nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2019‒01‒21
23 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Conceptualizing ASEAN Tourism Brand: Towards A Coopetition Framework By Varintra Sirisuthikul
  2. Granger Causality Between Local Government Expenditure and Economic Growth in Indonesia By Sri Kurniawati
  3. Land Use Restrictions, Misallocation in Agriculture, and Aggregate Productivity in Vietnam By Le, Kien
  4. Substitution between mobile telephony and OTT communication services: the case of Thailand By Jirakasem, Monarat; Mitomo, Hitoshi
  5. The Contribution of Tourist Attraction, Accessibility and Amenities in Creating Tourist Loyalty in Indonesia By Tri Palupi Robustin
  6. Relationship between Gender, Year Levels, Assignment Completion and Academic Achievement for College Students By Wuttiporn Suamuang; Surachai Suksakulchai; Matthew A. Easter
  7. Influence of Female Leadership Styles and Organization Culture on Locus of Control and Job Satisfaction By Rahman, Muh Akil
  8. Globalization and State Capitalism: Assessing Vietnam's Accession to the WTO By Leonardo Baccini; Giammario Impullitti; Edmund J. Malesky
  9. A General Assessment of Climate Change - Loss of Agricultural Productivity in Indonesia By RESTU ANANDA, RIMA; Widodo, Tri
  10. Knowledge Management Process of Germinated Brown Rice Production Community Enterprise By Worasit Wongadisai; Sumalee Chanchalor; Jariya Neanchaleay
  11. Evaluasi Potensi Penerimaan Pendapatan Asli Daerah Bidang Pariwisata di Indonesia By Febriantoko, Jovan; Rotama, Hendra
  12. "Macroeconomic Policy Effectiveness and Inequality: Efficacy of Gender Budgeting in Asia Pacific" By Lekha Chakraborty; Marian Ingrams; Yadawendra Singh
  13. A New Analysis of Population History in Sabah and Sarawak By Hashom Mohd Hakim
  14. Cambodia; 2018 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; Staff Statement; and Statement by the Executive Director for Cambodia By International Monetary Fund
  15. Sources of Economic Growth: A Global Perspective By Błażejowski, Marcin; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Gazda, Jakub
  16. Emerging trends in the use of technology as a driver of the transition to formality Experiences from Asia and the Pacific By Bhattarai, Tejeshwi Nath.
  17. Cambodia's Oil and Gas Activities and Future Outlooks By Nguon, Ponhneath
  18. Suspicious minds: user perceptions of privacy on Facebook in Myanmar By Hurulle, Gayani; Galpaya, Helani; Ababakirov, Azamat
  19. "Bad Apple" Peer Effects in Elementary Classrooms: the Case of Corporal Punishment in the Home By Le, Kien; Nguyen, My
  20. Online freelancing: Potential for digital gig work in India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar By Galpaya, Helani; Senanayake, Laleema
  21. New Sources of Growth: The Role of Frugal Innovation and Transformational Leadership By Solikin M. Juhro; A. Farid Aulia
  23. Kepemimpinan Transformasional Melalui Neuroscience Terapan: Mekanisme Transmisi Proses Berpikir By Solikin M. Juhro; A. Farid Aulia

  1. By: Varintra Sirisuthikul (Faculty of Business Administration for Society, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand Author-2-Name: Author-2-Workplace-Name: Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - This paper proposes an integrative framework in an attempt to conceptualize the branding of ASEAN tourism in a sustainable and unified approach based on the results collected from a sample of travellers visiting ASEAN destinations and tourism insights from NTOs or DMOs. Methodology/Technique - A mixed method is used to combine the quantitative and qualitative phases. A survey of travellers visiting ASEAN destinations (n=480) is conducted with a mix of Asian travellers and Western travellers, as well as 10 in-depth interviews with NTOs or DMOs to obtain tourism insights. Findings - The findings suggest that authenticity of the destination image is an integral part of ASEAN tourism. National Tourism Organizations (NTOs), Destination Marketing Organization (DMO) and other stakeholders of ASEAN tourism should adopt a coopetition framework and co-create a consistent and coherent positioning of the destination, while maintaining a competitive positioning of the nation, to achieve a sustainable brand of ASEAN tourism. Novelty - The paper highlights the needs for ASEAN NTOs and DMOs to enable coopetition for all tourism stakeholders for the promotion of the ASEAN brand. The proposed framework is seen as transformative in its ability to bring about collaborative and sustainable efforts to ultimately achieve an authentic ASEAN brand.
    Keywords: ASEAN Tourism Brand; Coopetition; Cooperation and Competition; Authenticity; NTOs; DMOs.
    JEL: M38 M38 L32
    Date: 2018–12–05
  2. By: Sri Kurniawati (Universitas Tanjungpura, Jalan Prof. Dr. Hadari Nawawi, 78115, Pontianak, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Author-2-Workplace-Name: Author-3-Name: Author-3-Workplace-Name: Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - This study examines the causal relationship between government expenditure and economic growth in West Kalimantan between 2009 and 2015. This research resulted in the enactment of Wagner's Law and/or Keynes's Theory in West Kalimantan leading the local government to take the right policies as an effort towards improving economic development. Methodology/Technique - By using panel data that combines time series data and cross-site data, it will be estimated by the Granger causality test which begins with a stationary test and co-integration test. Based on the co-integration tests, the results suggest that there is a long-term relationship between government expenditure and economic growth. Meanwhile, based on the Granger causality test, there is no reciprocal relationship between government expenditure and economic growth. Findings - A direct relationship in the form of the influence of government expenditure on economic growth in West Kalimantan. Novelty - These results are in line with the Keynes's Theory through its national income function.
    Keywords: Government Expenditure; Economic Growth; Co-integration; Causality.
    JEL: F40 F43 F49
    Date: 2018–12–02
  3. By: Le, Kien
    Abstract: We evaluate the effects of restricted land use rights on aggregate productivity using micro-level data within a quantitative model. In particular, we exploit the Rice Land Designation Policy in Vietnam, which forces farmers to produce rice on almost 45% of plots of land. The policy provides a natural setting for investigating the aggregate effects of land use misallocation. We quantify the impacts of this system by formulating a two-sector model featuring production and occupation choices. We also use digitized versions of Vietnam’s Local Land Use Atlas and Global Agro-Ecological Zones database to construct a micro-spatial dataset that shapes important features of the model and allows us to compare the restricted against a counterfactual efficient allocation. The main findings suggest that eliminating all land use restrictions leads to 10.6% gain in agricultural total factor productivity and 4.36% increase in real GDP per capita. While misallocation in agriculture has been studied extensively, our research highlights a novel source of misallocation that is prevalent in other countries such as China, Myanmar, Uzbekistan, among others.
    Keywords: Agriculture, misallocation, land use restrictions, aggregate productivity, Vietnam
    JEL: O11 O13 O4
    Date: 2018–12–20
  4. By: Jirakasem, Monarat; Mitomo, Hitoshi
    Abstract: This research aims to examine the relation between Over-The-Top (OTT) services and mobile telephony. It will also investigate factors affecting customer use of OTT services. Such services have been increasing in terms of revenue and intensity of usage; conversely, revenue from mobile telephony has been declining. As a result, many analysts expect that OTT services may soon replace mobile telephony. Nonetheless, empirical research regarding this assumption is scarce, particularly in the case of Thailand. Thus, this research aims to explore the claim regarding substitution between those two communication services. The research relies on survey data collected in 2014 by NBTC, and comprises 4,716 observations. OTT services in Thailand were found to be complimentary to mobile telephony usage (p-value
    Keywords: Over-The-Top (OTT) services,Mobile telephony,Thailand,Substitution effect
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Tri Palupi Robustin (Student Doctoral Faculty of Economic and Business, University Of Jember, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Raden Andi Sularso Author-2-Workplace-Name: Promoter and lecturer at Jember University, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Imam Suroso Author-3-Workplace-Name: Co- Promotor and lecturer at Jember University, Indonesia Author-4-Name: Author-4-Workplace-Name: Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Author-6-Workplace-Name: Author-7-Name: Author-7-Workplace-Name: Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - The Pulau Merah Beach is the most beautiful beach and enjoys number one ranking from the other seven beaches. The unique beach of Pulau Merah in Banyuwangi is so popular among the people of East Java, it is also one of the destinations favored by foreign tourists, particularly for surfing. The Pulau Merah Beach is uniquely placed in a small hill located close to the shoreline. The Pulau Merah beach has a 200-meter-high hill and this reddish color causes the beach to be known as the Pulau Merah Beach. This study aims to determine the partial and simultaneous effects of tourist attraction, accessibility, and amenities on tourist loyalty on the Pulau Merah beaches. Methodology/Technique - This research is a quantitative study. The sample includes 80 tourists visiting Pulau Merah Beach. The data is analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with the SPSS Program. Findings - The results of the study show that tourist attraction, accessibility, and amenities have a significant, partial and simultaneous effect on tourist loyalty. Novelty - Attractiveness, accessibility, and amenities have a significant influence on the satisfaction of tourists.
    Keywords: Attraction; Accessibility; Amenities; Tourist Loyalty; Pulau Merah Beach.
    Date: 2018–12–04
  6. By: Wuttiporn Suamuang (King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok); Surachai Suksakulchai (King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok); Matthew A. Easter (University of Missouri, Columbia)
    Abstract: In order to effectively enhance students’ learning, doing assignments is an accepted practice of improving content knowledge and self-regulated skills. However, individual differences may impact students’ assignment behaviors. This study examined the relationship between specific assignment variables (i.e. amount of assignment completed, time spent on assignment), gender and grade level. The participants were 786 undergraduate students from five universities in Thailand. A two-way analysis of variance showed that differences of gender and year levels significantly affected the amount of assignments completed and time spent on assignments. The female students completed significantly more assignments and had more time spent on assignment than the male students. For year level differences, freshman complete more amount of assignments than other students (sophomore, junior and senior). On the other hand, junior and senior students spent more time on assignments than sophomores. Using a hierarchical regression analysis, gender and year levels were significantly associated with academic achievement. Moreover, the results revealed that the number of assignments completed was a strongest predictor on academic achievement and had positive associations with academic achievement after controlling gender and year level variables. Our findings then suggest there are differences between gender and undergraduate year levels in terms of assignment completion which may then affect students’ learning outcome.
    Keywords: Assignment completion, Academic achievement, Individual differences, Thailand, Undergraduate year levels
    Date: 2018–11
  7. By: Rahman, Muh Akil
    Abstract: This study is categorized in exploratory research and included in the descriptive analysis. The population of this research is all lecturers in UIN Alauddin Makassar, Indonesia. The sampling technique used in this research is purposive sampling which sample criterion used is civil servant lecturers who occupy structural positions. The sample size uses maximum likelihood (ML) with 105 numbers of samples. In this study, the techniques used include questionnaire; observation; interviews, and documentation. The method of analysis used in this research is structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis. Findings of this research are female leadership style influence on the locus of control and job satisfaction; organizational culture influences the locus of control and job satisfaction, meanwhile locus of control influence on job satisfaction.
    Keywords: Style of female leadership; Organizational culture; Locus of control; Job satisfaction
    JEL: J28
    Date: 2018–06–04
  8. By: Leonardo Baccini; Giammario Impullitti; Edmund J. Malesky
    Abstract: What do state-owned enterprises (SOEs) do? How do they respond to market incentives? Can we expect substantial efficiency gains from trade liberalization in economies with a strong presence of SOEs? Using a new dataset of Vietnamese firms we document a set of empirical regularities distinguishing SOEs from private _rms. Then we empirically study the effect of the 2007 WTO accession on selection, competition, and productivity. Our results show that WTO entry is associated with higher probability of exit, lower firm profitability, and substantial increases in productivity for private firms but not for SOEs. Our estimates suggest that the overall productivity gains would have been about 40% larger in a counterfactual Vietnamese economy without SOEs. We highlight some economic mechanisms possibly driving these findings through the lenses of a model of trade with heterogeneous private and state-owned firms. The model suggests that political/regulatory barriers to entry and access to credit are key drivers of the different response of SOEs to trade liberalization. Further empirical tests broadly validate these insights.
    Keywords: state-owned enterprises, state capitalism, heterogeneous firms, gains from trade, WTO, Vietnam
    JEL: F12 F13 F14 P31 P33
    Date: 2019–01
  9. By: RESTU ANANDA, RIMA; Widodo, Tri
    Abstract: The changes of frequency and complexity of extreme climate events and in the variability of weather patterns will have significant impacts for stability of agricultural system. Climate change and variability are phenomena of climate anomalies that are of great concern, especially due to the agricultural sector. In Indonesia, in 30 years there have been several extreme conditions which are marked by the frequency of increasingly high climate variability. This paper investigate the impact of climate change on change of value GDP, change of wealth, Government Household Demand, Private Household Demand and real wage in Indonesia by using the dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. This study used GTAP 9 with base year 2011. The GTAP database covers 140 regional units and 57 sectors that aggregated into eleven regions and eight sectors. There are three scenarios of climate change used in this paper that were the highest, medium and the lowest. The results shows that both GDP and wealth have a negative impact due to the scenarios. The greater of climate change is, the greater the decrease of values of GDP, Wealth, Market Price, Government Household Demand, Private Household Demand towards the scenarios of climate change in Indonesia are. The results indicate an urgent need to mainstream adaption strategies to lessen the negative impacts of any climate change-induced loss of agricultural productivity in Indonesia.
    Keywords: Climate change, agricultural productivity, impact assessment, Indonesia, GTAP
    JEL: O4 O44 Q5 Q54
    Date: 2019–01–07
  10. By: Worasit Wongadisai (King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok); Sumalee Chanchalor (King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok); Jariya Neanchaleay (King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok)
    Abstract: The objective of this qualitative research was to investigate the knowledge management process of Germinated Brown Rice Production Community Enterprise in Sakon Nakhon, Northeastern region of Thailand, a major processing source. The sample was selected based on purposive sampling. It was Ban-Noijomsri Community Enterprise with effective knowledge management. Methodologies included interview, focus group, and participant and non-participant observations. Data were analyzed by content analysis. The results of this study indicated that 1). Knowledge identification focused on the knowledge used in production and production process development and community enterprise and business management, 2). Knowledge creation and acquisition were conducted inside and outside community enterprise through discussion and knowledge exchange with members, participation in training, and field trip with external agencies, 3). Knowledge storage was conducted by storing knowledge through personal recognition and important information note, 4). Knowledge distribution was conducted through discussion and knowledge sharing, demonstration, manual and process sign board preparation, and 5). Knowledge application was conducted by integrating knowledge and experience into new academic knowledge to obtain new body of knowledge. The key factors contributing to successful knowledge management were leadership and organizational culture.
    Keywords: Knowledge Management, Germinated Brown Rice, Community Enterprise
    Date: 2018–11
  11. By: Febriantoko, Jovan; Rotama, Hendra
    Abstract: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi kegiatan promosi pariwisata diIndonesia khususnya Pemerintah Kota Pagaralam dan melihat implementasi kegiatan promosi dengan bantuan multimedia. Hasil dari penelitian ini diharapkan mampu meningkatkan perekonomian masyarakat dan peningkatan Pendapatan Asli Daerah (PAD) Kota Pagaralam. Jenis penelitian yang dilakukan adalah mix methode dengan metode studi kasus dengan menghitung rasio kemandirian daerah dan pendekatan logic model. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan wawancara, dokumentasi, dan observasi. Uji Keabsahan data mengunakan teknik triangulasi dan member checking. Berdasarkan hasil evaluasi terhadap kegiatan promosi pariwisata ditemukan beberapa kendala yaitu kurangnya anggaran, sumberdaya manusia ahli multimedia belum ada, dan belum memahami penggunaan multimedia seperti motion graphic untuk meningkatkan kunjungan wisata kota pagaralam.
    Keywords: PAD, sektor publik, motion graphic
    JEL: H83 M4 M41
    Date: 2018–10
  12. By: Lekha Chakraborty; Marian Ingrams; Yadawendra Singh
    Abstract: Gender budgeting is a fiscal approach that seeks to use a country's national and/or local budget(s) to reduce inequality and promote economic growth and equitable development. While the literature has explored the connection between reducing gender inequality and achieving growth and equitable development, more empirical analysis is needed on whether gender budgeting reduces gender inequality. Our study follows the methodology of Stotsky and Zaman (2016) to investigate the impact of gender budgeting on promoting gender equality across Asia Pacific countries. The study classifies Asia Pacific countries as gender budgeting or non-gender budgeting according to whether they have formalized gender budgeting initiatives in laws and/or budget call circulars. To measure the effect of gender budgeting on reducing inequality, we measure the correlation between gender budgeting and the Gender Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Inequality Index (GII) scores in each country. The data for our gender inequality variables are mainly drawn from the IMF database on gender indicators and the World Development Indicators database over the 1990-2013 period. Our results show that gender budgeting has a significant effect on increasing the GDI and a small but significant potential to reduce the GII, strengthening the rationale for employing gender budgeting to promote inclusive development. However, our empirical results show no prioritization of gender budgeting in the fiscal space of health and education sectors in the region.
    Keywords: Gender Budgeting; Fiscal Policy; Gender Equality; Asia Pacific
    JEL: H00 I3 J1
    Date: 2019–01
  13. By: Hashom Mohd Hakim (Universiti Sains Malaysia and Royal Malaysia Police, Malaysia. Author-2-Name: Japareng Lalung Author-2-Workplace-Name: School of Industrial Technologies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang Author-3-Name: Suresh Narayanen Author-3-Workplace-Name: Centre for Global Archaeological Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang Author-4-Name: Nasha Rodziadi Khaw Author-4-Workplace-Name: Centre for Global Archaeological Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang Author-5-Name: Author-5-Workplace-Name: Author-6-Name: Geoffrey Keith Chambers Author-6-Workplace-Name: School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand Author-7-Name: Hisham Atan Edinur Author-7-Workplace-Name: School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan. Author-8-Name: Author-8-Workplace-Name:)
    Abstract: Objective - This study is a comprehensive account of contemporary knowledge concerning pre-historic communities in Sabah and Sarawak based on newly available evidence from genomic and archaeological research. Methodology/Technique - The data presented in this review was obtained from primary literature including recent reports on several Neolithic excavation sites including Gua Sireh, Bukit Tengkorak, Melanta Tutup, and Bukit Kamiri. Findings - Pre-neolithic populations existed in Borneo long before the arrival of Austronesians as is evident from Niah Cave remains. These considerably pre-date the arrival of the latter new immigrants around 3,500 years ago. Further genetic research is needed, as the current view of the history of the population is based on a limited number of ethnic groups among those currently living in Borneo and to date, no trace has been found of any surviving genetic lineages from the earliest settlers. Novelty - This review paints a contemporary picture from existing information. In particular, it highlights the need for further research on the topic, as the current view of the genetic history of the population in Sabah and Sarawak is only available on a limited number of ethnic groups currently living in Borneo. Developing a conclusive and composite view on this topic will require widespread genetic surveys of many more ethnic groups scattered throughout the Sabah and Sarawak areas. This will require large-scale next-generation techniques (such as genome-wide SNP surveys and whole genome sequencing etc.). These methods should be enhanced by examination of ancient materials including human remains and their associated artefacts. These initiatives will require a number of well-planned excavations of recent settlements (last 10,000 years) and the application of trace and ancient DNA methodology.
    Keywords: Population Genetics; Archaeology; Borneo; Sabah and Sarawak; Malaysia; Population History.
    JEL: N90 Z10
    Date: 2018–12–03
  14. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Cambodia has made significant progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) due to years of impressive economic growth and reforms. Income growth has outpaced peers, poverty has declined, and the economy has begun to gradually diversify. At the same time, elevated financial sector vulnerabilities, development spending needs, and governance weaknesses pose challenges for further advancing sustainable growth and development.
    Date: 2018–12–17
  15. By: Błażejowski, Marcin; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Gazda, Jakub
    Abstract: The main goal of this paper is to determine the factors responsible for economic growth at the global level. The indication of the sources of economic growth may be an important element of the sustainable economic policy for development. The novelty of this research lies in employing an analysis based on data, which consist of an average growth rate of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for 168 countries for the years 2012–2013. The Bayesian model averaging approach is used to identify potential factors responsible for differences in countries’ GDPs. Additionally, a jointness analysis is performed to assess the potential independence, substitutability, and complementarity of the factors of economic growth. The robustness of the results is confirmed by Bayesian averaging of classical estimates. We identify the most probable factors of economic growth, and we find that the most important determinants are variables associated with the so-called “Asian development model”.
    Keywords: sustainable economic policy; Bayesian model averaging; gretl; BACE
    JEL: C11 E17 O40
    Date: 2019–01–08
  16. By: Bhattarai, Tejeshwi Nath.
    Abstract: Informality trends across labour markets are likely to be affected by the rising diffusion of technology in many ways. On the one hand, there are apprehensions concerning the risks of job losses due to increasing automation of production processes and also fears of increasing technology driven incidences of informal jobs in the formal sector as crowdwork continues to spread. On the other hand, governments are keen to reap development dividends, courtesy of technological advancements. The subject matter of this paper concerns the latter. One way in which technology can aid the transition to formality is by amplifying the impact of policies aimed at driving such transitions. New technologies are therefore being increasingly integrated into public policies, plans, and programmes that are either directly aimed at or indirectly contribute towards driving the transition to formality. This working paper examines such “e-formality” approaches in the Asia Pacific region. It provides an inventory of current of public initiatives, programmes, and policies that have incorporated the use of technology and have either directly or indirectly become vehicles for increased formalization or the transition towards it.
    Date: 2018
  17. By: Nguon, Ponhneath
    Abstract: This article aims to reveal studies on Cambodia’s current activities in the oil and gas industry. The paper will be divided into three parts: 1) Distribution of oil and gas resources 2) Current Operations in the oil and gas industry and 3) Conclusion and discussion of the future of the industry.
    Keywords: cambodia oil and gas future outlooks petroleum
    JEL: Q0 Q00 Q01 Q4 Q41 Q47 Q48
    Date: 2018–08–30
  18. By: Hurulle, Gayani; Galpaya, Helani; Ababakirov, Azamat
    Abstract: This paper studies the user perceptions of and behaviours pertaining to social privacy on Facebook in Myanmar, drawing on findings of qualitative research from 98 respondents, and an online survey in which 403 responses were received. It explores two elements of the users' behaviour pertaining to social privacy– the means by and the extent to which personal information was shared on the social media platform, and the audiences with whom the information is shared are then examined. The research finds that a number of respondents refrained from publishing their names and photographs on the platform, while individuals with whom they had no offline contact were added to their social network. It finds that the rationales for such decisions had underpinnings pertaining to factors including gender, ethnicity and religion, and were reflective of the socio-political environment in Myanmar at the time of the research.
    Date: 2018
  19. By: Le, Kien; Nguyen, My
    Abstract: This paper provides the first empirical evidence on the existence of negative spillover effects from children exposed to corporal punishment in the home. We find that interactions with peers who suffer from physical punishment significantly depress achievement in both math and language among Vietnamese fifth graders. These adverse impacts are transmitted through the reduction of academic expectation and the increased incidence of physical bullies at school in the presence of more corporal-punishment-inflicted peers. Our results offer meaningful implications for both education and social policies.
    Keywords: Corporal Punishment, Violent Disciplinary Practices, Student Achievement, Peer Effects, Family
    JEL: I20 I21 J18
    Date: 2018–12–20
  20. By: Galpaya, Helani; Senanayake, Laleema
    Abstract: Nature of the work done is changing due to the advancement of information and communication technology. To gain the advantage of lower cost in developing countries business processes were outsourced from developed to developing countries by organizations during the late 20th and early 21st century. Now, with the digital economy2 work is outsourced by organizations as well as individuals to anyone, anywhere around the globe over platforms or apps. These work are known as gig work/ cloud work. This research explored potential for gig work in India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar in terms of the labour market trends of these countries. It also looked at enabling factors and challenges of involving in gig work by online freelancers/ digital workers.
    Keywords: Online freelancing,micro-work,digital labour,gig work,cloud work,India,Sri Lanka,Myanmar
    Date: 2018
  21. By: Solikin M. Juhro (Bank Indonesia); A. Farid Aulia (Bank Indonesia)
    Abstract: Untuk dapat bangkit dari permasalahan pasca krisis dan tumbuh secara berkesinambungan, ekonomi suatu negara dituntut untuk mampu beradaptasi dengan perkembangan baru, yang tidak hanya VUCA (Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, and Ambiguous) namun sudah TUNA (Turbulent, Uncertain, Novel, and Ambiguous). Negara dituntut untuk berinovasi, mendayagunakan teknologi yang terus berubah secara kontinu dan eksponensial, serta menciptakan sumber pertumbuhan ekonomi baru yang mampu mendongkrak kesejahteraan masyarakat luas. Hal ini menuntut karakter kepemimpinan transformatif untuk mampu mendorong frugal innovation yang berdampak dan berkelanjutan, yang dapat dijadikan sebagai strategic driver pertumbuhan ekonomi ke depan. Hasil analisis menyimpulkan mengenai pentingnya peran kualitas inovasi dan potensi kepemimpinan sebagai sumber pertumbuhan ekonomi baru. Penelitian ini juga menawarkan pendekatan baru, yaitu Breakthrough Possibility Frontier (BPF) untuk memperlihatkan peran transformational leadership dengan kemampuan melakukan breaktrough dalam mendorong game changing frugal innovation sebagai strategic driver pertumbuhan ekonomi.
    Keywords: pertumbuhan ekonomi, inovasi, frugal innovation, transformational leadership, Breaktrough Possibility Frontier
    JEL: O30 O15 O40 M50
    Date: 2018–08
  22. By: Solikin M. Juhro (Bank Indonesia); A. Farid Aulia (Bank Indonesia)
    Abstract: Saat ini dunia sedang menghadapi keadaan yang volatil, tidak pasti, kompleks, dan ambigu (VUCA). Tantangan-tantangan baru pun muncul sehingga seorang leader dituntut untuk memiliki kompetensi yang terus berkembang. Transformational leadership merupakan suatu tipe kepemimpinan yang dipandang superior dalam menjawab tantangantantangan tersebut, di mana seorang pemimpin diharapkan untuk senantiasa agile dalam pencapaian tujuan organisasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis keterkaitan antara aspek kepemimpinan (melalui asesmen Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire/MLQ), fungsi kognitif (melalui asesmen Wechsler Bellevue), dan pola aktivitas otak/brain mapping (melalui Electroencephalography/EEG). Pada tahap selanjutnya dilakukan pemberian stimulus melalui neurofeedback untuk melatih kontrol terhadap gelombang otak. Dari penelitian ini, dapat disimpulkan bahwa seluruh partisipan yang menjadi sampel penelitian memiliki tipe kepemimpinan transformational leadership dengan subtipe idealized influence (behavior) dan inspirational motivation. Selain itu, adanya stimulasi terhadap otak (neurofeedback) juga memampukan partisipan untuk mengendalikan gelombang otak dalam keadaan sadar. Dengan adanya kemampuan untuk mengendalikan gelombang otak secara sadar, seorang leader dapat bekerja secara optimal.
    Keywords: applied neuroscience, leadership style, transformational leadership, human resources management, neurofeedback
    JEL: D8 J24 M19 O15
    Date: 2018–10
  23. By: Solikin M. Juhro (Bank Indonesia); A. Farid Aulia (Bank Indonesia)
    Abstract: Dunia saat ini memasuki lingkungan yang diliputi oleh volatilitas, ketidakpastian, kompleksitas, dan kerancuan yang tinggi. Kondisi tersebut membuat organisasi harus mampu menerjemahkan tantangan yang dihadapi menjadi suatu visi dan aksi yang jelas. Hal ini menuntut karakter kepemimpinan yang tidak statis, namun agile untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan magnitude dan sifat dari permasalahan. Transformational leadership merupakan suatu kepemimpinan partisipatif yang tidak hanya mampu memotivasi dan menggerakkan organisasi baik secara vertikal maupun horizontal, namun juga senantiasa agile di setiap keadaan, sehingga mendorong kapasitas organisasi dalam pencapaian visi dan misi bersama. Neuroscience terapan memberikan pemahaman mengenai aktivitas dan cara kerja otak manusia, serta meningkatkan kompetensi yang harus dimiliki oleh seorang leader, sehingga membantu leader memimpin transformasi organsisasi. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa neuroscience terapan dapat membantu kepemimpinan transformasional untuk mencapai keadaan yang ‘physically, emotionally, and mentally safe’ serta mendorong organisasi bertransformasi secara efektif. Penelitian ini selain menggali perspektif baru dalam isu kepemimpinan, juga memberikan kontribusi yang sangat penting dalam pengaplikasian ilmu terapan dalam konteks kepemimpinan, khususnya mengenai pemetaan mekanisme kerja transmisi, dalam hal ini cara kerja otak dalam memengaruhi reaksi tubuh, baik secara internal (emosi).
    Keywords: applied neuroscience, leadership style, transformational leadership, human resources management
    JEL: O15 M12 M19 M5
    Date: 2017–07

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