nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2020‒03‒16
forty papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Climate-smart villages: key to a sustainable future in rural communities By Ferrer, Alice Joan de la Gente
  2. Structural transformation in Southeast Asian countries and key drivers: By Bathla, Seema; D'Souza, Alwin; Joshi, Pramod Kumar
  3. Local Balinese Seeds Preservation Project By Gusti Ayu Komang Sri Mahayuni
  4. Myanmar; Technical Assistance Report-External Sector Statistics Mission By International Monetary Fund
  5. Transformation and sources of growth in Southeast Asian agriculture: By Birthal, Pratap S.; Joshi, Pramod Kumar; Roy, Devesh; Pandey, Ghanshyam
  6. Exploring transformational adaptation strategy through rice policy reform in the Philippines: By Pradesha, Angga; Robinson, Sherman; Rosegrant, Mark W.; Perez, Nicostrato; Thomas, Timothy S.
  7. The Development of Economy In Indonesia (Perekonomian Indonesia KP B ) By Fauziah, Bayzurah Septi
  8. Empowerment in agricultural value chains: Mixed methods evidence from the Philippines: By Malapit, Hazel J.; Ragasa, Catherine; Martinez, Elena M.; Rubin, Deborah; Seymour, Gregory; Quisumbing, Agnes R.
  9. Nutrition sensitive food system: Policy analysis and investment framework for Myanmar: By Babu, Suresh Chandra
  10. Myanmar; Technical Assistance Report-External Sector Statistics Mission By International Monetary Fund
  11. Building a climate change-resilient food system in Korea: The case of extension and technology dissemination services: By Won, Jieun; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Rana, Akriti
  12. Household dietary patterns and the cost of a nutritious diet in Myanmar: By Mahrt, Kristi; Mather, David; Herforth, Anna; Headey, Derek D.
  13. Learning from Power Sector Reform Experiences: The Case of Vietnam By Lee,Alan David; Gerner,Franz
  14. Sex Ratio and Religion in Vietnam By Vu, Tien Manh; Yamada, Hiroyuki
  15. The Rise of Domestic Capital Markets for Corporate Financing By Abraham,Facundo; Cortina Lorente,Juan Jose; Schmukler,Sergio L.
  16. Supply chain trade in East Africa: Prospects and challenges* By Jaime de Melo; Anna Twum
  17. Production shocks, exports and market prices: An analysis of the rice sector in Myanmar: By Dorosh, Paul; Win, Myat Thida; Van Asselt, Joanna
  18. STEM education and outcomes in Vietnam: Views from the social gap and gender issues By Vuong, Quan-Hoang; Pham, Thanh-Hang; Tran, Trung; Vuong, Thu-Trang; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Linh, Nguyen Phuc Khanh; La, Viet-Phuong; Ho, Toan Manh
  19. STEM education and outcomes in Vietnam: Views from the social gap and gender issues By Vuong, Quan-Hoang; Pham, Thanh-Hang; Tran, Trung; Vuong, Thu-Trang; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Linh, Nguyen Phuc Khanh; La, Viet-Phuong; Ho, Toan Manh
  20. Implikasi Kebijakan Otonomi Daerah Indonesia By Madani, Muhlis
  21. Ethnicity differentials in academic achievements: The role of time investments By Nguyen, Ha Trong; Connelly, Luke B.; Le, Huong Thu; Mitrou, Francis; Taylor, Catherine L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.
  22. Exploring the Heterogeneous Effects of Export Promotion By Olarreaga,Marcelo; Sperlich,Stefan; Trachsel,Virginie
  23. Poverty prevalence and correlates of household expenditure in four lowland areas of rural Papua New Guinea: By Schmidt, Emily; Gilbert, Rachel; Holtemeyer, Brian; Mahrt, Kristi
  24. Les barrières pour le développement de produits verts et la rentabilité des PME vietnamiennes By Arnaud Le Van
  25. Are the stock indices of FTSE Malaysia, China and USA causally linked together ? By Nasir, Nur Alissa; Masih, Mansur
  26. Labour rights and civil society empowerment in the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement By Mai Ha Thu; Schweißhelm, Erwin
  27. Annual report 2018: CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM) By CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM)
  28. Community-Based Approach to Sustainable Stingless Beekeeping in Sorsogon, Philippines By Maria Dulce Jovillano-Mostoles
  29. Philippines; Selected Issues By International Monetary Fund
  30. Labor Market Impacts and Responses : The Economic Consequences of a Marine Environmental Disaster By Hoang,Trung Xuan; Le,Duong Trung; Nguyen,Ha Minh; Vuong,Nguyen Dinh Tuan
  31. Philippines; 2019 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; and Staff Report By International Monetary Fund
  32. Returns to Low-Skilled International Migration : Evidence from the Bangladesh-Malaysia Migration Lottery Program By Mobarak,Mushfiq; Sharif,Iffath Anwar; Shrestha,Maheshwor
  33. The Impact of Minimum Wage Hikes on Employment and Wages in Cambodia By Shrestha,Maheshwor
  34. Evaluating the welfare effects of nonfarm enterprises on rural households in Papua New Guinea By Schmidt, Emily; Rosenbach, Gracie; Mueller, Valerie
  35. Overview of the agricultural modernization in Southeast Asia: By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Joshi, Pramod Kumar
  36. Japan’s Outward FDI Potential By Theresa M. Greaney; Kozo Kiyota
  37. Sự hài lòng đối với công việc của người lao động tại công ty TNHH Master English By Giao, Ha Nam Khanh
  38. IoT-enabled farms and climate-adaptive agriculture technologies: Investment lessons from Singapore By Montesclaros, Jose Ma. Luis; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Teng, Paul S.
  39. Finding the best ‘ways’ with fish passes around dams By Phonekhampheng, Oudom
  40. Modelling the economic impact of the Rohingya influx in Southern Bangladesh: By Filipski, Mateusz J.; Tiburcio, Ernesto; Dorosh, Paul A.; Hoddinott, John F.; Rosenbach, Gracie

  1. By: Ferrer, Alice Joan de la Gente
    Abstract: The CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) has been pilot-testing climate-smart villages (CSVs) in South East Asia (SEA), in Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao PDR and the Philippines, since 2014. The CSVs serve as loci for community mobilisation and participatory processes, where knowledge and capabilities of men and women are enhanced and their motivation is promoted to take action towards food security, agricultural productivity, and climate change adaptation and mitigation. In the CSVs, evidence is generated at local scales of what Climate Smart Agriculture options work best – where, why and how – and this evidence is used to draw out lessons for agricultural development practitioners, policy makers and investors from local to global levels. The CSV approach, being context-responsive, process-focused and outcomeoriented, strengthens existing village programs and structures towards climate action. The CSV approach is now being considered in programs in the Philippines, Vietnam and Myanmar. Here we report how the CSVs have been contextualised, how participatory processes have been implemented, and how emerging outcomes have been attained.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–08
  2. By: Bathla, Seema; D'Souza, Alwin; Joshi, Pramod Kumar
    Abstract: This study’s objective is to examine the factors that have driven structural transformation (ST) in the Southeast Asian (SEA) economies and the policies supporting the process. It sets the stage by evaluating the ST in each country, quantifying the contribution of “within sector†and “structural change†to overall productivity growth and estimating the turning points (TPs) to gauge the prospects of income convergence. Eight SEA countries, undergoing a steady rate of economic growth —Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Viet Nam, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand (CLMVPMIT) are chosen for analysis. We find their progress on ST to be consistent with the theory and historical patterns experienced in several developed and developing countries. However, progress is diverse across these countries and lags behind developed countries, indicating that labor is not exiting agriculture as fast as agriculture’s share of value added has been declining. The ST has decreased from 49 percent in Thailand to almost 3 percent each in Cambodia and Malaysia during 1991 to 2016. Further, the contribution of within change to productivity, which was pivotal during the 1990s in each country is rather subdued during the 2000s, thereby giving comparative primacy to structural change. A relatively higher—57 to 80 percent—contribution of structural change in Cambodia and Lao PDR, together with productivity growth, may be explained by increasing migration and trade in nonagriculture products. We also find that while Lao PDR, Thailand, and Indonesia have reached their TPs, other nations, especially the poorer ones such as Viet Nam, Myanmar, and Philippines are predicted to take at least a decade towards this goal. Empirical analysis suggests ST in CLMVPMIT is positively driven by agricultural productivity, terms of trade, and public investments in infrastructure, with little role for rural to urban migration and market integration. Large inter-sectoral productivity differentials across SEA countries, other than in Cambodia and Malaysia, necessitates to accelerate agricultural disproportionate share of the labor force in agriculture through higher productivity.
    Keywords: SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, agricultural productivity, labour productivity, policies, land productivity, diversification, infrastructure, structural transformation, turning points, public policies,
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Gusti Ayu Komang Sri Mahayuni
    Abstract: Indonesia, one of the largest agricultural countries, is facing environmental threats and extinction of local seeds. Over time, more and more farmers have been depending on hybrid and transgenic seeds that need inputs, such as chemical pesticides, fungicides, and fertilizers. Farmers have to buy from companies that produce seeds and chemical fertilizers. Furthermore, this practice is eradicating Indonesia’s indigenous plants and biodiversity, such as local squash and local beans that Balinese people usually used for ceremonies. The Local Balinese Seeds Preservation Project of the IDEP Foundation (Yayasan IDEP Selaras Alam) aims to implement sustainable agriculture in the communities of Bali. IDEP Foundation is a nonprofit organization that supports sustainable development through permaculture. Its seed preservation project seeks to implement seed-saving activities in local communities that are located in Banjar Dauh Uma, Batuan village, Sukawati, Gianyar regency. Seed saving, which is also part of permaculture principles, is a high-potential method to implement in any agricultural field. This is also an urgent matter for farmers in Indonesia and needs to be developed because Indonesia does not have an integrated seed bank on a national scale. The one-year project was completed in several stages. The first stage was a desk study on seed varieties that currently exist in Bali, local Balinese seeds, and disbursement areas. The next phase was implementing the local seed-saving process, improving the quality of seeds, and educating the communities about local seeds development. The goal was to come up with the first complete collection of local Balinese seeds that could be replicated in other areas across Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries. This project targeted to benefit 10 households in Banjar Dauh Uma that would be able to produce and grow their own food. Furthermore, the project aimed to promote savings and generate additional income from surplus seeds that IDEP Foundation helps distribute to markets in Bali.Â
    Keywords: Hindu Balinese ceremony, Balinese tradition, sustainable agriculture practice, local Balinese vegetable seeds, seed preservation, Indonesia
    Date: 2019
  4. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: A technical assistance (TA) mission on external sector statistics (ESS) was conducted for the Central Bank of Myanmar (CBM) in Nay Pyi Taw during June 3–5, 2019, as part of the Project on the Improvement of ESS in the Asia–Pacific region. The Project is funded by the Government of Japan; managed by the IMF’s Statistics Department (STA); and implemented by the IMF Capacity Development Office in Thailand (CDOT). The work on verifying reasonable size of coverage adjustments for Myanmar’s imports was addressed during the mission, using bilateral trade data from Thailand and China. Under conservative scenario (i.e., excluding trade through land border check points which potentially involves exports from Thailand and China going through Myanmar onward to the final destination countries), the analysis suggested that Myanmar’s 2018 imports are under-reported by approximately 1.9 billion USD for Myanmar’s imports from Thailand (total discrepancies are 2.0 billion USD), and another 1.9 billion USD for Myanmar’s imports from China (total discrepancies are 4.3 billion USD).1
    Date: 2020–02–14
  5. By: Birthal, Pratap S.; Joshi, Pramod Kumar; Roy, Devesh; Pandey, Ghanshyam
    Abstract: Over the past few decades, the agricultural sector of Southeast Asia has experienced robust growth and undergone a structural transformation albeit differentially across the countries in the region. The main aims of this paper are to understand the process of transformation and sources of growth in agriculture in the broader context of economy-wide changes in domestic and international markets, and to suggest technological, institutional and policy measures for faster, efficient and sustainable growth. Our findings show faster growth in agriculture in comparatively low-income countries, with technological change, area expansion and diversification being the main drivers. On the other hand, agricultural growth in high-income countries has been relatively slow, and driven by price increases, mainly of the export-oriented commercial crops, such as oil-palm, rubber and coconut; and also, by area expansion. In view of the fixed supply of land and high volatility in global food prices, area and price driven growth is unlikely to sustain in the long-run. For efficient, sustainable and inclusive growth, the recourse has to be with exploiting potential of (i) existing and frontier technologies, by investing more in agricultural research and extension systems, and (ii) diversification of production portfolio towards higher-value food commodities by strengthening institutions that link farmers to remunerative markets; and investing in post-harvest infrastructure for food processing.
    Keywords: SOUTHEAST ASIA, SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, agricultural production, agricultural prices, crop yield, gross national product, diversification, agricultural development, agricultural transformation, labor productivity, agricultural growth, decomposition of growth,
    Date: 2019
  6. By: Pradesha, Angga; Robinson, Sherman; Rosegrant, Mark W.; Perez, Nicostrato; Thomas, Timothy S.
    Abstract: The Philippines is much more prone to climate change effects than are many other countries. The potential impact on the agriculture sector is of particular concern, given its vital role in the economy and for vulnerable households. Most research warns of the negative impact of climate change on yields for major cereal crops, which could threaten food security and hinder the long-run development process. Incremental adaptation through the introduction of new crop varieties, improved agricultural management practices, and more efficient irrigation are expected to reduce yield losses. However, efforts to promote systemwide adjustment would have broader effects, especially as the risk of climate change increases. This study proposes a new approach for adaptation strategies by exploring policy reform in agriculture as a transformative way to help economic agents adapt to climate change. We specifically explore the rice policy reform currently being pursued by the government through the abolishment of the rice quota program. We find this reform could help transform the agricultural and economic system by allowing scarce resources move from low- to high-productivity sectors, thus increasing the country’s adaptive capacity. However, the rice farmer and vulnerable groups that are prone to climate shocks are adversely affected by the policy. Thus, we introduce alternative intervention policies to complement the reform agenda by providing a cash transfers program to vulnerable groups or a subsidy to support rice farmers. Both offer less impact in economic efficiency gains, but the cash transfer program is superior in terms of supporting the vulnerable group in coping with climate change under the rice reform policy. This shows that the transformational adaptation strategy may create a welfare loss to certain agents but that adding government intervention could act as the second-best policy and become a transition pathway before the whole system transforms to reach the optimal efficiency point when the intervention program is eventually phased out.
    Keywords: PHILIPPINES, SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, climate change, rice, food security, food prices, agricultural policies, food policies, transformational adaptation, rice policy, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model, policy reform,
    Date: 2019
  7. By: Fauziah, Bayzurah Septi
    Abstract: Perekonomian indonesia "The Development of Economy in Indonesian" KP B Dessy olivya (130117910) Novi Febri Cristanti (130117119) Bayzurah Septi Fauziah (130218298) Maughfirotus Silfa (130218270) Steffi Monika (130218310)
    Date: 2020–02–21
  8. By: Malapit, Hazel J.; Ragasa, Catherine; Martinez, Elena M.; Rubin, Deborah; Seymour, Gregory; Quisumbing, Agnes R.
    Abstract: Women’s participation and empowerment in value chains are goals that concern many development organizations, but there has been limited systematic, rigorous research to track these goals between and within value chains (VCs). We use the survey-based project-level Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro-WEAI) to measure women’s and men’s empowerment in the abaca, coconut, seaweed, and swine VCs in the Philippines. Results show that most women and men in all four VCs are disempowered, but unlike in many other countries, Filipino women in this sample are generally as empowered as men. Pro-WEAI results suggest that respect within the household and attitudes about gender-based violence (GBV) are the largest sources of disempowerment for both women and men, followed by control over use of income and autonomy in income-related decisions. Excessive workload and lack of group membership are other important sources of disempowerment, with some variation across VCs and nodes along VCs. Across all four VCs, access to community programs is associated with higher women’s empowerment, and access to extension services and education are associated with higher men’s empowerment. Our results show that, despite the egalitarian gender norms in the Philippines, persistent gender stereotypes influence men’s and women’s empowerment and VC participation.
    Keywords: PHILIPPINES, SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, empowerment, agriculture, supply chain, women's participation, gender, livelihoods, agricultural markets, Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index,
    Date: 2019
  9. By: Babu, Suresh Chandra
    Abstract: Ending malnutrition in all forms is a global development priority. Investment in nutrition can yield high returns in terms of reduced health costs, increased productivity and improved human resources capacity and economic growth (Covic & and Hendriks 2016; Shekar et al. 2017). Nutrition policy-making and program interventions in developing countries fail to bring together several sectors that contribute to nutrition improvement. Since food systems influence the type of food produced, understanding relevant drivers of a country’s food system with an emphasis on nutrition can help to end malnutrition (Per Pinstrup-Andersen 2012a; HLPE 2017; Babu and Kataki 2003). In this paper, we adopt a food systems perspective to review Myanmar’s current food system. With the help of a review of the literature and two national consultative stakeholder workshops, we examine Myanmar’s current food system. This is a crucial step since it identifies gaps existing in the current policies/ strategies being implemented. After the review, we developed an AIT (analyze gaps, identify priority investment areas, and track progress) operational framework that can be used to increase the nutrition-sensitivity of a food system. Applying this framework to Agriculture Development Strategy (ADS), this paper presents an analysis of the gaps that need to be addressed to make ADS nutrition-sensitive, provide priority investment areas, and a tracking system which monitors the progress of these investments.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, nutrition, famine, food systems, malnutrition, agricultural policies, nutrition policies, systems analysis, nutrition sensitive food systems, nutrition-sensitive policies,
    Date: 2019
  10. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: A technical assistance (TA) mission on external sector statistics (ESS) was conducted for the Directorate of Investment and Company Administration of Myanmar (DICA) in Yangon during April 10–12, 2019. This was the sixth mission under the Project on the Improvement of ESS in the Asia–Pacific region. The Project is funded by the Government of Japan; managed by the IMF Statistics Department (STA); and implemented by the IMF Capacity Development Office in Thailand (CDOT). Intensive hands-on training provided to the DICA through peripatetic TA missions have effectively contributed to building up capacity for DICA compilers, which have gradually materialized and translated into successful FDI surveys (FDIS) conducted last year. Data coverage has significantly improved through inclusion of foreign direct investment (FDI) in oil and gas sector, which is one of the largest FDI recipients for Myanmar. Moreover, the DICA also compiles quarterly FDI flows and positions; and submits to the Central Bank of Myanmar (CBM) on a regular basis to support the CBM’s compilation of the balance of payments and international investment position (IIP). The DICA also participates in the Coordinated Direct Investment Survey (CDIS), with regular submission of data to the STA.
    Date: 2020–02–14
  11. By: Won, Jieun; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Rana, Akriti
    Abstract: Climate change affects various stages of the food system including production, processing, distribution, and consumption. To cope with this vulnerability, many nations have engaged in a global movement to establish strategies aimed at food security. As in other countries, in the Republic of Korea climate change has had, and will continue to have, a significant influence on the food system, creating many uncertainties. In response, the Korean government and relevant agencies under national strategies have implemented various policy measures and programs to respond to the effects of climate change and strengthen the country’s food resiliency. In this paper we examine those strategies, measures, and specific programs, and in particular those that involve agricultural extension and technology dissemination. These various sector-specific or cross-sector strategies have not only counteracted climate change impacts but also improved the incomes of farming households, who have struggled with import competition and low profitability under Korea’s generally slowing economy. The Korean government has also implemented extension and tech dissemination projects in and with developing countries with the aim of building resilient food systems in the era of climate change. We find that such programs would benefit from the formation and maintenance of international networks, and moreover, each international program must be preceded by a thorough needs assessment that takes into account the regional context and each project should promote appropriate technologies-that is, technologies customized or particularly suited to the local context.
    Keywords: SOUTH KOREA, REPUBLIC OF KOREA, EAST ASIA, ASIA, climate change, resilience, extension activities, advisory services, agricultural extension, technology transfer, smallholders, Information and Communication Technologies (icts), food systems, climate-resilient food system, extension and technology dissemination services, smallholder farmers,
    Date: 2019
  12. By: Mahrt, Kristi; Mather, David; Herforth, Anna; Headey, Derek D.
    Abstract: Despite significant poverty reduction over the past decade, undernutrition in Myanmar remains widespread. Food prices play an important role in influencing diets and nutrition outcomes, especially for poorer households. In this study, we use national household food expenditure data to assess dietary patterns and estimate regional costs of nutritious diets in Myanmar relative to a recommended diet derived from food-based dietary guidelines. We estimate these costs following the cost of a recommended diet method (CoRD), which is based on minimum food group prices. We also develop and demonstrate an extension of this method using food group prices that reflect typical food consumption preferences (CoRD-FP). We assess the affordability of the recommended diet by comparing observed household food expenditure to the CoRD and the CoRD-FP. In 2015, 52 percent of the Myanmar population lived in households with food expenditure below the CoRD-FP, compared to 70 percent in 2010. Even the CoRD, which measures the lowest possible cost of meeting the recommended diet, exceeded household food expenditure for 32 and 24 percent of the population in 2010 and 2015, respectively. Low affordability is driven by high costs of animal-source foods and vegetables, which account for half the CoRD-FP. A majority of households over-consume staples and under-consume micronutrient-dense food groups. This imbalance is driven in part by the high caloric price of nutrient-dense foods relative to rice. The inability of more than half of households in Myanmar to afford a recommended diet at existing food expenditure levels suggests the need for policies that reduce the prices of micronutrient-dense foods, ideally through pro-poor improvements in agricultural productivity and marketing.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, food prices, dietary guidelines, diet, nutrition, food consumption, dietary costs, food-based dietary guidelines and recommendations, dietary patterns, nutrient adequacy, food expenditure, nutritious diet,
    Date: 2019
  13. By: Lee,Alan David; Gerner,Franz
    Abstract: Vietnam's power sector has developed rapidly since the 1990s to become a top performer among developing countries. This success has occurred mostly under a state-owned utility, Electricity Vietnam. Select market-oriented reforms to date have also had some positive impact. By the late 1990s, the Government realized the need to gradually introduce competition to ensure long-term sustainability without jeopardizing security of supply for the fast-growing economy. Vietnam's 2004 Electricity Law has provided the framework to develop a competitive power market, unbundle Electricity Vietnam, set prices that better reflect costs, promote private investment, and establish a regulatory authority. Today, state-owned entities continue to dominate the sector. Whereas the power market is partially competitive, improved operational efficiency and financial performance of generators in this market has contributed to keeping generation costs relatively low. Plans are broadly on track for further extensive reforms, including a clean energy transition. Lessons include that state-centric institutions can develop the power sector with top-level government commitment, highly-qualified staff, and consensus among sector institutions. Gradual reforms offer an opportunity to learn by doing; yet, the sequence of reforms matters. Introducing market mechanisms ahead of other elements may limit the market effectiveness and even make subsequent reform steps more difficult.
    Date: 2020–03–02
  14. By: Vu, Tien Manh; Yamada, Hiroyuki
    Abstract: We examine whether the probability of having a boy aged below 5 years in households and communes is associated with religious individuals in Vietnam using data from the 1999 Population and Housing Census (on 76 million people) and 2007 Establishment Census (on religious establishments). Our results show low probability of having a boy aged below 5 years among religious households. Moreover, using Vietnam’s 1955–1974 North-South division that resulted in different religious developments, we apply a commune-level instrumental-variable approach. From this analysis, we find a higher serious follower ratio associated with a lower boy ratio within communes and certain non-believer communities.
    Keywords: Sex Ratio; Skewed Sex Ratio at Birth; Religion; Son Preference; Vietnam
    JEL: J13 J16 N35 Z1
    Date: 2020–02–28
  15. By: Abraham,Facundo; Cortina Lorente,Juan Jose; Schmukler,Sergio L.
    Abstract: During the past decades, firms from emerging economies have significantly increased the amount of financing obtained in capital markets. Whereas the literature argues that international markets have been an important contributor to this process, the role of domestic markets is mostly unknown. By examining the case of East Asia, this paper shows that domestic markets have been a key driver of the observed trends in capital market financing since the early 2000s. As domestic markets developed, more and smaller firms gained access to equity and corporate bond financing. Domestic markets also helped some corporations to diversify funding sources and obtain domestic currency financing. Policy reforms following the Asian Financial Crisis accompanied the growth of domestic markets. Part of the reforms were aimed at developing domestic capital markets for small and medium-size enterprises. Although these markets have developed significantly, they still serve relatively few corporations, albeit from new sectors.
    Date: 2019–05–07
  16. By: Jaime de Melo (FERDI - Fondation pour les Etudes et Recherches sur le Développement International); Anna Twum
    Abstract: Deeper regional integration is the main objective of the recently launched Africa Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA). Supply chain trade both at the level of the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) and across RECs are to spearhead the AfCFTA. Indicators of Global Value Chains (GVC) participation show that even though the EAC and other African RECs have increased their participation in GVCs over the period 1990-2015 surpassing MERCOSUR they still lag behind the ASEAN region. There has also been little improvement in the participation of African RECs in Regional Value Chains (RVCs). This outcome is not due to a lack of ambition. Indeed, African Regional Economic Communities (RECs) have prioritized strengthening deeper RVC integration as a stepping stone to their development. The EAC has gone as far as targeting specific value chains: cotton, wood and paper, food and beverages among others, but with very little to show for it so far; only 1.7% of total gross exports of the EAC are related to RVCs. This is in contrast to ASEAN (17.2%), MERCOSUR (4.6%) and SADC (3%); within the EAC, Rwanda has made impressive progress while Uganda has underperformed. Overall, over the period 1990-2015, the EAC and other African RECs have participated mostly in nonregional value chains along forward rather than backward participation (i.e. their value-added exports are mostly on intermediates that enter exports of other trade partners while the share of foreign exports in their exports is low) activities. This paper singles out for discussion three obstacles hampering greater inclusion in global value chains: (i) high tariffs on imports of intermediates; (ii) restrictive rules of origin, an obstacle to intra-regional trade; (iii) high ad-valorem equivalents of barriers to connectivity and more generally to trade in services. Lastly, controlling for per capita income, correlations for the sample of 149 countries over the period 1995-2015 confirms that overall GVC participation is negatively associated with increases on the tariffs on imports and exports of intermediates as well as on trade costs. However, forward GVC participation (i.e. the share of intermediates of foreign origin) is positively associated with the number of mobile phone subscribers a proxy for digital connectivity.
    Date: 2020–02–24
  17. By: Dorosh, Paul; Win, Myat Thida; Van Asselt, Joanna
    Abstract: Since 2012/13, rice exports to China (which may have reached two million tons in 2015/16) boosted total demand for Myanmar’s rice and rice prices. In mid-2016, however, China stopped rice imports through the main land entry point, putting substantial downward pressure on prices. Analysis presented in this paper, based on econometric estimates of consumption parameters and a simple model of Myanmar’s rice supply and demand, suggests that market prices would fall by 26 to 43 percent or more (in real terms) in the absence of increased exports to the world market and/or government domestic procurement. Such a decline in prices could have seriously harmed Myanmar’s rice producers, including many poor farmers with marketable surpluses. Model simulations suggest that government procurement of about one million tons would limit the estimated price decline to only 17 to 30 percent. Further refinements in the simulations are needed to take account for the seasonal nature of paddy production in Myanmar, possible price-responsiveness of export demand and the effects of changes in paddy incomes on farmer demand for rice. Medium-term analysis of procurement, storage and future sales is needed to analyze fiscal costs under various scenarios, as well, covering alternative shocks to production, export demand and world prices. Nonetheless, the main results are clear: without substantial market interventions on the order of one million tons (milled rice equivalent), the paddy (rice) price could fall dramatically when production increases or export demand declines.
    Keywords: MYANMAR, BURMA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, ASIA, rice, market prices, foreign trade, trade, agricultural production, price stabilization, domestic consumption, product quality, exports, agricultural trade, rice price, rice production, agricultural trade policy, rice economy, rice consumption,
    Date: 2019
  18. By: Vuong, Quan-Hoang; Pham, Thanh-Hang; Tran, Trung; Vuong, Thu-Trang; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Linh, Nguyen Phuc Khanh; La, Viet-Phuong; Ho, Toan Manh (Thanh Tay University Hanoi)
    Abstract: United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals 4 Quality Education has highlighted major challenges for all nations to ensure inclusive and equitable quality access to education, facilities for children, and young adults. The SDG4 is even more important for developing nations as receiving proper education or vocational training, especially in science and technology, means a foundational step in improving other aspects of their citizens’ lives. However, the extant scientific literature about STEM education still lacks focus on developing countries, even more so in the rural area. Using a dataset of 4967 observations of junior high school students from a rural area in a transition economy, the article employs the Bayesian approach to identify the interaction between gender, socioeconomic status, and students’ STEM academic achievements. The results report gender has little association with STEM academic achievements; however, female students (αa_Sex[2] = 2.83) appear to have achieved better results than their male counterparts (αa_Sex[1] = 2.68). Families with better economic status, parents with a high level of education (βb(EduMot) = 0.07), or non-manual jobs (αa_SexPJ[4] = 3.25) are found to be correlated with better study results. On the contrary, students with zero (βb(OnlyChi) = -0.14) or more than two siblings (βb(NumberofChi) = -0.01) are correlated with lower study results compared to those with only one sibling. These results imply the importance of providing women with opportunities for better education. Policymakers should also consider maintaining family size so the parents can provide their resources to each child equally.
    Date: 2020–02–23
  19. By: Vuong, Quan-Hoang; Pham, Thanh-Hang; Tran, Trung; Vuong, Thu-Trang; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Linh, Nguyen Phuc Khanh; La, Viet-Phuong; Ho, Toan Manh (Thanh Tay University Hanoi)
    Abstract: United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals 4 Quality Education has highlighted major challenges for all nations to ensure inclusive and equitable quality access to education, facilities for children, and young adults. The SDG4 is even more important for developing nations as receiving proper education or vocational training, especially in science and technology, means a foundational step in improving other aspects of their citizens’ lives. However, the extant scientific literature about STEM education still lacks focus on developing countries, even more so in the rural area. Using a dataset of 4967 observations of junior high school students from a rural area in a transition economy, the article employs the Bayesian approach to identify the interaction between gender, socioeconomic status, and students’ STEM academic achievements. The results report gender has little association with STEM academic achievements; however, female students (αa_Sex[2] = 2.83) appear to have achieved better results than their male counterparts (αa_Sex[1] = 2.68). Families with better economic status, parents with a high level of education (βb(EduMot) = 0.07), or non-manual jobs (αa_SexPJ[4] = 3.25) are found to be correlated with better study results. On the contrary, students with zero (βb(OnlyChi) = -0.14) or more than two siblings (βb(NumberofChi) = -0.01) are correlated with lower study results compared to those with only one sibling. These results imply the importance of providing women with opportunities for better education. Policymakers should also consider maintaining family size so the parents can provide their resources to each child equally.
    Date: 2020–02–23
  20. By: Madani, Muhlis
    Abstract: Undang-Undang Nomor 22 Tahun 1999 yang telah diubah dengan undang-undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2004 berimplikasi terhadap model penyelenggaraan pemerintahan dari structural efficiency model menjadi local democracy model.
    Date: 2020–02–05
  21. By: Nguyen, Ha Trong; Connelly, Luke B.; Le, Huong Thu; Mitrou, Francis; Taylor, Catherine L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.
    Abstract: Children of Asian immigrants in most English-speaking destinations have better academic outcomes, yet the underlying causes of their advantages are under-studied. We employ panel time-use diaries by two cohorts of children observed over a decade to present new evidence that children of Asian immigrants begin spending more time than their peers on educational activities from school entry; and, that the ethnicity gap in the time allocated to educational activities increases over time. By specifying an augmented value-added model and invoking a quantile decomposition method, we find that the academic advantage of children of Asian immigrants is attributable mainly to their allocating more time to educational activities or their favorable initial cognitive abilities and not to socio-demographics or parenting styles. Furthermore, our results show substantial heterogeneity in the contributions of initial cognitive abilities and time allocations by test subjects, test ages and points of the test score distribution.
    Keywords: Migration,Education,Test Score Gap,Time Use Diary,Quantile Regression,Second-generation Immigrants,Australia
    JEL: C21 I20 J13 J15 J22
    Date: 2020
  22. By: Olarreaga,Marcelo; Sperlich,Stefan; Trachsel,Virginie
    Abstract: A semiparametric varying coefficient model is used to explore the heterogeneity in returns to export promotion across countries. Differences in characteristics of export-promotion agencies drive the heterogeneity in returns. Interestingly, characteristics that matter for export growth do not necessarily matter for GDP per capita growth. A 1 percent increase in export-promotion budgets is associated with an average increase in exports of 0.10 percent and an average increase in GDP per capita of 0.06 percent. However, these average returns hide a lot of heterogeneity. Returns in terms of exports vary from 0 percent in Cyprus and Vietnam to 0.22 percent in Portugal. Returns in terms of GDP per capita show less heterogeneity, varying from 0.05 in Malawi to 0.10 percent in Portugal and Nicaragua.
    Keywords: Export Competitiveness,International Trade and Trade Rules,Trade and Services,Transport Services
    Date: 2019–04–29
  23. By: Schmidt, Emily; Gilbert, Rachel; Holtemeyer, Brian; Mahrt, Kristi
    Abstract: The lack of data on rural household production systems and economic conditions in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has impeded efforts to inform development initiatives for the last decade. In 2015/16, a severe El Niño event decimated local crop production and underscored the lack of current data and analysis of PNG’s rural population. This paper presents recently collected data from a rural household survey in PNG, including detailed consumption and expenditure data, to explore poverty prevalence and vulnerability in selected rural areas. In doing so, we evaluate food production and consumption patterns within the survey areas and calculate area-specific poverty lines. In addition, we explore correlates of household consumption expenditure. Results suggest that approximately half of the survey sample have total consumption expenditure below the poverty line. When evaluating calorie consumption by food groups, we find that the rural diet is heavily dependent on starchy foods and a large share of the sample has insufficient protein intake per capita. Further evaluation of the correlates of household expenditure suggest four potential policy initiatives to explore further as conduits to improving overall welfare: 1) identify measures to increase agricultural production and improve resilience to climate shocks; 2) increase investments in education; 3) seek opportunities to enhance migration out of rural areas and 4) reduce the number of household dependents. Given that approximately 80 percent of the population in PNG is dependent on rain-fed, subsistence agriculture, rural data collection and analysis to inform policy priorities and development investments are critical to ensure economic viability and food security. This paper presents the most recent poverty analysis in PNG in nearly a decade and a renewed effort to better inform development priorities for the country’s rural population.
    Keywords: PAPUA NEW GUINEA, SOUTHEAST ASIA, SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, poverty, households, expenditure, surveys, consumption, lowland, rural areas, rural household survey, consumption expenditure analysis,
    Date: 2019
  24. By: Arnaud Le Van (Institut Catholique de Toulouse)
    Abstract: Avec le changement des préférences des clients et la volatilité des environnements économiques et technologiques, les entreprises recherchent des nouvelles opportunités pour soutenir sa croissance, sa compétitivité et sa survie par développement des produits plus respectueux de l'environnement. Toutefois, beaucoup d'entreprise, surtout les PME doutent sur la possibilité de réussir car les barrières sont nombreuses et la nécessité de nouveaux investissements et elles questionnent donc sur le retour sur l'investissement. Cet article montre des résultats d'une étude qui a examiné les 15 barrières au développement de produits verts de 1908 PME au Vietnam, ce qui peut limiter la capacité d'une entreprise à rester compétitive et rentable. Les résultats de l'étude montrent que les obstacles ont un impact différent sur les différents types de développement de produits verts. Les obstacles les plus importants sont associés aux coûts, alors que les moins significatifs sont associés à la résistance des managers et des employés. En outre, les résultats démontrent que les coûts associés au développement de produits verts ont proportionnellement un impact plus important sur les petites entreprises que sur les grandes entreprises. Enfin, les résultats de nos études apportent la réponse aux questionnements de chefs d'entreprises en démontrant que l'investissement des PME dans ces activités vertes est rentable à la fois sur le court terme et long terme. Les résultats peuvent aussi être utilisés dans le développement de politiques publiques visant à soutenir et encourager les activités productives plus écologiques parmi les PME au Vietnam en restant compétitifs sur un marché mondial et ayant des répercussions directes sur l'emploi et la viabilité économique du pays.
    Date: 2020–02–17
  25. By: Nasir, Nur Alissa; Masih, Mansur
    Abstract: In this paper, we test the causal linkages among the FTSE Malaysia, FTSE China and FTSE USA stock market indices. The investigation is conducted using the standard time series econometric techniques using monthly data. The issue is approached from two perspectives: (i) whether these markets move together (ii) and the dynamic linkages of the lead-lag relationships. Our analysis finds one significant cointegrating relationship among the selected markets, with the FTSE Malaysia being the follower and the FTSE China being being the most leading one. These findings tend to suggest that the FTSE Stock Indices of these three markets have a strong long-run equilibrium relationship mostly driven by fundamental elements of the economy. In addition, the strong leading role of the FTSE China Index implies that the China market may have a strong influence over the other regional markets. These findings have strong policy implications.
    Keywords: FTSE stock indices, causal linkages, VECM, VDC
    JEL: C22 C58 E44
    Date: 2018–05–30
  26. By: Mai Ha Thu; Schweißhelm, Erwin
    Abstract: As an element of its "value-based trade policy" the European Union has institutionalised civil society participation in the context of its "New Generation Free Trade Agreements" less than ten years ago. In all recent trade agreements with partner countries, the EU includes a chapter on Trade and Sustainable Development (TSD) containing provisions to protect and promote international labour and environmental standards. The labour provisions require compliance with the 1998 ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work and other frameworks. There are procedural commitments in the chapter that allow for a monitoring of the sustainability impacts of the free trade agreements (FTA). Its institutional mechanisms include the formatin of Domestic Advisory Groups (DAGs) on both sides, and a Joint Civil Society Forum (CSF) for an annual exchange and dialogue between the two DAGs and other civil society representatives on the sustainable development aspects of trade relations between the Parties. The purpose of this mechanism is to politically and publicly support the FTA, monitor the TSD Chapter implementation, provide a forum for democratic dialogue and develop recommendations on how to implement the commitments. However, based on current research on this topic, feedback from civil society stakeholders and own experiences in South Korea and Vietnam, we come to the conclusion that the "value based trade policies" by means of TSD Chapters have not yet produced significant results both in terms of improving labour standards and/or enabling civil society to participate in the monitoring of the agreement. The European Commission has acknowledged these deficiencies in 2018 and pledged to work for clear, transparent rules and procedures for the establishment and functoning of representative and balanced civil society structures on the side of the trade partners. But this may not solve the structural and political difficulties when two partners do not share the same political values but formulate human rights and labour standards as part of their trade agreement. A more stringent role for the EU not only before ratification, but also in the implementation phase is necessary, and the European Parliament should play a proactive role here. Overall, the authors are of the opinion, that in a political environment where trading partners have authoritarian political systems and do not share the same political values with the EU, only ex-ante conditionality could safeguard civil society participation and labour rights compliance in trade agreements. But this will require far-reaching changes in the legal text of the TSD Chapter.
    Keywords: EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement,Sustainable Development,Labour Rights,Civil Society
    Date: 2020
  27. By: CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM)
    Abstract: In 2018, research conducted under the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets (PIM) informed policies, strategies, and investments of several governments, development organizations, non-governmental organizations, and private companies in many countries in Africa south of the Sahara, Asia, and Latin America. For instance, PIM contributed to shaping climate change mitigation policies in the Philippines; innovations in agricultural advisory services in India, Kenya, Malawi, and Rwanda; biosafety systems in Malawi; national investment plans in China, Malawi, and Rwanda; food policies in Pakistan; seed distribution and marketing in Ethiopia; value chain improvements for women in Honduras; safety net programs in Bangladesh, Egypt, and Mali; and improved rangeland governance in Tanzania. The Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index results influenced many strategies and programs.
    Keywords: agricultural policies; institutions; gender; governance
    Date: 2019
  28. By: Maria Dulce Jovillano-Mostoles
    Abstract: Stingless beekeeping technology as an alternative livelihood in the Bicol region involves hunters, beekeepers, and assemblers of bee products. However, development and adoption of the technology could lead to overexploitation of feral colonies by hunters, imperiling the population of this endemic species. This project mainly aimed to help communities in Sorsogon province to adopt beekeeping as a livelihood using a sustainable utilization, management, and development approach for the conservation of the species. The specific objectives were to: (1) document ethnological/meliponicultural practices in Sorsogon, (2) determine the diversity and abundance of the stingless bee population in two municipalities in Sorsogon, (3) facilitate knowledge transfer of stingless beekeeping technology, (4) facilitate meliponary establishment at the community level, and (5) develop a policy on conserving wild populations of stingless bees. The project was carried out in the municipalities of Casiguran and Bulusan in Sorsogon province from February 2013 to January 2016.
    Keywords: Sorsogon, Philippines, Community-based beekeeping, stingless bees, beekeeping
    Date: 2019
  29. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Selected Issues
    Date: 2020–02–06
  30. By: Hoang,Trung Xuan; Le,Duong Trung; Nguyen,Ha Minh; Vuong,Nguyen Dinh Tuan
    Abstract: This paper examines the labor market impacts of a large-scale marine environmental crisis caused by toxic chemical contamination in Vietnam's central coast in 2016. Combining labor force surveys with satellite data on fishing-boat detection, the analysis finds negative and heterogeneous impacts on fishery incomes and employment and uncovers interesting coping patterns. Satellite data suggest that upstream fishers traveled to safe fishing grounds, and thus bore lower income damage. Downstream fishers, instead, endured severe impact and were more likely to substitute fishery hours for working secondary jobs. The paper also finds evidence on an impact recovery to fishing intensity and fishery income, and a positive labor market spillover to freshwater fishery.
    Date: 2019–04–22
  31. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Economic performance remains strong. Growth regained momentum in the second half of 2019 following a slowdown in the first half. The latter primarily reflected budgetary developments, with some temporary government underspending in the early part of the year. A decisive monetary policy tightening in response to the inflation spike and overheating risks in 2018, and weaker external demand also contributed. The structural reform momentum and infrastructure push remain strong.
    Date: 2020–02–06
  32. By: Mobarak,Mushfiq; Sharif,Iffath Anwar; Shrestha,Maheshwor
    Abstract: Many economists believe that the returns to migration are high. However, credible experimental estimates of the benefits of migration are rare, particularly for low-skilled international migrants and their families. This paper studies a natural experiment in Bangladesh, where low-skilled male migrant workers to Malaysia were selected via a large-scale lottery program. This study tracked the households of lottery applicants and surveyed 3,512 lottery winners and losers. Five years after the lottery, 76 percent of the winners had migrated internationally compared with only 19 percent of the lottery losers. Using the lottery outcome as an instrument, the paper finds that the government intermediated migration increased the incomes of migrants by over 200 percent and their household per capita consumption by 22 percent. Furthermore, low-skilled international migration leads to large improvements in a wide array of household socioeconomic outcomes, including female involvement in key household decisions. Such large gains arise, at least in part, due to lower costs of government intermediation.
    Keywords: Educational Sciences,Inequality,Labor Markets,Employment and Unemployment
    Date: 2020–02–27
  33. By: Shrestha,Maheshwor
    Abstract: Using an event-study framework, this paper examines the impact of four minimum wage hikes between 2008 and 2015 on the Cambodian labor market. The analysis finds that, except for immediate adjustments around the time of the hikes, the minimum wage hikes did not affect participation rates in the affected sector -- garments and footwear -- or the unaffected sectors. However, the minimum wage hikes increased wages modestly (3 percent) for workers in the affected sectors and modestly decreased wages (1.5 percent) for workers in the unaffected sectors. The gains for the affected sectors are slightly larger at higher quantiles than at lower quantiles. This is suggestive of a change in compensation structure within the affected firms as a result of the hikes.
    Date: 2019–05–02
  34. By: Schmidt, Emily; Rosenbach, Gracie; Mueller, Valerie
    Abstract: Papua New Guinea (PNG) is the country with the largest rural population share in the East Asia and Pacific region. In addition, PNG is affected by El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climatic events that in severe years cause significant food insecurity due to failed agricultural production. Shrinking land holdings for agricultural production due to the growing population together with climate risk motivates many rural households to explore off-farm income generating opportunities. The analysis reported on here evaluates the importance of nonfarm employment in rural areas in PNG in diversifying risk to household welfare (associated with weather shocks, crop pests and diseases, agricultural price fluctuations, etc.), in smoothing seasonal income fluctuations, and in absorbing excess labor in households with limited agricultural resources. Our study draws upon a wide-ranging literature focused on the role of nonfarm enterprises in the livelihood strategies of rural households globally, e.g., de Janvry and Sadoulet 2001; Lanjouw and Lanjouw 2001; Jayne et al. 2003; Barrett et al. 2005; Haggblade et al. 2007; Lay et al. 2008. We use data collected from rural households in PNG between May and July 2018 by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). The survey was administered to 1,026 households in 70 communities across specific districts in East Sepik, Madang, and West Sepik provinces and in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville. Respondent households were asked detailed questions about any nonfarm enterprises (NFE) in which they were involved, including questions on ownership, labor characteristics, and income generation. We explore how engaging in an NFE affects household welfare. In doing so, we evaluate two questions: 1) What barriers to entry exist for male- versus female-owned NFEs? 2) Do the welfare effects of NFE ownership differ by the sex of the owner? Overall, we find that households with an NFE have significantly higher annual per capita consumption compared to matched households without an NFE, amounting to an average increase in the value of annual household consumption of 180 kina (PGK) per capita. In addition, households with an NFE consume approximately 9.5 grams more protein per person per day and achieve greater diversity in their diets compared to households without an NFE. We find that the positive effects of NFE ownership on welfare outcomes are largely driven by male-owned and jointly-owned (male and female) NFEs. The welfare outcomes attributable to female-owned NFEs are much smaller.
    Keywords: PAPUA NEW GUINEA, OCEANIA, welfare, households, drought, rural areas, climate change, diet, nonfarm income, nonfarm enterprises, climate risk, household welfare, female-owned enterprises, dietary diversity,
    Date: 2019
  35. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Joshi, Pramod Kumar
    Abstract: Despite the importance of Southeast Asia (SEA) region in the world for economy and agriculture, and despite reported evidence of the modernization of various aspects of the agricultural sector, the information has not been compiled in ways that provides more representative insights of the regions, as well as chronological, dynamic perspectives across different aspects of the overall agricultural developments. This report partly fills this knowledge gap by summarizing the key characteristics in SEA region of the agricultural development, as well as changes in related outcomes, such as nutrition, natural resource endowments, and the labor movement into non-farm economies. In doing so, the report gathers secondary cross-country data on key aspects of the agricultural modernization and diversification. Overall, the SEA region has seen a relatively fast movement of labor out of the agricultural sector into non-farm sectors including trade, restaurants and hotel industries in the last few decades, leading to higher labor productivity growth than land productivity growth. Despite the important roles of trade, the agricultural production within the region and in each country continues to account for important sources of food and nutrition. The modern production technologies and inputs have spread constantly within the region, but with considerable time lags across countries. The growth of vegetable oils and aquaculture production have been considerable, and contrast with South Asia (SA)where similar patterns have been observed for vegetables and milk production. The public sector has played important roles in agricultural research and development (R&D)on genetic improvements, and infrastructure development, while keeping the nominal assistance to the sector through market interventions to a relatively modest level, which has been accompanied by the significant growth of the private-sector participation in the provisions of inputs, services and agricultural finance. The agricultural modernization in SEA region has, however, been also associated with some negative outcomes, including continued degradation of natural resources like water and forest areas in which SEA has been relatively rich historically, and gradual increases in certain types of malnutrition including overweight and diabetes.
    Keywords: SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, agriculture, agricultural development, economic growth, economic development, diversification, nutrition, agricultural modernization, agricultural transformation, rural transformation, labor productivity growth,
    Date: 2019
  36. By: Theresa M. Greaney (University of Hawaii at Manoa); Kozo Kiyota (Keio University, University of Hawai‘i, and RIETI)
    Abstract: While Japan’s outward FDI stock is historically high, it is not necessarily clear whether there is untapped growth potential, given the economic size of Japan and that of partner countries. This paper examines whether Japan’s actual outward FDI stock is high or low relative to the FDI predicted by the gravity model using the outward FDI patterns of all OECD nations, which we call counterfactual FDI. The results indicate that the ratio of Japan’s actual to counterfactual FDI is the highest among the OECD countries as of the year 2015. The regional distribution of Japan’s actual to counterfactual FDI favors Southeast Asian nations, South Africa and the US. These results imply that Japan has no unrealized potential for outward FDI.
    Keywords: Outward foreign direct investment, gravity model, Japan
    JEL: F14 F21 F23
    Date: 2020–03
  37. By: Giao, Ha Nam Khanh
    Abstract: Nghiên cứu này được thực hiện nhằm đánh giá các yếu tố tác động đến sự hài lòng của người lao động với công việc tại công ty TNHH Master English, bằng việc khảo sát 216 người lao động, công cụ Cronbach’s alpha, EFA và phân tích hồi quy bội được sử dụng. Kết quả đã đưa ra được mô hình 05 yếu tố có tác động dương đến Sự hài lòng, sắp theo thứ tự giảm dần: Cấp trên, Đào tạo - Thăng tiến, Thu nhập, Điều kiện làm việc, Phúc lợi. Từ đó, nghiên cứu đề xuất các giải pháp đến ban quản lý công ty nhằm nâng cao sự hài lòng của người lao động.
    Date: 2019–12–30
  38. By: Montesclaros, Jose Ma. Luis; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Teng, Paul S.
    Abstract: The adoption of climate-adaptive agricultural technologies (CAATs) for extensive (outdoor) agriculture is stalled by funding gaps experienced by governments in the Mekong countries, with negative implications on the rural farming industry, on income and job security among smallholder farmers, and on food sufficiency and access across the population. We argue that one way of helping bridge these gaps is for providers and users of CAATs for extensive agriculture to learn from the practices of those in CAATs for intensive (indoor) agriculture. Indoor CAATs are already receiving significant private-sector investment, a key reason being their ability to leverage the complementary nature of these technologies within farms that are integrated and enabled to use the so-called Internet of things (IoT). Seamlessly linking different CAATs (sensors, crop analytics, and automation) can allow for synergies that significantly boost crop yields and, in turn, the viability of investing in CAATs. We demonstrate these synergies through two case studies, one that looks at the increasing global investment in indoor CAATs and another that describes a financial viability assessment for an indoor farm in Singapore. We conclude with lessons on how these insights can be transferred to the Mekong countries, including a prototype IoT-enabled extensive farm that integrates multiple CAATs, and an investment assessment tool for translating the yield benefits into terms that investors can appreciate.
    Keywords: SINGAPORE, investment, climate-smart agriculture, private sector, technology, innovation adoption, climate change adaptation, information and communication technologies (icts), internet of things, IoT, climate-adaptive agricultural technologies, UrbanAgInvest, indoor farms,
    Date: 2019
  39. By: Phonekhampheng, Oudom
    Abstract: The Lower Mekong Basin provides habitat for more than 480 species and 40 families of fish, many of which are endemic. The catchment provides 2% of the worlds commercial fish catch, with 2.2 million tonnes per annum extracted. Movement of fish through the Basin is vital to maintain fish populations, especially for migratory species. However, thousands of barriers have been installed throughout the Lower Mekong Basin hindering fish passage. Work is being undertaken to establish the best responses to the increasing number of barriers throughout the Lower Mekong Basin. Engineered structures are being designed to account for specific ecological objectives, hydrology and fish species within a site. This endeavour is not without challenges, and one size does not fit all. The Pak Peung Wetland Research site is located about 100 km to the north-east of Vientiane, the capital of Laos. The ACIAR-supported project started in 2008 and a fully commissioned cone fishway was installed in 2014. Monitoring has been an essential part of the project; to learn about the success of the fishway so similar projects can be successfully rolled out across the Basin. This talk discusses an example of an engineered fishway at Pak Peung, Laos, and some of the successes and challenges of fish passage design.
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–08
  40. By: Filipski, Mateusz J.; Tiburcio, Ernesto; Dorosh, Paul A.; Hoddinott, John F.; Rosenbach, Gracie
    Abstract: In the context of the massive influx of Forcibly Displaced Myanmar Nationals to Bangladesh, this paper aims to evaluate the potential consequences on the Southern Bangladesh economy. It adopts an economywide perspective to study the impacts of increased labor supply and increased consumer demand in a general equilibrium framework, using a Local Economy-wide Impact Evaluation (LEWIE) model. The model is used to illustrate the potential effect of a large arrival of displaced populations on wages, the supply and demand of goods, and incomes of migrant and host populations. Simulations enable comparisons between possible scenarios, including two options for the size of the market being impacted (either the smaller Cox’s Bazar District, or the larger Chittagong Division) and several options for aid provisions from international actors. The databases used are the Forcibly Displaced Myanmar Nationals (FDMN) and Host Community Household Survey carried out by IFPRI, BIDS, WFP and ACF in late 2018 and the official Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) 2016. We find that if the migrants enter the Cox Bazar labor markets only, their large number could potentially lead to a large drop in wage levels of around 30%. However, under similar conditions their impact in the much larger Chittagong Division would be limited to a drop of less than 4%. Cash transfers to migrants could mitigate the wage effects by stimulating local demand, but this effect is limited. Some local households may be hurt due to lower wages and higher prices. Matched transfers to local populations and investments in local industry could potentially offset some of these negative impacts.
    Keywords: BANGLADESH, SOUTH ASIA, ASIA, economic development, migration, refugees, labour market, economic analysis, Local Economy Wide Model, forced migration,
    Date: 2019

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