy due to sudden reversals of capital flows. Nevertheless, empirical analyses have shown mixed results depending on the countries and transactions on which the analyses have focused, which highlights that there are different effects depending on the type and contents of the capital transaction. This report introduces recent issues in capital flows and summarizes developments in capital inflows to Asia including Japan. From that perspective, in the medium to long term, Japan will continue to face the challenges in attracting inward FDI and maximizing spillover effects for economic growth, while emerging Asian nations need to develop domestic financial markets and manage the impact of excessive volatility of inward portfolio investments.
    Keywords: International Capital Flows; Foreign Direct Investment; Foreign Portfolio Investment
    JEL: F21 F32
    Date: 2020–07–08
  12. By: Susan Ariel Aaronson (George Washington University)
    Abstract: The arc of history seems to be bending again towards the dynamic nations of Asia (Gordon: 2008). The countries and territories of the Asia Pacific region are both a locus for trade and a source of technology fueled growth. In 2017, Asia recorded the highest growth in merchandise trade volume in 2017 for both exports and imports (WTO: 2018, 32). UNCTAD reports that exports of digitally deliverable services increased substantially across all regions during the period 2005– 2018, with a compound annual growth rate ranging between 6 and 12 per cent (table III.1). Growth was the highest in developing countries, especially in Asia (UNCTAD: 2019, 66). Artificial intelligence (AI) is already a leading source of growth for many Asian countries. The AI market in the Asia Pacific was estimated at around US $450 million in 2017 and is expected to grow at a compounded annual growth rate of 46.9% by 2022 (Ghasemi: 2018). Several analysts believe Asia’s AI growth will soon overtake the US (Lee: 2018; Ghasemi: 2018)
    Keywords: artificial intelligence, AI, ethics, innovation, trade, foreign investment, nationalist
    JEL: O3 O25 O38 O33 F13
    Date: 2020–06
  13. By: Caroline Roulet
    Abstract: Over the past two decades, Asian economies have experienced rapid capital market growth and profound changes in the structure of their financial systems. This paper analyses key developments in advanced and emerging Asian economies since the global financial crisis, focusing on market intermediation of sovereign and corporate debt, equity market development, and the growth of alternative finance and structured products. This enables a forward-looking assessment of the extent to which developments in the medium term may contribute to rising risks in the stability of financial intermediation and sustainable long-term growth with a view to informing policy discussions on economic opportunities and associated risks.
    JEL: F34 F42 G21 G23
    Date: 2020–07–21
  14. By: Masrofah, Siti
    Abstract: The problem of poverty is not only a problem for developing countries such as Indonesia, spacious more this problem is the focus of many countries in the world. Efforts to decrease poverty are as important as decrease unemployment too. Even though Indonesia has succeeded in decreasing poverty, in reality, there are still many Indonesians, especially the provinces in Eastern Indonesia (KTI) who are still on the poverty line. In a Sharia economic perspective, unemployment is the cause of poverty, the higher the unemployment, the greater the opportunity for individuals to be unable to comply with their needs, so the more unemployed, the more people are on the poverty.
    Date: 2020–06–15
  15. By: Mayda, Anna Maria; Parsons, Chris; Pham, Hannah; Vezina, Pierre-Louis
    Abstract: We exploit the designs of two separate U.S. refugee dispersal policies to provide causal evidence that refugees foster outward FDI to their countries of origin. Drawing upon aggregated individual-level refugee and project-level FDI data, we first leverage the quasi-random distribution of refugees "without U.S. ties" after the enactment of the 1980 Refugee Act, to show that outward FDI to refugees' countries of origin grew more from those U.S. commuting zones that hosted greater numbers of refugees after 1990. Secondly, we exploit the specificities of the Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance Act, which resulted in a quasi-experimental dispersal of Vietnamese refugees in 1975, to provide causal evidence that Vietnamese refugees fostered FDI to their home region, while national domestic reforms in Vietnam amplified the positive FDI-creating effects of the overseas Vietnamese diaspora. Overall, our results highlight a new mechanism through which refugees foster development to their origin countries.
    Keywords: Foreign direct investment; networks; Refugees
    JEL: F21 F22 F23
    Date: 2019–12
  16. By: Vuong, Bui Nhat; Tung, Dao Duy (Tay Do University); Giao, Ha Nam Khanh; Chau, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Tushar, Hasanuzzaman
    Abstract: Research on employee commitment to the organization is necessary for human resource management, and the result is applied in practice to improve organizational effectiveness. The aim of the present study is to explore factors affecting organizational commitment at the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Vietnam. Besides, the relationship between organizational commitment and job performance is examined as well. The research was conducted on a sample consisting of 67 white-collar workers and 260 blue-collar workers at SMEs. A total of 327 valid complete questionnaires were input into SPSS 20 database for processing to provide evidence. The research model and hypotheses were tested using the technique of the hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The research results revealed that income, reward and welfare, direct manager, working environment, coworker, and promotion opportunity tended to associate positively with organizational commitment. Besides, the finding also showed that, when the employee has a high organizational commitment, it would lead to high job performance. The main findings of this study provided some managerial implications for SMEs, in general, and managers, in particular. It implies that Vietnam’s small and medium-sized enterprises should improve these six factors to retain employees as well as enhance their job performance.
    Date: 2020–06–17
  17. By: wibowo, kahar adi
    Abstract: Promag sebagai market leader obat maag di Indonesia dengan market share sebesar 68% telah menunjukkan eksistensisya sejak 1971 samapi saat ini. Ekuitas merek yang dibentuk oleh tim promosi melalui kesadaarn merek, asosiasi merek, persepsi kualitas serta loyaliyas merek terbukti mempengaruhi keputusan pembelian masyarakat. Dengan pengujian Uji F secara positif dan signifikan ekuitas merek terhadap keputusan pembelian, Uji T menunjukkan loyalitas merek mempunyai pengaruh besar terhadap keputusan pembelian diikuti oleh asosiasi merek, persepsi kualitas kemudian kesadaran merek.
    Date: 2020–06–15
  18. By: Thi Huong Trinh (International Center for Tropical Agriculture); Dharani Dhar Burra (International Center for Tropical Agriculture); Michel Simioni (UMR MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - CIHEAM-IAMM - Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier - CIHEAM - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéennes - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - Montpellier SupAgro - Centre international d'études supérieures en sciences agronomiques); Stef de Haan (International Center for Tropical Agriculture); Tuyen Thi Thanh Huynh (International Center for Tropical Agriculture); Tung Van Huynh (CTU - Can Tho University [Vietnam]); Andrew D. Jones (University of Michigan [Ann Arbor] - University of Michigan System)
    Abstract: Food environments in developing economies are rapidly evolving, alongside fast-paced changes in the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of populations. These changes are evident in Vietnam with the widespread emergence of supermarkets, and restructuring in traditional markets that are poised to have profound effects on household diets and patterns of food acquisition. This paper examines the relationship between province level supermarket density, quantity and quality indices of food groups acquired by households within those provinces, between 2010 and 2014. An original approach on the basis of open access mixed data sets (administrative data on the number of supermarkets at provincial level as a proxy for supermarket density, and household living standard survey) is proposed and implemented. We find that the differential presence of supermarkets across provinces in Vietnam is associated with the diversity and macronutrient quality of food groups acquired by households. In addition, households with higher per capita expenditure, and those that purchase a larger proportion of food (relative to food obtained from own production), acquire a higher diversity of food groups. Additionally, diversity of food acquired is associated with higher fat and lower carbohydrate shares, and this is independent of the presence of supermarkets. We observe a significant interplay between low household financial capabilities (i.e., low per capita expenditure and low proportion of income spent on food), large household size, ethnic minority status, and the existence of limited number of supermarkets in the food environment. All of these factors are associated with a limited diversity of food groups acquired, as well as higher carbohydrate and lower fat shares. Our findings highlight potential intervention opportunities that can "rewire" local food environments to address the challenge of double burden of malnutrition in the country.
    Keywords: supermarket,diet diversity score,macronutrient shares,compositional data analysis,vietnam household living standard survey,poisson regression
    Date: 2019–05–15
  19. By: Christopher Hoy (AFFILIATION); Russell Toth (The University of Sydney); Nurina Merdikawati (Australian National University)
    Date: 2020–01
  20. By: N, Muhammad Nurhadi
    Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect relationship between cash holdings, profitability, and firm value. The objects of this study were 9 sub-sector construction building companies listied in Indonesia Stock Exchange period 2014-2018. The analysis model used in this study was path analysis, processed using SPSS 23. The results indicated that (1) Cash holdings had a positive and non-significant effect on profitability; (2) Cash holdings had a negative and non-significant effect on firm value; (3) Profitability had a positive and significant effect on firm value; and (4) Cash holdings had a positive and non-significant effect on firm value through profitability.
    Date: 2020–05–31
  21. By: Pierre van der Eng
    Abstract: This paper asks why it took 10 years since a major famine in Indonesia in 1957 for Australia’s food aid to increase in greater amounts, and why food aid was so significant In Australia’s foreign aid to Indonesia during the late 1960s and 1970s. Indonesia’s reluctance to apply for food aid under the Colombo Plan is the reason for the delay. A combination of humanitarian, commercial and international relations interests converged to shape Australia’s rapidly growing food aid to Indonesia after 1966. Food aid contributed to alleviating food shortages and famines in Indonesia. It also supported Australian firms in regaining their share in the growing market for wheat-based products in Indonesia, and in building market share for Australian rice exports, in competition with US producers and the US PL480 food aid program. Food aid also allowed Australia to expand its foreign aid program to Indonesia rapidly after 1966, in support of the government of new President Soeharto and improved bilateral relations.
    Keywords: Australia, Indonesia, international relations, food supply, food aid
    JEL: F14 F35 N55 N57 O19
    Date: 2020–07
  22. By: Kristina Czura; Anett John; Lisa Spantig
    Abstract: Flexible repayment schedules allow borrowers to invest in profitable yet risky projects, but practitioners fear they erode repayment morale. We study repayment choices in rigid and flexible loan contracts that allow discretion in repayment timing. To separate strategic repayment choices from repayment capacity given income shocks, we conduct a lab-in-the-field experiment with microcredit borrowers in the Philippines. Our design allows us to observe social pressure, which is considered both central to group lending, and excessive in practice. In our rigid benchmark contract, repayment is much higher than predicted under simple payoff maximization. Flexibility reduces high social pressure, but comes at the cost of reduced loan repayment. We present theoretical and empirical evidence consistent with a strong social norm for repayment, which is weakened by the introduction of flexibility. Our results imply that cooperative behavior determined by social norms may erode if the applicability of these norms is not straightforward.
    Keywords: peer punishment, social norms, microfinance, flexible repayment
    JEL: O16 D90 G21
    Date: 2020
  23. By: Susan Ariel Aaronson (George Washington University)
    Abstract: The world’s oceans are in trouble. Global warming is causing sea levels to rise and reducing the supply of food in the oceans. The ecological balance of the ocean has been disturbed by invasive species and cholera. Many pesticides and nutrients used in agriculture end up in the coastal waters, resulting in oxygen depletion that kills marine plants and shellfish. Meanwhile the supply of fish is declining due to overfishing. Yet to flourish, humankind requires healthy oceans; the oceans generate half of the oxygen we breathe, and, at any given moment, they contain more than 97% of the world’s water. Oceans provide at least a sixth of the animal protein people eat. Living oceans absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and reduce climate change impacts. Many civil society groups (NGOs) are trying to protect this shared resource. As example, OceanMind uses satellite data and artificial intelligence (AI) to analyze the movements of vessels and compare their activities to historical patterns. The NGO can thus identify damaging behavior such as overfishing
    Keywords: data governance, AI, free trade, FTA, personal data, data protection
    JEL: F13 O3 O25 O38 O33
    Date: 2020–07
  24. By: Zuraina Dato Mansor (Faculty of Economics and Management, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Author-2-Name: Yan Zhen Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Economics and Management, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - High voluntary turnover rate has become the focus of most employers and scholars in related fields. Although employers have attempted to use a variety of retention strategies to retain qualified and skilled employees, the turnover rate remains high in the vast majority of industries around the world. Past studies are concerned mostly with employees' external demands such as salaries, fringe benefits, work conditions and less focus has been given on the importance of employees' internal needs based on psychological capital. Therefore, there is a need to perform a study on the turnover from this perspective as it is crucial not only to retain the individual but also to ensure their contentment and satisfaction are fulfilled by their organizations. Methodology/Technique - This paper undertakes a review of existing literature which specifically addresses the perspectives of individual psychology, and simultaneously explains the relationship between the two psychological factors (namely psychological capital and person-environment fit) and the turnover intention with the mediating effect of job satisfaction. Novelty - The arguments are presented to emphasize the needs to carry out this study. Type of Paper - Review.
    Keywords: Psychological Capital; Person-organization Fit; Job Satisfaction; Turnover Intention.
    JEL: M54 Z32
    Date: 2020–06–30
  25. By: Massimo Filippini (Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH), ETH Zurich and Universita della Svizzera italiana, Switzerland); Suchita Srinivasan (Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH), ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: Voluntary approaches to environmental policy can contribute to stemming environmental degradation in developing countries with weak institutions. We evaluate the role of a behavioral anomaly, limited attention paid by owners or managers, in explaining the voluntary adoption of environmental certification by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the food and beverage industry in Vietnam. We find that firms where owners or managers were inattentive were 30 percentage points less likely to receive environmental certification. Moreover, this effect is larger for firms that were previously inspected for technical violations, and that exported or bribed, and it is weaker for household enterprises.
    Keywords: Voluntary environmental standards; Limited attention; Small and medium enterprises; Food and beverage industry; Vietnam
    JEL: D22 D83 D91 O13 Q56 Q59
    Date: 2020–07
  26. By: Toman Barsbai; Victoria Licuanan; Andreas Steinmayr; Erwin Tiongson; Dean Yang
    Abstract: How do information interventions affect individual efforts to expand social networks? We study a randomized controlled trial of a program providing information on settling in the U.S. for new immigrants from the Philippines. Improved information leads new immigrants to acquire fewer new social network connections. Treated immigrants make 16-28 percent fewer new friends and acquaintances and are 65 percent less likely to receive support from organizations of fellow immigrants. The treatment has no effect on employment, wellbeing, or other outcomes. Consistent with a simple model, the treatment reduces social network links more in places likely to have lower costs of acquiring network links (those with more prior fellow immigrants). Information and social network links appear to be substitutes in this context: better-informed immigrants invest less in expanding their social networks upon arrival. Our results suggest that endogenous reductions in acquisition of social network connections can reduce the effectiveness of information interventions.
    JEL: D83 D85 F22
    Date: 2020–06
  27. By: Jusmiana, Andi (Universitas Pejuang Republik Indonesia); , HERIANTO (STKIP Yapti Jeneponto)
    Abstract: Kata statistik berasal dari bahasa Latin "Ratio Status" yang dalam bahasa Itali ekivalen dengan kata "Region di stato". Statistik dalam arti sempit hanya didefinisikan sebagai fakta-fakta berbentuk angka yang terangkum dalam tabel-tabel atau kumpulan angka pada tabel yang menerangkan suatu fenomena. Pengertian secara luas statistik diartikan sebagai metoda, cara atau teknik mengumpulkan data, mengolah data, menyajikan data, mengalisis data dan menarik kesimpulan berdasarkan data. Banyak buku yang mendefiniskan statistik secara berbeda, dalam arti sempit biasanya hanya disebut statistik, sedangkan statistik dalam arti luas biasa disebut statistika. Kegunaan Statistik Dalam Bidang Kesehatan, diantaranya: 1) memberi keterangan tentang masalah-masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang dihadapi serta hal-hal perlu mendapat prioritas; 2) Memberikan keterangan penyebaran penyakit berdasarkan orang yang diserang, waktu penyerangan, luasnya wilayah serang dan kecenderungannya; 3) memperkirakan perkembangan suatu penyakit dengan berdasarkan periodisasinya/trend; 4) memperkirakan faktor-faktor penyebab masalah, fakta yang akan dan telah terjadi; 5) memperkirakan sumber daya dan potensi pemanfaatan serta pengembangannya dalam upaya mengantisipasi permasalahan yang terjadi; 6) merencanakan upaya yang efektif, efisien berdasarkan kenyataan, prioritas dan sumber daya yang tersedia; 7) memahami, menganalisis data dan informasi guna membantu mengambil keputusan; 8) menganalisis hambatan pelaksanaan program kesehatan masyarakat serta alternatif pemecahannya; 9) menilai hasil-hasil kegiatan yang telah dicapai; 10) mendokumentasikan semua data kesehatan masyarakat, untuk dapat dibandingkan dengan daerah lain atau keadaan yang akan datang.
    Date: 2020–07–01
  28. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - AGROCAMPUS OUEST - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique)
    Abstract: The global dairy sector is growing steadily due to the increased dairy requirements of a growing population and a gradual shift in diets. While Asian countries are, since a long time, at the heart of this dynamic, which stimulates the development of exports in three main geographical areas (European Union, New Zealand and the United States), the place occupied by Africa is studied here specifically. With a focus on the countries of West Africa, this paper successively discusses the consumption of dairy products, the production of milk and the exchange of dairy products. This analysis uses long-term statistics from FAO (1961 to 2017) and customs statistics from 2000 to 2017 (for the database BACI) or 2018 (COMEXT). An attention is paid to the question of imports of these countries, particularly of "fat filled milk powder" (a product that corresponds to a mixture of vegetable fat and milk powder) from the European Union (EU). Given the low tariffs applied at the borders and the highly competitive nature of these products, there is a debate about the future of local milk production and the strategy deployed by the European authorities to support or not, through its agricultural policy, the African agriculture's development.
    Abstract: Le secteur laitier mondial connait un développement soutenu en raison de l'augmentation des besoins en produits laitiers d'une population en croissance et d'un changement progressif des régimes alimentaires. Si les pays asiatiques sont depuis longtemps placés au coeur de cette dynamique, ce qui stimule le développement des exportations dans trois grandes zones géographiques (l'Union européenne, la Nouvelle-Zélande et les Etats-Unis), la place qu'occupe l'Afrique dans la « planète laitière » est étudiée ici de façon spécifique. Moyennant une focalisation sur le cas des pays de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, cette communication aborde successivement la consommation de produits laitiers, la production de lait et les échanges de produits laitiers. Pour ce faire, cette analyse mobilise, d'une part, les données statistiques de la FAO sur une longue période (1961 à 2017) et, d'autre part, les statistiques des douanes sur la période 2000 à 2017 (pour la base de données BACI) ou 2018 (COMEXT). Une attention est portée à la question des importations de ces pays, notamment en mélanges de lait écrémé et de matière grasse végétale en poudre en provenance de l'Union Européenne (UE). Compte tenu de la faiblesse des droits de douane appliqués aux frontières et du caractère hautement compétitif de ces produits, un débat est engagé autour du devenir de la production laitière locale et de la stratégie déployée par les autorités européennes pour soutenir ou non, au travers de sa politique agricole, le développement de l'agriculture africaine.
    Keywords: dairy sector,west Africa,globalization,trade,milk powder,competitiveness,exchange,afrique de l'ouest,mondialisation,poudre de lait,filière lait,échange,compétitivité
    Date: 2019–06–12
  29. By: Borooah, Vani
    Abstract: This chapter Borooah focuses on the reservation of jobs in government and the public sector which is a corollary of the Indian government’s constitutionally mandated duty to favour persons from the “reserved” categories (the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes, and the Other Backward Classes) at the expense of persons from the “non-reserved” or “general” categories, in public sector jobs. Given that India’s experiment with affirmative action has been emulated in other countries (Malaysia, Nigeria, Sri Lanka), the purpose of this chapter is to investigate — using unit record data from the latest available NSS round (68th ) and an earlier round (55th ) pertaining to a decade earlier, of Employment — the extent to which jobs reservation has benefited persons from the “reserved categories” by offering them a greater share of regular salaried and wage employment than they might have obtained in its absence.
    Keywords: India, Public Sector, Jobs Reservation
    JEL: J41 J45 J71 J78
    Date: 2019–07

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