nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2019‒09‒09
thirteen papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Determinants of capital structure decisions in Indonesia By Hiya, Nirmadarningsih; Sadalia, Isfenti; Fachruddin, Khaira Amalia
  2. The Challenges of Universal Health Insurance in Developing Countries: Evidence from a Large-scale Randomized Experiment in Indonesia By Abhijit Banerjee; Amy Finkelstein; Rema Hanna; Benjamin A. Olken; Arianna Ornaghi; Sudarno Sumarto
  3. Companies characteristics and environmental quality disclosure in Indonesia By Sebayang, Minda Muliana; Bukit, Rina
  4. Taraiyil (Grounding the Body) By Chandrasekaran S
  5. The Short Term Impact of a Productive Asset Transfer in Families with Child Labor: Experimental Evidence from the Philippines By Eric V. Edmonds; Caroline B. Theoharides
  6. Accumulation of foreign currency reserves and risk-taking By Rasmus Fatum; James Yetman
  7. Accumulation of Foreign Currency Reserves and Risk-taking By Fatum, Rasmus; Yetman, James
  8. The Role of Global and Domestic Shocks for Inflation Dynamics: Evidence from Asia By David Finck; Peter Tillmann
  9. Management Efficiency Evaluation of Water Supply Systems in North-Eastern Region of Thailand By Sudjit Karuchit; Preeyaphorn Kosa; Jareeya Yimrattanabovorn; Prapat Pentamwa; Patcharin Racho
  10. Geographic spread of currency trading: the renminbi and other EM currencies By Yin-Wong Cheun; Robert N McCauley
  11. Exploring the Use of Data-driven Journalism in Thai Mass Media By Monwipa Wongrujira
  12. Towards universal social protection: Lessons from the universal health coverage initiative By Ji-Yeun Rim; Caroline Tassot
  13. Teacher perception using the mobile phone in the teacher working group; age matters By Mohamad adning; Diana Sari Dj; Kulsum Nur Hayati

  1. By: Hiya, Nirmadarningsih; Sadalia, Isfenti; Fachruddin, Khaira Amalia
    Abstract: The aims of this study are to examine the effect of return on equity (ROE), current ratios (CR), tangibility, non-debt tax shields (NDTS) and growth opportunities (GO) on the debt to equity ratio of the Indonesian Stock Exchange Manufacturing Sector. This study uses data analysis techniques with multiple linear regression models using a panel data analysis mechanism. The object of this research is manufacturing companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange with a span of observational studies is from 2008 - 2012. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling technique. In testing multiple regression models using panel data analysis used a statistical software tool namely E-views series 4. Panel data testing was carried out in 3 tests, namely Pooled Least Squared (PLS) Test, Fixed Effect Model (FEM) and Random Effect Model (REM) The results of the sample selection are based on 88 companies from the total of 125 companies. Every data from this research is collected from the sources of the Indonesian Capital Market Directory (ICMD). Multiple regression testing begins with testing the estimation of Pooled Least Square (PLS) and Fixed Effect Model (FEM) and the results of the Chow-Test test stated that FEM is better than PLS. Also, Random Effect Model (REM) testing and Hausman showed that REM is a better model in analyzing this research data, so that this study is no longer testing classical assumptions. Based on the results of the tests conducted, the results show that the research model formed from the independent variable return on equity (ROE), current ratio (CR), tangibility, non-debt tax shields (NDTS) and growth opportunities (GO) affected the debt to equity ratio (DER) in the manufacturing sector of companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in the period 2008 to 2012. Also, partially variable which has a significant effect and in accordance with the theory is only the ROE variable where the variable has a negative effect.
    Keywords: debt to equity ratio; Data Panel; Capital Structure; Random Effect;
    JEL: G29 G30 O44
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Abhijit Banerjee; Amy Finkelstein; Rema Hanna; Benjamin A. Olken; Arianna Ornaghi; Sudarno Sumarto
    Abstract: To assess ways to achieve widespread health insurance coverage with financial solvency in developing countries, we designed a randomized experiment involving almost 6,000 households in Indonesia who are subject to a nationally mandated government health insurance program. We assessed several interventions that simple theory and prior evidence suggest could increase coverage and reduce adverse selection: substantial temporary price subsidies (which had to be activated within a limited time window and lasted for only a year), assisted registration, and information. Both temporary subsidies and assisted registration increased initial enrollment. Temporary subsidies attracted lower-cost enrollees, in part by eliminating the practice observed in the no subsidy group of strategically timing coverage for a few months during health emergencies. As a result, while subsidies were in effect, they increased coverage more than eightfold, at no higher unit cost; even after the subsidies ended, coverage remained twice as high, again at no higher unit cost. However, the most intensive (and effective) intervention – assisted registration and a full one-year subsidy – resulted in only a 30 percent initial enrollment rate, underscoring the challenges to achieving widespread coverage.
    JEL: I13 O15
    Date: 2019–08
  3. By: Sebayang, Minda Muliana; Bukit, Rina
    Abstract: The size of the company (size) is a factor that affects quality disclosure of environmental impacts. This is related to the number of assets owned by the company where large companies need more funds in managing their operations compared to smaller companies. Companies with large sizes also tend to pay more attention to the quality of disclosure of the company's environmental impact to obtain a good impression from stakeholders. This study aims to obtain empirical evidence about the characteristics of companies that influence the quality of disclosure of the company's environmental impact.
    Keywords: environmental quality disclosure; Indonesia; companies’ characteristics; profitability; company size;
    JEL: G29 G30 O44
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Chandrasekaran S (LASALLE, College of the Arts)
    Abstract: Taraiyil (Grounding the Body)In the work of ?Bleeding in Circle? , I approach Miko to assist me in piercing the metal hooks on the back of my body before the performance. After a short period, Miko came forward and said, ?Maafkan saya, saya mau salawatt? (I am sorry, I need to pray). Then, he proceeded with an act of salam, and went behind my body to recite a short prayer, quoting some Arabic verses from the Koran. After reciting the short prayer, he stood for a moment in silence and then proceeded with the act of piercing. But, it is regarded by most Islamic scholars to be forbidden for a Muslim to return the salam greeting of a non-Muslim in full . Not forgetting, Miko is a Muslim, and I am a Hindu. Such form of contradictions will be discussed in this paper through various performance artworks as a crux to redefine the primacy of performance art in Southeast Asia.Anthropologist Rob Boyd (2012) calls culture the ?engine of human adaptation,? a site that human can adapt to various forms of socio-political situations. In relation to Others, the body as a cultural being is constantly been challenged with various forms of belief systems, and at time, it even negates Others. It is within this site of construal, I am introducing the concept of Taraiyil .The concept of Taraiyil explores how performance artist interacts with Others as a cultural being, and how the ?body? has to be grounded in order to adapt with cultural contradictions of Others. This process will be investigated by cultural ethnography research thinking process that has been enacted in real time at the site of the performances.
    Keywords: Performance Art, Asian Thinking, Asian Body
    Date: 2019–07
  5. By: Eric V. Edmonds; Caroline B. Theoharides
    Abstract: Productive asset grants have become an important tool in efforts to push the very poor out of poverty, but they require labor to convert the asset into income. Using a clustered randomized trial, we work with the Government of the Philippines to evaluate a key component of their child labor elimination program, a $518 productive asset grant directed at families with child laborers. Treatment increases household based economic activity. Household well-being improves, mainly through increases in food security and child welfare. Households achieve these improvements in well-being by drawing upon the labor of household members. Adolescent labor is the most available labor, and we observe increases in employment among adolescents not engaged in child labor at baseline. Households with a family firm or business prior to treatment especially lack available adult labor to work with the asset leading to increases in child labor, including hazardous work, amongst children who were not in child labor at baseline.
    JEL: J22 L26 O15
    Date: 2019–08
  6. By: Rasmus Fatum (University of Alberta); James Yetman (BIS)
    Abstract: We assess whether the accumulation of foreign currency reserves in the Asia-Pacific region may have unintended consequences in the form of increased private sector risk-taking. To do so we carry out a country-specific daily data event study analysis of the relationship between official announcements of reserves stocks and various proxy measures of risk-taking. Overall, our results suggest that reserves accumulation exerts no systematic influence on risk-taking.
    Keywords: Foreign exchange reserves; risk-taking; implied volatility; credit default swaps
    JEL: F31 G15
    Date: 2019–08–14
  7. By: Fatum, Rasmus; Yetman, James
    Abstract: We assess whether the accumulation of foreign currency reserves in the Asia-Pacific region may have unintended consequences in the form of increased private sector risk-taking. To do so we carry out a country-specific daily data event study analysis of the relationship between official announcements of reserves stocks and various proxy measures of risk-taking. Overall, our results suggest that reserves accumulation exerts no systematic influence on risk-taking.
    Keywords: Foreign exchange reserves, risk-taking, implied volatility, credit default swaps
    JEL: F31 G15
    Date: 2019–09
  8. By: David Finck (Justus-Liebig-University Gießen, Germany); Peter Tillmann (Justus-Liebig-University Gießen, Germany)
    Abstract: This paper studies the changing nature of inflation dynamics in small open economies and the shifting output-inflation trade-off. We estimate a series of VAR models for a set of six Asian emerging market economies, in which we identify a battery of domestic and global shocks using sign restrictions. We find that global shocks ex- plain large parts of inflation and output dynamics. The global shocks are procycli- cal with respect to the domestic components of economic activity. We estimate Phillips curve regressions based on alternative decompositions of output into global and domestic components. For the domestic component of GDP we find a positive and significant Phillips curve slope. While including the output component driven by oil prices ’flattens’ the Phillips curve, the component driven by global demand shocks ’steepens’ the trade-off. Hence, whether or not global shocks flatten the Phillips curve crucially depends on the nature of these global shocks. A series of counterfactuals supports these findings and suggests that the role of monetary pol- icy and exchange rate shocks is limited.
    Keywords: inflation targeting, business cycle, open economy, monetary policy, Phillips curve
    JEL: E3 E5 F4
    Date: 2019–08–16
  9. By: Sudjit Karuchit (Suranaree University of Technology); Preeyaphorn Kosa (Suranaree University of Technology); Jareeya Yimrattanabovorn (Suranaree University of Technology); Prapat Pentamwa (Suranaree University of Technology); Patcharin Racho (Suranaree University of Technology)
    Abstract: This paper presents key findings of a comprehensive research aimed at evaluating the management efficiency of water resources and water supply systems in Thailand. The study was carried out in 4 North-Eastern provinces: Nakhon Ratchasima, Chaiyaphum, Surin, and Buri Ram. Four management aspects were examined, namely water resource, water quality, health risk, and engineering. Twenty-seven village water supply systems (VWSSs) and ten city water supply systems (CWSSs) were systematically selected and investigated. The 2 groups represent small systems in rural areas and big systems in city areas, respectively. Water samples were collected once in the rainy season and another in the dry season. For VWSSs, results indicated that 7 reservoir-using systems would have insufficient raw water ranging from 6 - 12 months per year in the next 20 years. Treated water from both surface-water and groundwater VWSSs, in some cases, had color, fecal coliform, and total coliform values which exceed drinking water standards; and had less than 0.02 mg/L residual chlorine, indicating lack of disinfection protection. Multi-route risk assessment revealed several cases of total cancer risk values higher than 10-6, though the HI values seemed to indicate no risk of concern. Evaluation of the engineering aspect predicted that 44% of the plants would have inadequate treatment capacity in the long-run. For CWSSs, it was found that most of the raw water resources ? large reservoirs and major rivers ? can accommodate the future water needs in the next 20 years. Most plants also have the capability to reserve excess water for usage in the dry season and have adequate reservoir sizes. A few water quality parameters were not conforming with standard, e.g. color, iron, and residual chlorine, which could be due to inappropriate operating condition. The health risk study revealed that the THMs levels were within the drinking water standards but the health risk was high in certain cases. On the other hand, the heavy metals were within standards and acceptable risk level. Most of CWSSs have a successful and efficient operation due to the appropriate structure of the organization and knowledgeable plant operators. Some plants, however, have high electricity cost which leads to loss of money in the operation. Comparison of VWSSs and CWSSs results help to understand their current management situation and discrepancy. The research outcomes are beneficial to water supply plant operators and administrators in rural and urban areas and can support relevant parties in management improvement.
    Keywords: water demand and supply, water resources, environment and development, water supply systems, general welfare
    JEL: Q25 Q56 L95
    Date: 2019–07
  10. By: Yin-Wong Cheun; Robert N McCauley
    Abstract: This paper studies the ongoing diffusion of renminbi trading across the globe, the first such research of an international currency. It analyses the distribution in offshore renminbi trading in 2013 and 2016, using comprehensive data from the Triennial Central Bank Survey of Foreign Exchange and Over-the-Counter Derivatives Market Activity. In 2013, Asian centres favoured by the policy of renminbi internationalisation had big shares in global renminbi trading. In the following three years, renminbi trading seemed to converge to the spatial pattern of all currencies, with a half-life of seven to eight years. The previously most traded emerging market currency, the Mexican peso, shows a similar pattern, although it is converging to the global norm more slowly. Three other major emerging market currencies show a qualitatively similar evolution in the geography of their offshore trading. Overall the renminbi's internationalisation is tracing an arc from the influence of administrative measures to the working of market forces.
    Keywords: international currency, FX turnover, renminbi internationalisation, international financial centre
    JEL: C24 F31 F33 G15 G18
    Date: 2019–08
  11. By: Monwipa Wongrujira (Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University)
    Abstract: Technology and mobile devices allow many news consumers become news senders?prosumer (i.e. being both consumers and producers of news and information at the same time). Anyone could be a reporter. Also, there are tons of news and information flow around us every day. The differences between media reporting stories and information running around social media are the quality of news and information. If the media do only report ?who what when where why how,? they did not accomplish their task as a journalist. Data-driven journalism becomes significant in news reporting process. It needs not merely Big Data, but also analysis process and presentation. This paper intends to explore the use of data journalism among the mass media in Thailand. Whereas social media become more and more popular and drawing attention among Thai news consumers, the professional media need to differentiate their news reporting to focus on in-depth or investigative reporting. How the professional media apply data-driven journalism; to what extend did they use data for reporting a story; and what are the obstacles affecting their application of data journalism. Factors affecting the use of data-driven journalism included: data sources (incomplete, unstructured, and difficult to access), data compiling, time consuming and limitation of technology for data analysis and presentation.
    Keywords: Data journalism, professionalism, news reporting, mass media, social media, Thailand
    Date: 2019–07
  12. By: Ji-Yeun Rim; Caroline Tassot
    Abstract: Universal social protection (USP) is becoming high priority in many developing countries’ agendas. However, information on what has worked well – and not so well – is limited. This study reviews a wide range of recent country experiences with universal health coverage (UHC) financing and implementation in order to draw lessons and help governments elaborate policies for USP and the extension of social protection. It looks at different pathways and delivery and financing challenges to universalism in health coverage and takes a close look at equity issues. It concludes with some key takeaways from UHC implementation and its implications for USP. One important message of this study is that while the UHC experience cannot be mechanically transposed to the USP agenda, a number of lessons can be drawn. Moreover, the benefits in terms of coverage and equity of better integrating USP and UHC appear tremendous.
    Keywords: Burkina Faso, equity, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, universal health coverage, universal social protection
    JEL: D63 H51 H55 I38
    Date: 2019–09–04
  13. By: Mohamad adning (Brunel University of London); Diana Sari Dj (Quality Insurance of Education Institute, Lampung Province, Indonesia); Kulsum Nur Hayati (Development Center for Radio Media Education and Culture, Yogyakarta, Indonesia)
    Abstract: This study examined senior teachers and junior teachers at primary school to show their mobile phone activity level among teacher working group in Lampung Province in 5 districts. The category of junior teachers are teachers whom are under 32 years (246 teachers) and senior teachers are categorised among teachers whom are over 50 years (304 teachers) and the total respondent is 550 teachers. There are two main elements of this research. Firstly, there is perception on the activity on junior teachers and senior teachers in primary school in teacher working group in Lampung Province. The research found that senior teachers are more active and care about being a part of teacher working group as compared to junior teachers, but both of them said that teacher working group helps them to improve their competencies. Secondly, there is a perception of the activity by junior teachers and senior teachers in the mobile phone group chat in the teacher working group. The result indicates that the junior teachers perceive themselves as experts (63% of the respondents) in using mobile phone, higher than senior teachers (23%). The result has also found that not all junior teachers were engaged in the group chat in teacher working group (72%), and the same pattern was seen among senior teachers as only 75% of them were engaged in group chat. There is a different perception of activity between junior teachers and senior teacher in collaborative learning through the mobile phone in teacher working group based on t-test with an independent sample test. The data indicates (2 tailed) 0.011 compare to the table
    Keywords: Teacher working group, mobile phone, teacher
    JEL: I20 I21 I29
    Date: 2019–06

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