nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2020‒03‒09
38 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Cambodian place in the International trade of Textile and Clothing: Threat and Opportunity By Nith, Kosal
  2. The effects from the United States and Japan to emerging stock markets in Asia and Vietnam By Ngan, Nguyen Thi; Lab, SDAG
  3. Determining key research areas for healthier diets and sustainable food systems in Viet Nam: By Raneri, Jessica E.; Kennedy, Gina; Nguyen, Trang; Wertheim-Heck, Sigrid; Do, Ha; de Haan, Stef; Nguyen, Phuong Hong
  5. The developmental state: dead or alive? By Wade, Robert H.
  6. Historical institutional differences and entrepreneurship: the case of socialist legacy in Vietnam By Christian Fisch; Michael Wyrwich; Thi Lanh Nguyen; Jörn H. Block
  7. Pengaruh Brand "Wonderful Indonesia" dalam Pembangunan Industri Pariwisata Indonesia By prasetya, koko
  8. Satellite reveals age and extent of oil palm plantations in Southeast Asia By Olha Danylo; Johannes Pirker; Guido Lemoine; Guido Ceccherini; Linda See; Ian McCallum; Hadi; Florian Kraxner; Fr\'ed\'eric Achard; Steffen Fritz
  9. Shocks and rural development policies: Any implications for migrants to return? By Manh Hung Do; Trung Thanh Nguyen; Thanh-Tung Nguyen; Ulrike Grote
  10. Risk and Competition in the Indonesian Private Banking Market: An Asymmetric Rivalry Within and Between Strategic Groups By Gunardi, Hery; Primiana, Ina; Effendi, Nury; Herwany, Aldrin; Satyakti, Yayan
  11. REVIEW JURNAL “Evamping the Supply Chain of Fruit and Vegetable in East Java Province, Indonesia.” By Cytia, Karinina; Anggie, Audrey; Devi, Karina Vashti; Verarika, Christin
  12. Vietnam's Development Success Story and the Unfinished SDG Agenda By Anja Baum
  13. Weather shocks, credit and production efficiency of rice farmers in Vietnam By Thanh-Tung Nguyen; Trung Thanh Nguyen; Ulrike Grote
  14. Small African Economies in a More Uncertain Global Trade Environment : The Potential Impact of Post-AGOA Scenarios for Lesotho By Maliszewska,Maryla; Engel,Jakob; Arenas,Guillermo Carlos; Kotschwar,Barbara R
  15. Cyber Risk Surveillance: A Case Study of Singapore By Joseph Goh; Heedon Kang; Zhi Xing Koh; Jin Way Lim; Cheng Wei Ng; Galen Sher; Chris Yao
  16. Tingkat Kesadaran Masyarakat Terhadap Penerapan Sistem E-Tilang Kota Surabaya By prasetya, koko
  17. Sex Ratio and Religion in Vietnam By Vu, Tien Manh; Yamada, Hiroyuki
  18. Childcare and Maternal Employment : Evidence from Vietnam By Dang,Hai-Anh H.; Hiraga,Masako; Nguyen,Cuong Viet
  19. Rangkuman Evamping the Supply Chain of Fruit and Vegetable in East Java Province, Indonesia By dini, ovilya nosavan
  20. Tugas review jurnal " Evamping The Supply Chain of Fruit and Vegetable in East Java Province, Indonesia" By Pricilia, Friska; Nasrullah, Muhammad; Fauzie, Kamilah; Pratiwi🧞‍️, Safadela Gigania; Nabilla, Sinta Dina
  21. Learning from Power Sector Reform : The Case of The Philippines By Bacon,Robert W.
  22. Identifying the Vulnerable to Poverty from Natural Disasters : The Case of Typhoons in the Philippines By Skoufias,Emmanuel; Kawasoe,Yasuhiro; Strobl,Eric; Acosta,Pablo Ariel
  23. Preschool Availability and Female Labor Force Participation : Evidence from Indonesia By Halim,Daniel Zefanya; Johnson,Hillary C.; Perova,Elizaveta
  24. The Development of Digital Economy in Indonesia By Joanita, Regina
  25. Dollarization Dilemma : Price Stability at the Cost of External Competitiveness in Cambodia By Samreth,Sovannroeun; Sanchez Martin,Miguel Eduardo; Ly,Sodeth
  27. review Evamping the Supply Chain of Fruit and Vegetable in East Java Province, Indonesia By maulana, veby armul; Subiyanti, Ririn; Firmansah, Diki; keiku, yoanna evangeline dedi
  28. The Effect of Weather Conditions on Fertilizer Applications: A Spatial Dynamic Panel Data Analysis By Anna Gloria Bill\`e; Marco Rogna
  29. The End of China's Export Juggernaut By Harry Wheeler; Thomas Klitgaard
  30. Dutch Shell Companies and International Tax Planning By Arjan Lejour; Jan Möhlmann; Maarten van 't Riet; Thijs Benschop
  31. Decentralizability of efficient allocations with heterogenous forecasts By Shurojit Chatterji; Atsushi Kajii
  32. The Gravity Model and Trade in Intermediate Inputs By Theresa Greaney; Kozo Kiyota
  33. Protected agriculture, precision agriculture, and vertical farming: Brief reviews of issues in the literature focusing on the developing region in Asia By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Joshi, Pramod Kumar
  34. Factors Affecting Students' Subjective Well-being: The Relationship between Religion, Cultural Intelligence, Personality Traits and Subjective Well-being (SWB) By Chou I-Wen
  35. Trends, Breaks and Persistence in Top Income Shares By Atanu Ghoshray; Issam Malki; Javier Ordóñez
  36. African jobs in the digital era: Export options with a focus on online labour By Melia, Elvis
  37. Animal Identification and Traceability in the United States: Market Impacts and Implications By Shear, Hannah E.; Pendell, Dustin L.
  38. Does a District-Vote Matter for the Behavior of Politicians? A Textual Analysis of Parliamentary Speeches By Born, Andreas; Janssen, Aljoscha

  1. By: Nith, Kosal
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the threat and opportunity of textiles and clothing industry in Cambodia by employing SWOT analysis, quantitative method of revealed comparative and competitive advantage. The findings reveal that Cambodia has both comparative and competitive advantage of garment industry comparing to another Asian garment exporting countries-namely India, Pakistan, Thailand, and Vietnam, except Bangladesh. Whereas the Cambodian textile industry experiences both comparative and competitive disadvantage as it obtains the lowest score among counties in this study. Our analysis shows that the Cambodian T&S sector faces the risk of EBA, negative impact on the US-China trade war. Vietnam’s readiness, along with good trade policy between India and Bangladesh, is also has a negative impact on Cambodia. Cambodia must consider long-term and medium-term strategies to expand competitiveness for T&S exports. Nevertheless, the term of trade could obtain positive growth since the price of garment and textile products experiences an increasing trend.
    Keywords: Textiles and Clothing, Everything but Arms, Revealed Comparative Advantage, Revealed Competitive Advantages, Trade Policy.
    JEL: F18 F21 F53 L16 L52
    Date: 2019–05–18
  2. By: Ngan, Nguyen Thi; Lab, SDAG
    Abstract: The subprime mortgage crisis in the United States (U.S.) in mid-2008 suggests that stock prices volatility do spillover from one market to another after international stock markets downturn. The purpose of this paper is to examine the magnitude of return and volatility spillovers from developed markets (the U.S. and Japan) to eight emerging equity markets (India, China, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand) and Vietnam. Employing a mean and volatility spillover model that deals with the U.S. and Japan shocks and day effects as exogenous variables in ARMA(1,1), GARCH(1,1) for Asian emerging markets, the study finds some interesting findings. Firstly, the day effect is present on six out of nine studied markets, except for the Indian, Taiwanese and Philippine. Secondly, the results of return spillover confirm significant spillover effects across the markets with different magnitudes. Specifically, the U.S. exerts a stronger influence on the Malaysian, Philippine and Vietnamese market compared with Japan. In contrast, Japan has a higher spillover effect on the Chinese, Indian, Korea, and Thailand than the U.S. For the Indonesian market, the return effect is equal. Finally, there is no evidence of a volatility effect of the U.S. and Japanese markets on the Asian emerging markets in this study.
    Date: 2019–12–30
  3. By: Raneri, Jessica E.; Kennedy, Gina; Nguyen, Trang; Wertheim-Heck, Sigrid; Do, Ha; de Haan, Stef; Nguyen, Phuong Hong
    Abstract: Vietnamese food systems are undergoing rapid transformation, with important implications for human and environmental health and economic development. Poverty has decreased, and diet quality and undernutrition have improved significantly since the end of the Doi Moi reform period (1986-1993) as a result of Viet Nam opening its economy and increasing its regional and global trade. Yet poor diet quality is still contributing the triple burden of malnutrition, with 25 percent stunting among children under age 5, 26 percent and 29 percent of women and children, respectively, anemic, and 21 percent of adults overweight. Agricultural production systems have shifted from predominantly diverse smallholder systems to larger more commercialized and specialized systems, especially for crops, while the ‘meatification’ of the Vietnamese diet is generating serious trade-offs between improved nutrition and sustainability of the Vietnamese food systems. The food processing industry has developed rapidly, together with food imports, resulting in new and processed food products penetrating the food retail outlets, trending towards an increase in the Westernized consumption patterns that are shifting nutrition-related problems towards overweight and obesity and, with it, an increase of non-communicable disease-related health risks. While regulatory policies exist across the food system, these are not systematically implemented, making food safety a major concern for consumers and policy makers alike. Where data exists, it is not easy to aggregate with data from across food system dimensions, making it difficult for Viet Nam to make an informed analysis of current and potential food system trade-offs. In our research, we reviewed existing literature and data, and applied a food systems framework to develop an initial food systems profile for Viet Nam and to identify a comprehensive set a of research questions to fill current data gaps identified through the review. Insights on these would provide the comprehensive evidence needed to inform policy makers on how to develop new food systems policies for Viet Nam, and further refine and improve existing policies to achieve better quality diets and more sustainable food systems in Viet Nam. Based on these, we then engaged with stakeholders to develop research priorities in the Viet Nam context and identified 25 priority research questions. This paper aims to stimulate such reflections by clearly outlining key areas for research, government policy, and development programs on priority investment to build the evidence base around inclusive food systems interventions that aim to result in healthier diets and more sustainable food systems for Viet Nam
    Keywords: VIET NAM, VIETNAM, SOUTH EAST ASIA, ASIA, food systems, diet, nutrition, agriculture,
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Elvarett, Geovano
    Abstract: Indonesia sebagai salah satu negara dengan sumber daya alam yang besar, membuat Indonesia terkenal sebagai salah satu negara penghasil buah dan sayur terbesar di Asia Tenggara. Indonesia juga memilki populasi penduduk yang terus bertambah, dan penduduk Indonesia sudah mulai meningkat sadar pada kesehatan, sehingga membuat permintaan akan makanan sehat seperti buah-buahan dan sayur terus meningkat tiap tahun. Namun, permintaan yang terus meningkat tidak di imbangi dengan bantuan ketersediaan pasokan dari pusat produksi yang menghasilkan buah-buahan dan sayur, yang di karenakan inovasi, teknologi yang masih kurang, informasi yang diperoleh para petani masih terbatas, dan juga dari pihak pemerintah. Permasalahan yang ada membuat harga buah-buahan dan sayur menjadi tidak stabil, dan menyulitkan konsumen.
    Date: 2020–02–15
  5. By: Wade, Robert H.
    Abstract: Before the 1980s, the mainstream Western prescription for developing countries to catch up with the West assigned the state a leading role in governing the market. In the 1980s, this shifted to a framework‐providing role in a largely deregulated and maximally open economy. Also in the 1980s, it became apparent that some East Asian capitalist economies were growing so fast that they would become ‘developed’ in the foreseeable future, marking them out as completely exceptional. Mainstream economists explained their success as the result of following the Western prescription, while other scholars attributed this rapid growth to ‘the developmental state’. This essay compares these two explanations of successful economic development, concluding in favour of the latter — with respect to the catch‐up decades. But what happened subsequently? Several scholars who accept the key role of the developmental state in the early period of fast industrialization in East Asia now argue that South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore have transformed from developmental to close‐to‐neoliberal states. This contribution argues that the erstwhile East Asian developmental states have indeed changed, but they have not transformed into neoliberal states. Rather they have adapted and evolved, but still undertake market‐steering, ‘societal mission’ roles well beyond neoliberal limits. The essay also suggests how other developing countries can learn lessons from their experience.
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2018–03–01
  6. By: Christian Fisch (University of Trier); Michael Wyrwich (University of Groningen, and FSU Jena); Thi Lanh Nguyen; Jörn H. Block (University of Trier)
    Abstract: We study the case of Vietnam to assess the long-lasting role of institutional and historical legacy on entrepreneurial outcomes. In particular, we investigate the detrimental effect of socialist institutions on entrepreneurship. Vietnam offers a unique quasi-experimental setting because the country was divided into the socialist North and the nonsocialist South for a relatively short period of two decades. After re-unification the South adopted the institutional framework conditions of the North. To assess the relationship between socialist history and entrepreneurship in this unique setting, we survey more than 3,000 North and South Vietnamese individuals more than four decades after the re-unification of the country. We find that North Vietnamese respondents have lower entrepreneurship intention, are less likely to select into entrepreneurship education programs, and are less willing to engage in business takeover. These patterns indicate the persistence of a long-lasting influence of historical differences in institutional framework conditions on entrepreneurship. The long-run effect of socialism on entrepreneurship is apparently deeper than previously discovered in the prominent case of Germany, where differences in institutional treatment lasted for much longer and ended more recently.
    Keywords: Socialism, Vietnam, entrepreneurship intention, entrepreneurship education, takeover vs. new venture startup
    JEL: D02 L26 M13 P30
    Date: 2020–02–17
  7. By: prasetya, koko
    Abstract: Sektor Pariwisata merupakan salah satu penyumbang PDB serta devisa negara terbesar di Indonesia. Dalam upaya meningkatkan tingkat kunjungan wisatawan mancanegara ke Indonesia, pemerintah melalui kementrian pariwisata dan ekonomi kreatif melakukan usaha-usaha baik dalam bidang pembangunan destinasi, pembangunan industri,pembangunan pemasaran dengan menciptakan sebuah brand pariwisata bagi indonesia yaitu Wonderful Indonesia. Penelitian yang berjudul pengaruh brand “Wonderful Indonesia” dalam pembangunan industri pariwisata Indonesia merupakan sebuah penelitian yang menggunakan metode deskriptif kualitatif dengan menggunakan review literature yaitu membuat gambaran secara sistematis,faktual, dan akurat mengenai fakta serta hubungan antara fenomena yang diteliti. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan pengaruh dari branding “Wonderful Indonesia” dalam pembangunan industri pariwisata dan mengetahui peran serta keterlibatan para lembaga non-pemerintah yang bekerjasama dalam pembangunan industri pariwisata. Sumber data dalam penelitian ini diperoleh dan dikumpulkan melalui data sekunder seperti buku, jurnal nasional maupun internasional, maupun internet. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa upaya pemerintah untuk meningkatkan pembangunan industri di indonesia dilakukan dengan menciptakan strategi branding “Wonderful Indonesia” yang pemasarannya dilakukan melalui strategi DOT , BAS , POSE. Strategi branding ini berpengaruh dalam meningkatkan kunjungan wisatawan mancanegara ke Indonesia dan terus meningkat dari tahun ke tahun. Dengan meningkatnya kunjungan wisatawan mancanegara ke indonesia juga merupakan hasil kerjasama pihak pemerintah dengan lembaga sektor swasta seperti PT Blue Bird Tbk,Traveloka,dll. Keywords : Wonderful Indonesia, Pariwisata, Pembangunan
    Date: 2020–02–13
  8. By: Olha Danylo; Johannes Pirker; Guido Lemoine; Guido Ceccherini; Linda See; Ian McCallum; Hadi; Florian Kraxner; Fr\'ed\'eric Achard; Steffen Fritz
    Abstract: In recent decades, global oil palm production has shown an abrupt increase, with almost 90% produced in Southeast Asia alone. Monitoring oil palm is largely based on national surveys and inventories or one-off mapping studies. However, they do not provide detailed spatial extent or timely updates and trends in oil palm expansion or age. Palm oil yields vary significantly with plantation age, which is critical for landscape-level planning. Here we show the extent and age of oil palm plantations for the year 2017 across Southeast Asia using remote sensing. Satellites reveal a total of 11.66 (+/- 2.10) million hectares (Mha) of plantations with more than 45% located in Sumatra. Plantation age varies from ~7 years in Kalimantan to ~13 in Insular Malaysia. More than half the plantations on Kalimantan are young (
    Date: 2020–02
  9. By: Manh Hung Do; Trung Thanh Nguyen; Thanh-Tung Nguyen; Ulrike Grote
    Abstract: This paper examines the factors affecting the decision of migrants to return home in rural areas and their length of stay in cities with a focus on shocks and rural development policies. We use the unique Thailand Vietnam Socio Economic Panel (TVSEP) data. Our results reveal that the decision to return is positively associated with demographic shocks and negatively associated with social shocks during the time migrants stay in the cities. Meanwhile, economic shocks positively influence migrants’ staying period in the cities. Besides, migrants from poor communes with poverty reduction projects are more unlikely to return. This implies that current rural development policies in Vietnam with a goal of poverty reduction might not be attractive enough for migrants to return.
    Keywords: Two-step Heckman selection, Shocks; Rural-urban migration, Migrants’ behavior, Rural development
    JEL: J62 D13 O13 Q12
    Date: 2020–02
  10. By: Gunardi, Hery; Primiana, Ina; Effendi, Nury; Herwany, Aldrin; Satyakti, Yayan
    Abstract: This paper tests the interrelationships among risk, competition, and efficiency in the Indonesian private banking industry between 2014 and 2018. We examines asymmetric rivalry within and between strategic groups defined according to the size of their members. We hypothesize that, owing to several forms of group-level effects, including price difference and efficiency, strategic groups comprising large firms expect to experience a large amount of retaliation from firms within their group and accommodation from the group comprising smaller firms. The competition of private banking is dominated by incumbent firm. The risk and efficiency evolved over time enjoyed by incumbent with fat cat taxonomy and quiet life hypothesis. The entrant play lean and hungry strategy in different market segment within strategic group, whereas foreign bank deter incumbent with higher prices to enter between strategic group. The competition of private banking in Indonesia dominated by risk appetite and fragmented market
    Keywords: Market Structure, Risk, Efficiency, Indonesian Private Banking
    JEL: G24 G32
    Date: 2020–01–02
  11. By: Cytia, Karinina; Anggie, Audrey; Devi, Karina Vashti; Verarika, Christin
    Abstract: According to the article, the demands for fruits and vegetables in Indonesia have increased from year to year, both in quality and quantity, However, these demands are not supported by the availability of supply of the products demanded. There are several factors that have caused this lack of supply, such as, during harvest time, there’ll be abundant products, which results in price falls, and many products still unsold and left rotting. This problem, are mainly caused by bad trade system and limited technology. Moreover, our trade system is still controlled by a handful of operators known as wholesalers who controls the prices of products. East java is a provincial area in Indonesia that has a bigger potential in Agriculture and Horticulture than many other areas in Indonesia. This advantage allowed us to think that east java has a competitive advantages when it comes to agriculture, that is, to meet the demand of local market, inter-island market, and export market.
    Date: 2020–02–18
  12. By: Anja Baum
    Abstract: Despite starting as one of the poorest countries in the mid-1980s, Vietnam has achieved rapid developmental progress, reaching lower middle-income status in 2010. In line with rapid economic growth, Vietnam has achieved impressive progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) during this time. This paper sheds light on some elements of Vietnam’s success story, highlighting crucial policies in education and electricity sectors. It undertakes a forward-looking costing exercise that focusses on five sectors – education, health, roads, water, and electricity infrastructure. Achieving the remaining SDGs in Vietnam will be a challenge, with total annual additional spending needs in the 5 subsectors estimated at 7 percent of GDP by 2030.
    Date: 2020–02–14
  13. By: Thanh-Tung Nguyen; Trung Thanh Nguyen; Ulrike Grote
    Abstract: Enhancement of rice production efficiency in developing countries is important to improve the livelihoods of farmers and to ensure global food security for a growing population. Despite significant progress in recent decades, rice production in these countries is facing multiple challenges from climate change, land degradation, to the increasing competition for land and labour from urbanization and industrialization. Given that rice farmers in Vietnam often suffer from extreme weather events and lack of access to credit, our study aims to (i) investigate the impact of weather shocks and credit on the rice production efficiency, and to (ii) examine the role of credit in mitigating the impact of weather shocks. We find that weather shocks, land fragmentation and the migration of household members are the major sources of inefficiency. Meanwhile, livestock, farm mechanization and education level are positive factors for rice production efficiency. In addition, our results show that access to credit plays a significant role in mitigating the negative impact of weather shocks. Our studies call for more assistance and support to farmers in mitigating the severe effect of weather shocks, in particular, via the promotion of credit market. In addition, the encouragement of farm mechanization, land defragmentation, livestock farming and the improvement of rural education should be given a high priority to improve the rice production efficiency.
    Keywords: Weather shocks, Agricultural production efficiency, Credit
    JEL: Q12 Q54
    Date: 2020–02
  14. By: Maliszewska,Maryla; Engel,Jakob; Arenas,Guillermo Carlos; Kotschwar,Barbara R
    Abstract: This paper provides a forward-looking view of trade and its relevance for Lesotho?s medium- and long-term development. It does this through computable general equilibrium analysis of potential impacts based on specific trade-related scenarios. The scenarios include the potential loss of American Growth and Opportunities Act preferences and preference erosion against competitors through, for example, a United States?Vietnam Free Trade Area. An immediate loss of American Growth and Opportunities Act preferences would have a significant economic impact that far exceeds that of a potential future United States?Vietnam Free Trade Area. If these preferences were suspended in 2018, Lesotho would face a loss of 1 percent in income by 2020, relative to the baseline, and exports of textiles and apparel would drop by 16 percent. The computable general equilibrium simulations stress the need to strengthen efforts to support structural transformation leading to diversification of export products and markets, improving backward and forward linkages, and lowering trade costs. The simulations also indicate that trade facilitation measures leading to an average decrease in trade costs of 2 percent per year would eliminate the negative consequences of the loss of American Growth and Opportunities Act preferences in terms of the loss of income. The changing external environment is likely to offer new opportunities to Lesotho's export industries in the medium term, including through regional integration under the Continental Free Trade Area.
    Date: 2019–05–22
  15. By: Joseph Goh; Heedon Kang; Zhi Xing Koh; Jin Way Lim; Cheng Wei Ng; Galen Sher; Chris Yao
    Abstract: Cyber risk is an emerging source of systemic risk in the financial sector, and possibly a macro-critical risk too. It is therefore important to integrate it into financial sector surveillance. This paper offers a range of analytical approaches to assess and monitor cyber risk to the financial sector, including various approaches to stress testing. The paper illustrates these techniques by applying them to Singapore. As an advanced economy with a complex financial system and rapid adoption of fintech, Singapore serves as a good case study. We place our results in the context of recent cybersecurity developments in the public and private sectors, which can be a reference for surveillance work.
    Date: 2020–02–10
  16. By: prasetya, koko
    Abstract: Di Indonesia saat ini telah mengalami kemajuan dibidang teknologi informasi. Seiring berkembangnya teknologi yang semakin canggih dan maju tuntutan akan kebutuhan semakin banyak. Semakin banyaknya tuntutan tersebut dibutuhkan suatu inovasi atau terobosan baru dari para petinggi negara untuk mensejahterakan masyarakatnya. Dengan memanfaatkan kecanggihan dan kemajuan teknologi yang ada pemerintah membuat kebijakan berbasis elektronik yaitu e-government. Dari adanya sistem baru tersebut yang berbasis elektronik memudahkan dalam menyelenggarakan pelaksanaan pelayanan yang di lakukan oleh aparatur negara kepada masyarakatnya. Sebagai contoh inovasi yang dilakukan aparatur negara yaitu menciptakan proses penilangan yang sebelumnya masih menggunakan sistem manual dan saat ini telah menjadi sistem tilang berbasis elektronik atau bisa kita sebut sebagai e-tilang. Namun dari pelaksanaan sistem baru tersebut masih terdapat pelanggaran dikarenakan kesadaran masyarakat yang dirasa kurang dan sosialisasi yang dilakukan oleh aparatur berwajib untuk menginformasikan e-tilang tersebut masih kurang mencakup keseluruhan dari masyarakat yang ada.
    Date: 2020–02–14
  17. By: Vu, Tien Manh; Yamada, Hiroyuki
    Abstract: We examine whether the probability of having a boy aged below 5 years in households and communes is associated with religious individuals in Vietnam using data from the 1999 Population and Housing Census (on 76 million people) and 2007 Establishment Census (on religious establishments). Our results show low probability of having a boy aged below 5 years among religious households. Moreover, using Vietnam’s 1955–1974 North-South division that resulted in different religious developments, we apply a commune-level instrumental-variable approach. From this analysis, we find a higher serious follower ratio associated with a lower boy ratio within communes and certain non-believer communities.
    Keywords: Sex Ratio, Skewed Sex Ratio at Birth, Religion, Son Preference, Vietnam, J13, J16, N35, Z1
    Date: 2020–03
  18. By: Dang,Hai-Anh H.; Hiraga,Masako; Nguyen,Cuong Viet
    Abstract: Little literature currently exists on the effects of childcare use on maternal labor market outcomes in a developing country context, and recent studies offer mixed results. This paper attempts to fill these gaps by analyzing several of the latest rounds of the Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey spanning the early to mid-2010s. Addressing endogeneity issues with a regression discontinuity estimator based on children's birth months, the paper finds a sizable effect of childcare attendance on women's labor market outcomes, including their total annual wages, household income, and poverty status. The effects of childcare attendance differ by women's characteristics and are particularly strong for younger, more educated women. Furthermore, childcare has a medium-term effect and positively impacts men's labor market outcomes as well.
    Keywords: Rural Labor Markets,Labor Markets,Inequality,Social Development&Poverty,Labor Standards
    Date: 2019–05–17
  19. By: dini, ovilya nosavan
    Abstract: Hortikultura dapat membantu meningkatkan pertumbuhan ekonomi. Daerah yang berperan bersar dalam Hortikultura adalah Jawa Timur
    Date: 2020–02–19
  20. By: Pricilia, Friska; Nasrullah, Muhammad; Fauzie, Kamilah; Pratiwi🧞‍️, Safadela Gigania; Nabilla, Sinta Dina
    Abstract: Pertumbuhan penduduk dan peningkatan kesadaran akan pentingnya kesehatan menyebabkan tingginya demand masyarakat terhadap kuantitas serta kualitas buah dan sayur - sayuran. Tingginya permintaan tesebut tidak diimbangi dengan ketersediaan supply yang cukup, sehingga dilakukan impor terhadap buah dan sayur - sayuran agar dapat memenuhi permintaan domestik. Ada banyak faktor yang menyebabkan tidak seimbangnya supply yang tersedia dengan demand masyarakat, seperti waktu panen - supply melebihi demand - harga turun - produk yang tidak terjual membusuk. Hal ini dikarenakan oleh sistem perdagangan yang buruk dan keterbatasan inovasi dan teknologi yang tersedia.
    Date: 2020–02–18
  21. By: Bacon,Robert W.
    Abstract: The Philippines power sector underwent a substantial and largely complete reform process. Following a severe shortage of supply in the late 1980s and the Asian Financial crisis of 1997, which made the dollar-denominated debt of the National Power Corporation extremely burdensome, the Electric Power Industry Reform Act was passed in 2001. This was intended to improve the quality of service and reduce power tariffs via the introduction of private participation and competition at the wholesale and retail levels. Although the implementation of the full reform program took longer than originally expected, the unwavering support given to the reform agenda by successive presidents of the country ensured that the planned steps had all been completed by 2013. At that time, retail competition and open access for consumers in Luzon and Visayas of more than one megawatt were introduced. The reform process was not impeded by complications that would have arisen if consumer subsidies had been endemic, but retail prices are even higher than might have been expected in the absence of subsidies, due to domestic taxation and the presence of some inefficiencies that have not yet been eliminated by the onset of competition.
    Keywords: Energy Policies&Economics,Economics and Finance of Public Institution Development,Privatization,De Facto Governments,Democratic Government,Public Sector Administrative&Civil Service Reform,State Owned Enterprise Reform,Energy Privatization,Public Sector Administrative and Civil Service Reform,Energy and Mining,Energy Demand,Energy and Environment,Energy Sector Regulation,Power&Energy Conversion
    Date: 2019–05–13
  22. By: Skoufias,Emmanuel; Kawasoe,Yasuhiro; Strobl,Eric; Acosta,Pablo Ariel
    Abstract: This paper builds on the existing literature assessing retrospectively the quantitative effects of natural disasters on different dimensions of household welfare, to make progress toward the ex ante identification of households that are vulnerable to poverty due to natural disasters, especially typhoons. A wind field model for the Philippines is employed to estimate local wind speeds at any locality where a tropical typhoon directly passes over or nearby. The estimated wind speeds are merged with the household Family Income and Expenditure Surveys at the barangay level, and consumption expenditures are then regressed against wind speed (or a related damage index) and household socioeconomic characteristics. The estimated coefficients from the regression model are then used to estimate ex ante household vulnerability to poverty (the likelihood that household consumption falls below the poverty line) in the event of future natural disasters of different intensities.
    Keywords: Inequality,Natural Disasters,Educational Sciences,Hydrology,Social Protections&Assistance
    Date: 2019–05–20
  23. By: Halim,Daniel Zefanya; Johnson,Hillary C.; Perova,Elizaveta
    Abstract: At 50.9 percent, female labor force participation in Indonesia is far below the regional average of 60.8 percent. Is it being hindered by a lack of affordable childcare services in the country? This paper exploits the joint variations in preschool age eligibility and access to preschool across regions and over years in a difference-in-difference-in-differences framework. With a longitudinal survey that tracks individuals for an average of 22 years, a panel of mothers was constructed to estimate the elasticity of maternal employment to preschool access. The analysis finds that an additional public preschool per 1,000 children increases the work participation of mothers of preschool age eligible children by 11-16 percent from the baseline mean. Private preschools do not increase work participation at the extensive margin, but they increase the likelihood of holding a second job. The availability of preschools induces mothers to informal sector occupations that do not require full-time commitments.
    Keywords: Educational Sciences,Gender and Development,Labor Markets
    Date: 2019–06–25
  24. By: Joanita, Regina
    Abstract: Industrial Era 4.0 changed the entire chain and management of all branches of industry with various technologies. All financial-based services are developing rapidly in Indonesia marked by the emergence of many start-up companies. Rapid changes to digital banking and financial technology show that technology can play a strategic role in providing financial services that can be accessed quickly. The availability of digital banking services and products is highly valued by customers, both individuals and business people, especially in Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME). The large selection of digital banking products is certainly intended to motivate customers to love and be loyal customers and become part of the modern lifestyle. The presence of the digital economy is a new opportunity as well as a serious threat to the banking industry that is churning into digital banking in order to retain customers and attract new customers from millennials.
    Date: 2020–02–25
  25. By: Samreth,Sovannroeun; Sanchez Martin,Miguel Eduardo; Ly,Sodeth
    Abstract: Cambodia has recorded both rapid economic growth and macroeconomic stability in recent decades despite (orthanks to) high levels of dollarization. Previous studies on dollarization in Cambodia have largely focused on examining its causes and estimating seigniorage losses. As an attempt to further explore the effects of dollarization in Cambodia, this paper examines its impact on the competitiveness of the export sector. The main results, based on a vector autoregression estimation of quarterly data over 1994Q4-2016Q4, indicate that a positive US interest rate shock has a negative impact on Cambodia's trade balance with the European Union, its main trading partner, as it leads to appreciation of the US dollar. Furthermore, this shock also leads to a significant decrease in Cambodia's international reserve levels during the first two quarters following the shock. The surrendering of monetary and exchange rate independence seems to affect the competitiveness of the tradable sector negatively as well as exacerbate financial sector vulnerability to solvency and liquidity risks.
    Keywords: International Trade and Trade Rules,Inflation,Macroeconomic Management,Economic Growth,Industrial Economics,Economic Theory&Research
    Date: 2019–06–17
  26. By: Pratiwi, Refinda Ayu
    Abstract: The digital-based economy will be one of the drivers of Indonesia's economic growth and per capita income amid a sluggish global economy due to the trade war and rising oil prices on international markets. This includes realizing equal income, increasing per capita income, increasing financial inclusion and financial access.
    Date: 2020–02–20
  27. By: maulana, veby armul; Subiyanti, Ririn; Firmansah, Diki; keiku, yoanna evangeline dedi
    Abstract: Horticulture has an important role in economic growth and can increase the income of producers of fruits and vegetables in East Java, this can increase adequate employment opportunities in rural areas and increase non-oil exports. The development of horticulture is expected to have great opportunities, because this is done on the basis of comparative advantage in the production of fruits and vegetables so as to create opportunities for foreign and domestic markets. From the prospect of horticultural agribusiness marketing, it has a competitive advantage, which is to meet the demands of local consumers, consumers from other islands and foreign consumers.
    Date: 2020–02–19
  28. By: Anna Gloria Bill\`e; Marco Rogna
    Abstract: Given the extreme dependence of agriculture on weather conditions, this paper analyses the effect of climatic variations on this economic sector, by considering both a huge dataset and a flexible spatio-temporal model specification. In particular, we study the response of N-fertilizer application to abnormal weather conditions, while accounting for GDP as a control variable. The dataset consists of gridded data spanning over 21 years (1993--2013), while the methodological strategy makes use of a spatial dynamic panel data (SDPD) model that accounts for both space and time fixed effects, besides dealing with both space and time dependences. Time-invariant short and long term effects, as well as time-varying marginal effects are also properly defined, revealing interesting results on the impact of both GDP and weather conditions on fertilizer utilizations. The analysis considers four macro-regions - Europe, South America, South-East Asia and Africa - to allow for comparisons among different socio-economic societies. In addition to finding a good support for the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve for fertilizer application, it shows peculiar responses of N-fertilization to deviations from normal conditions of moisture for each selected region, calling for ad hoc policy interventions.
    Date: 2020–02
  29. By: Harry Wheeler (Research and Statistics Group); Thomas Klitgaard
    Abstract: China has been an exporting juggernaut for decades. In the United States, this has meant a dramatic increase in China?s share of imports and a ballooning bilateral trade deficit. Gaining sales in the United States at the expense of other countries, Chinese goods rose from only 2 percent of U.S. non-oil imports in 1990 to 8 percent in 2000 and 17 percent in 2010. But these steady gains in U.S. import share have stopped in recent years, with China even losing ground to other countries in some categories of goods. One explanation for this shift is that Chinese firms now have to directly compete against manufacturers in high-skill developed countries while also fending off competition from lower-wage countries, such as Vietnam. This inability to make additional gains at the expense of other countries means that exports don?t contribute as much to China?s overall growth as they used to.
    Keywords: china United States imports market share processing penetration
    JEL: F00
  30. By: Arjan Lejour (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Jan Möhlmann (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Maarten van 't Riet (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Thijs Benschop (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis)
    Abstract: This paper uses the financial statements of special purpose entities (SPEs) for explaining the origin and destination of dividend, interest, and royalty flows passing the Netherlands. We find that Bermuda is the most important destination for royalty flows. These flows come from Ireland, Singapore and the United States. For dividend and interest payments the geographical pattern is more widespread. We find a substantial tax reduction for royalties by using Dutch SPEs compared to a direct flow between the origin and destination country. However, we cannot find such tax savings for dividends and interest with an approximation based on statutory tax rates. This Discussion Paper reports research on the financial flows already presented in the CPB Policy Brief of 24 January 2019: Conduit country the Netherlands in the spotlight.
    JEL: G32 H25 H32
    Date: 2019–06
  31. By: Shurojit Chatterji (Singapore Management University); Atsushi Kajii (Kwansei Gakuin University)
    Abstract: Do price forecasts of rational economic agents need to coincide in perfectly competitive complete markets in order for markets to allocate resources efficiently? To address this question, we define an efficient temporary equilibrium (ETE) within the framework of a two period economy. Although an ETE allocation is intertemporally efficient and is obtained by perfect competition, it can arise without the agents forecasts being coordinated on a perfect foresight price. We show that there is a one dimensional set of such Pareto efficient allocations for generic endowments.
    JEL: D51 D53 D61
    Date: 2020–02
  32. By: Theresa Greaney (Department of Economics, University of Hawai'i); Kozo Kiyota (Keio Economic Observatory, Keio University)
    Abstract: Is the gravity model as applicable to trade in intermediate inputs as it is to trade in final goods? One of the contributions of this paper is that we explicitly account for the dual nature of products that can be used as either intermediate inputs or final goods. We find that the structural gravity model performs extremely well for describing bilateral trade in final goods and in intermediate inputs. Moreover, this continues to hold even when we focus on a subset of countries in which intermediate inputs trade accounts for a growing share of trade, namely 'Factory Asia'. However, the gravity model may perform poorly due to model misspecification (i.e., exclusion of intranational trade) and/or sample selection, even after the model considers the dual nature of products. We demonstrate that the poor performance of the gravity model is not attributable to the large trade flow of intermediate inputs, which supports the continued use of the model as these trade flows continue to grow in importance worldwide.
    Keywords: Structural gravity model, Intermediate inputs, Intranational trade, Factory Asia
    JEL: F14
    Date: 2020–01–21
  33. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Joshi, Pramod Kumar
    Abstract: The frontiers of technologies have been constantly expanded in many industries around the world, including the agricultural sector. Among many “frontier technologies†in agriculture, are protected agriculture, precision agriculture, and vertical farming, all of which depart substantially from many conventional agricultural production methods. It is not yet clear how these technologies can become adoptable in developing countries, including, for example, South Asian countries like India. This paper briefly reviews the issues associated withthese three types of frontier technologies. We do so by systematically checkingthe academic articleslisted in Google Scholar, which primarily focus on these technologies in developing countries in Asia. Where appropriate, a few widely-cited overview articles for each technology were also reviewed. The findings generally reveal where performances of these technologiescan be raised potentially, based on the general trends in the literature. Where evidence is rich, some generalizable economic insights about these technologies are provided. For protected agriculture, recent research has focusedsignificantly on various features of protective structures (tunnel heights, covering materials, shading structures, frames and sizes) indicating that there are potentials for adaptive research on such structures to raise the productivity of protected agriculture. The research on protected agriculture also focuses on types of climate parameters controlled, andenergy structures, among others. For precision agriculture, recent research has focused on the spatial variability of production environments, development of efficient and suitable data management systems, efficiency of various types of image analyses and optical sensing, efficiency of sensors and related technologies, designs of precision agriculture equipment, optimal inputs and service uses, and their spatial allocations, potentials of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and nano-technologies. For vertical farming, research has often highlighted the variations in technologies based on out-door / indoor systems, ways to improve plants’ access to light (natural or artificial), growing medium and nutrient / water supply, advanced features like electricity generation and integration of production space into an office / residential space, and water treatment. For India, issues listed above may be some of the key areas that the country can draw on from other more advanced countries in Asia, or can focus in its adaptive research to improve the relevance and applicability of these technologies to the country.
    Keywords: ASIA, precision agriculture, vertical greening, developing countries, innovation adoption, protected agriculture, vertical farming, agricultural technology adoption,
    Date: 2019
  34. By: Chou I-Wen (Dhurakij Pundit University, Thailand Author-2-Name: Author-2-Workplace-Name: Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - More and more international students choose to study in international programs in Thai universities. While considering the development of international programs, some schools tend to ignore the psychological pressure and happiness of foreign students during their time in the program. I noticed that some students have mental problems which are unable to be resolved. Methodology/Technique - This paper will analyze the factors of subjective well-being in International Chinese college students, including the relationship between cultural intelligence, personality traits, and subjective well-being (SWB). Finding - This paper concludes that neuroticism has a significant negative impact on International Students' SWB, while openness to experience has a positive impact. Behavioral cultural intelligence has a positive effect on SWB, whilst motivational cultural intelligence has no significant effect. Type of Paper - Empirical
    Keywords: Religion; Cultural Intelligence; Subjective Well-being (SWB); International Chinese College Students; Personality Traits
    JEL: A29 A30 I19
    Date: 2019–12–30
  35. By: Atanu Ghoshray (Department of Economics, Newcastle University Business School, UK); Issam Malki (Department of Finance and Accounting, University of Westminster; London, UK); Javier Ordóñez (IEI and Department of Economics, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain)
    Abstract: We examine the top income share data of a sample of countries to empirically examine for the presence of structural breaks, linear trends and persistence. The analysis of the data is carried out separately for each individual country using novel econometric procedures that are both appropriate and robust. Various theories have been put forward to explain the causes of structural breaks in long run data, such as the introduction of assembly lines from the time of World War I and the ICT revolution. What we find is that there is no clear evidence that Anglo Saxon countries have similar trends as opposed to Nordic, Continental European or other Asian countries. The results are varied and no clear conclusion can be made. Further, the top income share data is found to be highly persistent, suggesting that shocks to the data are likely to be long-lived.
    Keywords: Unit Roots, Top Income Shares, Structural Breaks
    JEL: C22 C32 N30
    Date: 2020
  36. By: Melia, Elvis
    Abstract: This study asks what impact the Fourth Industrial Revolution will have on job creation and catchup development in Sub-Saharan Africa over the coming decade. Can light manufacturing export sectors still serve African development the way they served East Asian development in the past? If factory floor automation reduces the need for low-cost labour in global value chains, can IT-enabled services exports become an alternative driver of African catch-up development? I present case study evidence from Kenya to show that online freelancing has become an interesting sector, both in terms of its growth trajectory, and in terms of worker upward mobility in the global knowledge economy. As life everywhere moves further into the digital realm, and global internet connectivity between Africa and the rest of the world grows, more and more young Africans who stream onto the labour market may find work in the world of global online freelancing. I discuss the building blocks needed to make online work a sustainable vehicle for African catch-up development in the years ahead.
    Date: 2020
  37. By: Shear, Hannah E.; Pendell, Dustin L.
    Abstract: Livestock traceability has increasingly become a focus for the USDA, the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, high-volume beef-exporting states, and other beef industry stakeholders. The focus on traceability within the United States began after several international animal disease outbreaks and continues to be of importance with African Swine Flu spreading across Asia. Mitigating adverse future disease outbreaks, as well as maintaining export markets through a positive international perception of U.S. beef has become a top priority. Implementing a national disease traceability program would enable the industry to track and reduce the potential losses due to an outbreak. However, such a system comes at a large cost, mainly to cow-calf producers. This study utilizes an equilibrium displacement model (EDM) to determine the impacts of a beef cattle disease traceability system in the United States. Utilizing the EDM allows us to provide a comparison of how the various beef sectors would need to respond to offset the costs of a national disease traceability program.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, International Relations/Trade, Livestock Production/Industries
    Date: 2020–02
  38. By: Born, Andreas (Department of Economics); Janssen, Aljoscha (Singapore Management University)
    Abstract: In most democracies, members of parliament are either elected over a party list or by a district. We use a discontinuity in the German parliamentary system to investigate the causal effect of a district-election on an MP’s conformity with her party-line. A district-election does not affect roll call voting behavior causally, possibly due to overall high adherence to party voting. Analyzing the parliamentary speeches of each MP allows us to overcome the high party discipline with regard to parliamentary voting. Using textual analysis and machine learning techniques, we create two measures of closeness of an MP’s speeches to her party. We find that district-elected members of parliament do not differ, in terms of speeches, from those of their party-peers who have been elected through closed party lists. However, both speeches and voting correlate with district characteristics suggesting that district-elections allow districts to select more similar politicians.
    Keywords: Party-line; Textual Analysis; Regression Discontinuity; Parliamentary Speeches; Voting
    JEL: D72
    Date: 2020–02–24

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