nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2018‒11‒26
thirty-two papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Factor affecting the palm oil boom in Indonesia: a time series analysis By Bentivoglio, D.; Bucci, G.; Finco, A.
  2. Urbanization and child malnutrition: A comparison of three countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-region By Pahlisch, Thi Hoa; Parvathi, Priyanka; Waibel, Hermann
  3. Exploring Differences in Rural Household Debt between Thailand and Vietnam: Economic Environment versus Household Characteristics By Waibel, H.; Chichaibelu, B.B.
  4. Can Smart Policies Reconcile Singapore's Green Economy with Sand Imports from Southeast Asia? By Hübler, Michael; Pothen, Frank
  5. Horticultural Development and Its Welfare Implications on Agricultural Household Education Investment in Indonesia By Khamthara, P.; Zeng, D.; Stringer, R.; Yi, D.
  6. Health and economic growth in Vista countries: An ARDL bounds test approach By Khobai, Hlalefang; Mbeki, Zizipho Mihlali
  7. Does health insurance matter in the hospital? New evidence from patient-level medical records in Vietnam By Lan Thi Thu Phan; Yusuke Jinnai
  8. The globalisation-welfare state nexus: Evidence from Asia By Niklas Potrafke
  9. Enhancing the Competitiveness of E-commerce in Bangkok, Thailand By Thongchai Surinwarangkoon; Sutha Pongthawornpinyo
  10. Public Expectation towards Social Development of Khok Prong Sub-District, Wichian Buri District, Phetchabun Province, Thailand By Phenphak Sawang
  11. Working Environment and Motivations Effecting the Efficiency in Employees' Work Performance: A Case of a Textile and Clothing Industrial Factory in Thailand By Paweena Sribunrueng
  12. The role of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in fostering inclusive growth at the local level in Southeast Asia By OECD
  13. Labor-saving technological change and decreasing fertility rates: The oil palm boom in Indonesia By Kubitza, C.; Gehrke, E.
  14. A Study of Guidelines for the Development of Public Relations Media Used by the Graduate School, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand By Kanitha Krittapaka
  15. Determinant of Income Inequality in Indonesia: Study Case 33 Provinces in 2011-2016 By CANDRA FAJRI ANANDA; ABDUL MANAP PULUNGAN
  17. Organization Management of the Sub-district Administrative Organization in Huay Yod District, Trang Province, Thailand Based on Good Governance By Kanjana Watthanasirikulchai
  18. Promoting trees at the oil palm frontier: experimental evidence from Indonesia By Romero, M.; Rudolf, K.; Wollni, M.
  19. Indonesia; Technical Assistance Report-Report on Sectoral Financial Accounts and Balance Sheets Technical Assistance Mission By International Monetary Fund
  20. Importing Inequality: Trade Liberalization, Technology, and Women's Employment By Yoko Oishi; Dainn Wie
  21. Guidelines for the Enhancement of Material Disbursement System for the Graduate School of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand By Anithita Yomasarn
  22. The Application of Power BI in Planning for New Students Application in the Post-graduate Programs of Suan Sunandha Rajabht University, Thailand By Suwannee Punsiri
  23. Travel Constraints of Taking a Volunteer Vacation Abroad By Raweewan Proyrungroj
  24. The Use of Line Application as a communication media by the Staff Members of the Graduate School, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand By Ponkrit Chidchob
  25. Environmental efficiency of smallholder rubber production By Holtkamp, A.M.; Brummer, B.
  27. Voluntourism as a Pro-Poor Tourism: A Case of Volunteer Tourism in Thailand By Raweewan Proyrungroj
  28. The Grid Bootstrap for Continuous Time Models By Lui, Yiu Lim; Xiao, Weilin; Yu, Jun
  29. Factors Influencing the Retention of the Staff Members of the Graduate School, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand By Kanthanut Sinsomboon
  30. Cambodia; Technical Assistance Report-Tax Administration Modernization Priorities 2019–23 By International Monetary Fund
  31. Strategic Fertility, Education Choices and Conflicts in Deeply Divided Societies By Emeline Bezin; Bastien Chabé-Ferret; David de la Croix
  32. Does Health Insurance Make People Happier? Evidence from Massachusetts' Healthcare Reform By Kim, Seonghoon; Koh, Kanghyock

  1. By: Bentivoglio, D.; Bucci, G.; Finco, A.
    Abstract: Over the past decade, the demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. The multi-purpose use combined with a market price below makes palm oil an attractive product. Consequently, a significant change in palm oil industry has taken place. Since 2006, Indonesia has been the biggest producer of palm oil in the world, replacing Malaysia as a chief producer. Thus, the rise of Indonesia palm oil is only a relatively recent phenomenon. This study develops a simple theoretical model that integrates some of the factor that could influence the production of palm oil in Indonesia in order to establish the issue of cointegration and causality patterns. In particular, this analysis examined the relationships among Indonesian palm oil production, soybean oil price, area harvested for palm oil production in Malaysia and palm oil consumption. The finding shows that soybean oil price, area harvested for palm oil production in Malaysia and palm oil consumption positively and significantly affect Indonesian palm oil production. However, the ascent of the Indonesian palm oil industry is the result of a combination of several factors, some of which are relating to the palm oil plant itself, others to policy. Acknowledgement : This research was supported supported by Department of Agricoltural, Food and Environmental Sciences (D3A).
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
  2. By: Pahlisch, Thi Hoa; Parvathi, Priyanka; Waibel, Hermann
    Abstract: Success in reducing monetary poverty in Southeast Asia has not fully translated into reduction in malnutrition. Using a two-year panel data from one province each in Thailand, Lao PDR and Vietnam, we study the correlation between monetary poverty and nutritional outcomes of children under five. Furthermore, we compare nutritional outcomes of children below five between rural and peri-urban areas. We apply ordinary least squares and district fixed-effects regressions and find that child nutrition remains a problem in rural areas across Southeast Asia despite achievements in poverty alleviation. Results reveal that although the households in the poorest quintile in both rural and peri-urban areas spend less on food; only the rural children are more likely to be stunted or underweight. It underscores the importance of investment in medical facilities near rural vicinities.
    Keywords: Poverty, Child malnutrition, Peri-urban, Rural, Fixed-effects, Southeast Asia
    JEL: O1 O18 I3
    Date: 2018–11
  3. By: Waibel, H.; Chichaibelu, B.B.
    Abstract: This study aims to explore cross-country differences in credit market participation, level of household debt holding and over-indebtedness between rural households in Thailand and Vietnam. Using a unique rural household survey data from Vulnerability in Southeast Asia project, it first identifies socio-economic determinants of such market outcomes for rural households in Thailand and Vietnam. It decomposes differences into a part that arise due to configuration of household characteristics or a part that arise due to differences in economic environments using three decomposition methods. Significant differences are observed in credit market participation rates and level of debt holding and indebtedness between rural households in Thailand and Vietnam. Rural households in Thailand tend to participate more in the credit market and face higher risk of over-indebtedness. These observed differences arise mainly due to dissimilarity in the economic environment for households with similar characteristics. Economically disadvantaged rural households in Thailand are more likely to participate in the credit market and face higher level of indebtedness mainly because credit markets are make borrowing easy. The higher gap observed in the upper part of the debt distribution between Thailand and Vietnam can be explained by differences in credit market conditions between the two countries. Acknowledgement :
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2018–07
  4. By: Hübler, Michael; Pothen, Frank
    Abstract: This article tries to increase public awareness of a crucial but rarely discussed global challenge by introducing a novel economic analysis: drawing on insights from various disciplines, it studies policies regulating sand extraction and trade. While sand is essential for construction and land reclamation worldwide, its extraction causes severe ecological damage in oceans, in rivers and on beaches and thus has high social costs. To derive solutions to this paramount global challenge, this article focuses on sand exports from developing countries in Southeast Asian to Singapore as a prominent example. It evaluates output, export and import taxes as the means to reduce sand extraction and trade. To this end, it utilizes an Eaton and Kortum type trade model within a general equilibrium framework. Overall, an output tax can reduce sand extraction to a large extent, while the economic costs are small for Singapore and slightly positive for the Southeast Asian sand exporters. As a novel policy, the sand tax can be implemented as a Sand Extraction Allowances Trading Scheme (SEATS). This policy can help sustainably balance Singapore’s economic growth with Southeast Asia’s economic development.
    Keywords: Sand extraction, trade policy, Singapore, Eaton-Kortum trade model
    JEL: F13 Q02
    Date: 2018–11
  5. By: Khamthara, P.; Zeng, D.; Stringer, R.; Yi, D.
    Abstract: Promoting horticultural crop adoption is a widespread development strategy in developing countries to augment agricultural households income. Other than the income effects demonstrated in previous research, horticultural farming's indirect welfare effects such as child education are less well understood. Educational investment is vital for rural development and long-term agricultural productivity. This study analyzes how horticultural farming affects agricultural household education investment, using cross-sectional data of Indonesian Family Life Survey covering seven provinces in Eastern Indonesia (IFLS East). The multiple outcome variables include education spending, number of hours spent in school, and grade repetition. The possible endogeneity of horticultural farming is carefully addressed through instrumental variables estimation. The overall result indicates a positive impact of horticultural farming on child education spending for primary school children in both genders. We also found negative effects of staple crop farming on education spending and number of hours spent in school. This research contributes to existing empirical research in horticultural development, demonstrating horticultural crop adoption would not only increase household income but also household education investment. Acknowledgement :
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2018–07
  6. By: Khobai, Hlalefang; Mbeki, Zizipho Mihlali
    Abstract: The present study examined the relationship between health and economic growth in the VISTA countries (Vietnam, Indonesia, South Africa, Turkey and Argentina). The study employed time series data covering the period between 1990 and 2016. Labor and capital were incorporated in the model to form a multivariate framework. The ARDL bounds test approach was used to determine the presence of the long run relationship among the variables. The findings posited that there is long run relationship between economic growth, health, capital and labour in all the countries except for Argentina. There were mix results in terms of the long run and short estimates. It was established that in Vietnam, Indonesia and South Africa, there is evidence of a long run positive and significant relationship between economic growth and health while in Turkey a negative relationship was established. Therefore, the findings of the study have different implications for the different countries.
    Keywords: Health; Economic growth; ARDL model; Vista countries
    JEL: C01 C1 C18 I0 I1 I10 I15
    Date: 2018–11–06
  7. By: Lan Thi Thu Phan (Viet Duc University Hospital); Yusuke Jinnai (International University of Japan)
    Abstract: Vietnam has achieved several Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations including child mortality reduction and maternal health improvement. The government of Vietnam aims to further improve health in Vietnam by expanding its public health insurance system originally introduced in 1993. Since health insurance is an essential tool to prepare for unexpected health shocks, the government plans to provide a public insurance system to cover eighty percent of its population by 2020. However, whether having health insurance is beneficial remains unclear and controversial. Some recent studies find positive impact of health insurance, while others argue that the quality of its services has been low due to limited coverage. In contrast to previous papers on Vietnam's health policy that use data from nationwide Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey, this research uses more detailed, randomly-selected, patient-level medical records from Viet Duc University Hospital, the largest public surgical hospital in Vietnam. Using precise information on each patient's treatment history and usage of health insurance, this paper provides new empirical evidence on the effect of health insurance. Regression analysis shows that insurance helps patients stay 1.6 days longer in hospital and pay 48.6 percent less for their treatments than uninsured counterparts. This study also finds that financial burden between the insured and uninsured patients is larger in rural provinces than in the capital-city Hanoi, suggesting the significant advantages of health insurance for people in under-developed areas with fewer public hospitals. These new findings from patient-level information in Vietnam contribute to the growing literature on health insurance policies in developing countries and are particularly informative when governments plan to introduce nationwide public health-insurance systems.
    Keywords: Health insurance, treatment, length of stay, out-of-pocket payment
    JEL: I13 I12 I10
    Date: 2018–09
  8. By: Niklas Potrafke
    Abstract: How globalisation influences social expenditure has been examined for industrialized countries. Globalisation has often been shown to be positively associated with social expenditure in established industrialized countries, a finding that corroborates the compensation hypothesis. Scholars have focused on industrialized countries, because social expenditure is difficult to measure in developing countries. I use new data on social expenditure for Asian non-OECD countries. Globalisation is measured by the new KOF Globalisation Index. My results do not suggest that globalisation influenced social expenditures in Asia. Neither do the results suggest that the nexus between globalisation and social expenditures varied across high-income countries, such as Hong Kong and Singapore, and lower-income Asian countries or across Asian regions. It is conceivable that Asian citizens did not demand increasing social support when globalisation proceeded rapidly because they enjoyed family and other private assistance. Asian countries also have weaker tax and labour market institutions than OECD countries and have therefore more difficulties in increasing social expenditures.
    Keywords: Globalisation-welfare state nexus, compensation hypothesis, race-to-thebottom hypothesis, social expenditure, Asia
    JEL: I38 O11 O57 C23
    Date: 2018
  9. By: Thongchai Surinwarangkoon (Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University); Sutha Pongthawornpinyo (Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University)
    Abstract: The objectives of this research were to study the current use of e-commerce in business and to find the guidelines for enhancing the competitiveness of e-commerce for businesses. This research employed quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. The research samples were 400 customers in e-commerce in Bangkok, Thailand. These samples were collected by simple random sampling method. The research tool for data collection was a questionnaire. Data were analyzed in terms of percentage, mean and standard deviation. The researcher also conducted interviews with 5 executives and computer staffs of e-commerce organizations in Bangkok, Thailand. They were selected by purposive sampling. The research result revealed that enhancing the competitiveness of e-commerce business were as follows: 1) e-commerce organizations must set up clear policies for e-commerce business, 2) appropriate marketing and promotions of e-commerce must be reviewed and improved, 3) good system security must be determined, and 4) modern technology must be applied for e-commerce, continuously.
    Keywords: Enhancing, competitiveness, e-commerce
    JEL: Y80
    Date: 2018–11
  10. By: Phenphak Sawang (Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University)
    Abstract: The research aims to: 1) study expectation of people towards social development of Khok Prong Sub-District, Wichian Buri District, Phetchabun Province, Thailand; and 2) to compare the expectation of people with different demographic profile. This study is a quantitative research. The research sample consisted of 400 respondents. A questionnaire was used to collect the data. The questionnaire consisted of 3 parts including the first part which aimed to gain the respondents? demographic information, the second part which focused on examining the expectation of people towards social development and the second part which aimed to examine, and the third part emphasized the opinion and suggestions of people towards social development of the study site. Collected data were analyzed with descriptive statistics including frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, and One-Way ANOVA with a .05 level of statistical significance. In terms of the sample?s profile, most of them were female, around 31-40 years old, graduated in a primary school level or lower, married, and worked as a farmer with average income per month of 5,000 Baht or lower. Moreover, the research findings showed that the respondents? overall expectation towards social development of the study site was rated at a high level. Additionally, the respondents with different gender, age, education level, and career were likely to be differ in their opinion towards social development of the study site with a .05 level of statistical significance whereas those with different marital status and income were found to have no difference in their opinion.
    Keywords: Public Expectation, Social Development
    JEL: Y80
    Date: 2018–11
  11. By: Paweena Sribunrueng (Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University)
    Abstract: The primary aim of this research was to study the influence of working environment and employees? motivation on the efficiency of their work performance. This research used a quantitative research approach. The research sample was 400 employees of a textile and clothing industrial factory in Thailand. The study was undertaken between June 1 and August 31, 2018. A questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. The collected data were then analyzed with descriptive statistics including frequency, percentage, and multiple linear regression. In terms of the sample?s profile, most of them were female, between 20-30 years old, single, graduated below the undergraduate level, had working for more than 10 years, received around 15,001-20,000 bath per month. The research findings showed that these employees viewed that the overall working environment was significant for them. When considering at each aspect of the working environment, it was found that the each of the factors including the design of the working environment, structure of the office buildings, work structure, the efficient design of equipment and machines, safety and sanitation of working place, and process, was rated at a high level. As for the employees? motivation, it was found that the overall motivation, and each aspect of motivation including organizational policies and management, working condition, salary, job responsibilities, and progress in work were rated at a high level as well. The results of the hypothesis testing showed that working environment in the aspect of design of the working environment and safety and sanitation of the working place had an influence on the efficiency of the employees? work performance in terms of the quality of the outcome of work.
    Keywords: Working Environment, Motivations to Work, Efficiency in Work Performance
    JEL: Y80
    Date: 2018–11
  12. By: OECD
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) for fostering inclusive growth at the local level in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN ) region. The first section provides a brief overview of the main developmental challenges in the ASEAN region that have resulted in growing inequalities in wealth distribution. The second and third sections review evidence from developed as well as developing countries regarding TVET’s impact on employment and wages (Section 2), as well as on poverty, inequality and social exclusion (Section 3). Section 4 summarises the key findings and highlights lessons learned for the ASEAN region. Good practice examples from the region are presented to illustrate how countries have used TVET to improve economic and social outcomes at the local level.
    Keywords: local, skills, training
    JEL: I25 J24
    Date: 2018–11–21
  13. By: Kubitza, C.; Gehrke, E.
    Abstract: Although new production technologies are often regarded as one of the key drivers of the reduction in live birth per women, empirical evidence is scarce. This paper addresses this gap, exploring the expansion of oil palm in Indonesia. We argue that this type of technological change is rather unique, as it induces gender-specific labor savings that affect not only large-scale farms but also smallholder farmers. We use Becker s quantity-quality model to identify different causal mechanism through which the expansion of oil palm could affect fertility rates. Our identification strategy relies on an instrumental variables approach with regency-fixed effects, in which the expansion of area under oil palm at regency level is instrumented by regency-level attainable yield of oil palm interacted with the national oil palm expansion. We find consistently negative effects of the oil palm expansion on fertility. The results suggest that the negative effect is mainly explained by increasing female wages and increasing consumption expenditure. This suggests that the fertility reduction was driven by income effects of the oil palm boom at the household level, as well increased female opportunity costs of child rearing. Acknowledgement : This study was financed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the collaborative German - Indonesian research project CRC990. We thank Matin Qaim and Krisztina Kis-Katos for their comments.
    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2018–07
  14. By: Kanitha Krittapaka (Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University)
    Abstract: The objectives of this research were to: 1) study guidelines for developing public relations media to promote the Graduate School of Suan Suanandha Rajabhat University, Thailand; and 2) examine the postgraduates? opinion towards these public relations media. A quantitative research methodology was employed in this study. The respondents in the study were 200 lecturers, students, and staff of the Graduate School. A questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics including percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The research findings revealed that the guidelines for developing the public relations media were that: 1) appropriate media used to distribute news and related information included a website, and big billboards; 2) design and presentation of the media had to be interesting ( = 3.68); 3) content of the media was correct and up-to-date ( = 3.72); there were sufficient media for the distribution of news and related information ( = 3.64); fonts and pictures used in the media were attractive ( = 3.64); the media allowed audients to gain access to the information easily ( = 3.45); the content of the media was easy to understand ( = 3.42). Moreover, the respondents had very positive opinion towards public relations media used by the Graduate School. Their opinion was rated at a high level ( = 4.40) . The factors influencing the opinion, sorted in a descending order, include pictures used in the media being clear ( = 4.83), the position of pictures being attractive, their color being consistent with the content, and text used being easy to read ( = 4.75), and the design of each page of media being related to each other ( = 4.58).
    Keywords: Public Relations Media, Guidelines, the Graduate School
    JEL: Y80
    Date: 2018–11
  15. By: CANDRA FAJRI ANANDA (Economics and Business Faculty of Brawijaya University); ABDUL MANAP PULUNGAN (SUPERVISORY BOARD OF BANK INDONESIA)
    Abstract: This study intends to determine whether factors of income inequality in Indonesia based on regional data. Economic growth, unemployment, and inflation represent macroeconomic factors, whereas regional expenditure is deemed as a factor of the fiscal side. In the term of the financial, the study used the share of tradable sector credit to the total credit of commercial bank. By applying, the fixed effect panel framework, the study concluded that the factors of the macroeconomic and credit impact on income inequality, while the regional expenditure is not significant. However, the study also found that the impact of economic growth on inequality is positive which is different from previous studies. This suggests that the impact of economic growth tend to serve more middle and upper-income groups than lower income. Furthermore, the regional expenditure is mainly dominated by the personnel expenditure that has limited impact on income inequality. In addition, the disbursement of capital budgets is relatively low for roads, irrigation, and networking.
    Keywords: income inequality, macroeconomic, fiscal, financial
    JEL: H00 H70 H72
    Date: 2018–11
  16. By: Rudy Haposan Siahaan (Universitas Sumatera Utara); Raja Fernandez Butar Butar (Universitas Sumatera Utara)
    Abstract: Legal tradition of Indonesia, as a chthonic law of Indonesia, is the original law of people in Indonesia, born from the earth of Indonesia ? not from the outside. This legal tradition is known as a customary law which is believed to be a legal system that has a special character that can only be found on the earth of Indonesia. Van Vollen Hoven, in his finding, has divided the customary law of Indonesia into 19 customary law environments (rechtkringen), and one of them is the Batak (Tapanuli) customary law. Batak customary law has a philosophy known as "Dalihan Na Tolu" (three legs of a stove). Dalihan Na Tolu becomes a framework covering the relations of blood relatives and marital relationships that associate one group, and consists of three following things that form the common ground: 1) somba marhula; 2) elek marboru; and 3) manat mardongan tubu. This study examines how Dalihan Na Tolu becomes the right of the people, which is indispensable to human right principles, as recognized, respected and protected by the state. This is evident in the provision of Article 28I Subsection (3) of the 1945 Constitution of the State of the Republic of Indonesia, which states: "the cultural identity and rights of traditional communities are respected in harmony with the development of times and civilizations". Furthermore, emphasized by Article 6 of Law Number 39 of 1999 on Human Rights, it is stated in Subsection (1): "in the context of human rights? enforcement, the differences and needs of indigenous peoples shall be addressed and protected by law, society and government", and in Subsection (2): "the cultural identity of indigenous peoples, including the rights over communal lands, is protected, in harmony with the development of times".
    Keywords: customary law, Batak people, Dalihan Na Tolu, human rights
    Date: 2018–11
  17. By: Kanjana Watthanasirikulchai (Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University)
    Abstract: The main objectives of this research were to: 1) study the opinion level of the officers on the organization management of the sub-district administrative organization in Huay Yod District, Trang Province based on good governance; and 2) to compare the opinion of these officers. A quantitative research methodology was utilized in this study. The research sample was 250 officers of the sub-district administrative organization in Huay Yod District, Trang Province. Data were collected via the use of a questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed with descriptive statistics including frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation. T-test was also used to analyze two groups of independent variables and One-Way ANOVA was also used to analyze the data. The research findings showed that: 1) in terms of the opinion level of the officers, it was found that the overall opinion and the opinion toward each aspect of good governance including the rule of law, responsibility, participation, morality, accountability and cost effectiveness were rated at a high level; and 2) respondents with different age, education level, income had different opinion on the management based on good governance, with a .01 and .05 level of statistical significance, whereas those with different gender and work position had no difference in their opinion in this issue.
    Keywords: Good Governance, Sub-district Administrative Organization
    JEL: Y80
    Date: 2018–11
  18. By: Romero, M.; Rudolf, K.; Wollni, M.
    Abstract: The current study addresses the question of how the adoption of native trees can be promoted among small scale oil palm farmers in Jambi Province, Indonesia. In particular, we investigate if perceptions to the ecosystem functions provided by trees planted in oil palm and intention to plan are suitable predictors to actual tree planting behavior. We conduct a randomized controlled trial with two interventions: an environmental information campaign and an additional provision of saplings. Interventions aim to close knowledge gaps and to overcome missing markets for seed material. Guided by social psychology theories, we hypothesize that information will have a positive effect on a change of perceptions and intentions, but the additional provision of saplings will encourage tree planting adoption. We employ a structural equation model to estimate mediating effects. Our findings indicate that only information in combination with saplings provision had a positive and significant effect on actual tree planting. In addition, perceptions and intentions are significant mediators to actual behavior. We conclude that interventions that combine social cognitive factors and changes on structural conditions will facilitate the adoption of pro-environmental behavior adoption. Acknowledgement : This study was undertaken as part of the research project SFB 990 Ecological and Socioeconomic Functions of Tropical Lowland Rainforest Transformation Systems, Sumatra (Indonesia) (EFForTS) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).
    Keywords: Marketing
    Date: 2018–07
  19. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: As part of the Switzerland State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO) project, a technical assistance mission visited Jakarta, Indonesia, during January 8–12, 2018, to develop the capacity to compile integrated sectoral accounts and balance sheets data. The mission reviewed the results of the work undertaken to implement the recommendations of the September 2017 mission.
    Date: 2018–11–01
  20. By: Yoko Oishi (Asian Development Bank Institute); Dainn Wie (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, Tokyo, Japan)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the impact of trade liberalization on the demand for female workers using Indonesia fs tariff reduction in the 1990s and 2000s as a natural experiment. This paper utilizes variation in output and input tariffs to examine two different channels through which trade liberalization affects female employment: import competition and imported technology. We find that a 10%-point reduction in output and input tariffs hurt women fs employment by 0.5% point and 4.5% point, respectively, in light industries in the 1990s. We show that output tariffs affect women fs employment in a competitive industry, while input tariffs increase firms f utilization of foreign inputs instead of domestic inputs. We also find that output tariffs encourage women fs employment in heavy industry, while input tariffs have hurt women fs employment in heavy industry since 2000. Our results suggest that there exists a race between gender inequality in education and imported technology in developing countries.
    Date: 2018–11
  21. By: Anithita Yomasarn (Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University)
    Abstract: The primary objective of this study were to study problems of the disbursement management of the staff members of the Graduate School, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand and propose to guideline to develop an efficient material disbursement system. A quantitative research methodology was employed in this study. The research sample consisted of 18 staff members who worked in the Disbursement Section. The study was undertaken between September 2017- July 2018. A questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics including percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The research findings showed that in terms of the problem, having too many steps in the procurement procedure was found to be the most found problem. This is because related staff members had to face with difficulties and undergo with many steps which were complex and involved many stakeholders. The proposed guideline for enhancing the efficiency of the material disbursement system was that some unnecessary steps in the procurement procedure must be cut short especially those involving the documents, the Disbursement Section should have a clear plan for the procurement and only necessary material should be procured. These actions could help the operation in this section faster. Moreover, new staff member in this section should gain a proper training.
    Keywords: Guidelines for the Enhancement, Management, Materials, Disbursement
    JEL: Y80
    Date: 2018–11
  22. By: Suwannee Punsiri (Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University)
    Abstract: The primary objective of this research was to develop the decision support system for the Academic Section that helps with new student admission in the post-graduate programs of the Graduate School, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand. This decision support system is expected to help in the analysis of the possibility of the program application and it also provides clear guideline for related staff members to work. Moreover, it can help with the development and modification of the marketing strategies so that the university can compete with other universities more efficiently. In conducting this research, students? information in each program from the registration section of the Graduate School as well as the Academic Service Department of the university between 2013-2017 was gathered. The decision system was developed by utilizing Microsoft SQL Server 2016 which was used to collect and stored the students? information. Apart from that SQL Server Business Intelligence Development Studio in the part of Integration Service was used to retrieve, modify and enter the data in the ETL process. Then, the data were examined for their relationship via Analysis Service. The result of this research was a data cube in which multiple dimensions of information can be retrieved and the Business Intelligence Program, known as ?Power BI? which could present report in a form of a dashboard via internet. With these innovations, the university administrators could view the overall data. This study also evaluated satisfaction towards the use of this program from ten users and found that they were satisfied with its capability in supporting the decision, its accuracy and its function. The overall satisfaction was rated at a high level with a mean score of 4.07 and standard deviation of 0.64.
    Keywords: Database, Business Intelligence
    JEL: Y80
    Date: 2018–11
  23. By: Raweewan Proyrungroj (Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University)
    Abstract: This study examines travel constraints and risks faced by Thai people in taking a volunteer vacation oversea. The primary objective of this study was to gain rich, in-depth, and holistic understanding of how Thai people perceive and interpret travel constraints and risks in taking a volunteer trip oversea. An interpretive paradigm utilising qualitative research approach was employed in this study. The data were gathered from 28 respondents who had experience in volunteering in Thailand, but had no experience in taking a volunteer vacation oversea. The number of the informants was determined by data saturation point, which is when new theme stopped emerging from the data during the data collection and analysis process. These informants were selected via purposive sampling and snowball sampling. A combination of semi-structured interviews and participant observation was used to collect the data. The data were then analysed by thematic analysis technique. The research findings showed that all informants in this study had perceived of travel constraints and risks which influenced their decision to take a volunteer trip oversea. In terms of travel constraints, three categories of travel barriers were identified: intrapersonal barriers; interpersonal barriers; and structural barriers. As for the travel risks, seven categories of risks were found including: risks concerning transportation; risks concerning laws and orders; health risks; risks concerning accommodations; risks concerning climate; risks concerning tourist attractions; and risks concerning medical support system.
    Keywords: travel barriers; travel risks; volunteer tourism; Thai tourists
    JEL: A14 L83 A14
    Date: 2018–11
  24. By: Ponkrit Chidchob (Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University)
    Abstract: This research primarily aims to study the use of Line application to communication among the staff members of the Graduate School of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University and to examine their satisfaction upon the use of such application. This research was a quantitative research study. The research was carried out between September 2017 and July 2018. The research sample was 40 staff members of the Graduate School. Data were gathered by the use of a questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics including percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The research findings showed that in terms of the main topics of communication, the topics related to the organization was discussed the most via Line application. According to the sample, their opinion upon use of Line application to discuss the information related to the organization was rated at a high level. Special topics of discussion included the development of study program, information on students? registration, research and academic service activities. These discussions were to ensure that the team members would understand the details of these aspects correctly (X? = 3.81). In terms of general information, it was found that the sample rated the use of Line application to discuss general information at the highest level. The topics of discussion included searching for various kinds of knowledge such as food, tourism, and health (X? = 3.91). Moreover, the overall satisfaction upon the use of Line application (i.e. its response, the purpose of using, convenience, speed, accuracy, and communication) was at high level (X? = 3.86). Lastly, the study revealed that staff members with different gender, age, marital status, education level, work position, the faculty they work for differed in their satisfaction on the use of social media with a .01 and .05 level of statistical significance.
    Keywords: Use of Line Application, Communication, Staff Members
    JEL: Y80
    Date: 2018–11
  25. By: Holtkamp, A.M.; Brummer, B.
    Abstract: The economic benefits of Indonesia's rubber production are increasingly questioned because of their associated problematic effects on the environment, such as disturbances of the native ecosystem through alien and invasive organisms and overall negative effects on biodiversity. In order to reconcile economic benefits and threats to ecological functions, the exact nature of the interaction between rubber production and the surrounding ecosystems needs to be analyzed so that adequate policy interventions could be devised. In this paper, we focus on the trade-off relationship between rubber output and the ecosystem disturbance, proxied by the prevalence of invasive plants. Our approach is based on a directional output distance function, which allows the simultaneous estimation of efficiency and of the determinants of environmental efficiency. We apply this model to a household level socioeconomic data set and a plot-level environmental data set, from Jambi in 2012. Our results point towards a concave trade-off curve, indicating that an increase in rubber output is accompanied by an increase in ecosystem disturbance. Farm specific efficiency estimates indicate subdued level of efficiency, illustrating the possibility to reduce ecosystem disturbance while simultaneously increasing rubber output. The inefficiency levels are found affected by several management related variables, e.g., the glyphosate application. Acknowledgement :
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–07
  26. By: Cipto Soenaryo (Universitas Padjajaran); Dewi Kania Sugiharti (Universitas Padjajaran)
    Abstract: The legal system in Indonesia embraces the division: public law and private law, which is one of the characteristics of the civil law system. The Government, as an organ of the State, also assigns some of its duties and authorities to the Public Official. A public official is a functionary appointed and discharged by the authority of the State, represented by the Government, and authorized and obliged to serve the public in certain matters because he or she participates in exercising the authority of the Government. Notary, as a general functionary or public official, performs State duty in making authentic deed in order to serve (if requested) society; and the authentic deed made is a state document. In its development, there has been a shift of the notarial position as a public official ? who is a part of the state organs ? to become no longer a public official but a general profession. This is because if there is a legal issue concerning the authentic deed that is made, it is often contested through the general court rather than through the administrative court of the State. Therefore, the role of the State is necessary in strengthening the legal system.
    Keywords: public law, private law, public official, notary
    JEL: K10
    Date: 2018–11
  27. By: Raweewan Proyrungroj (Suan Sunanda Rajabhat University)
    Abstract: Volunteer tourism or voluntourism is a relatively new form of tourism which is viewed as a means for poverty reduction or an approach for pro-poor tourism in the developing countries. The primary aim of this research was to examine the role of volunteer tourism in poverty alleviation. It employed an interpretive paradigm utilizing qualitative data collection methods including semi-structured interviews and participant observation. The informants included twelve volunteer tourists who were on a working vacation in Thailand, and fifteen local residents in Thailand in the communities where volunteer tourism activities took place. The findings of the research indicate that in the point of view of both the volunteer tourists and the local residents, volunteer tourism could be used as an effective means to help reduce the state of poverty in the local communities. Specifically, volunteer tourism activities helped transfer of wealth as well as better skills and knowledge from rich or developed countries to poor or developing countries. It was also perceived as a means for providing unfortunate local people with an opportunity to learn English which will enable to have a better life in the future. The research findings provide tourism practitioners, especially those related to volunteer tourism, with insights on how to organize volunteer tourism in the way that that poor people can truly benefit from such tourism activity.
    Keywords: Volunteer Tourism, Pro-Poor Tourism, Poverty Reduction
    JEL: Y90 A10
    Date: 2018–11
  28. By: Lui, Yiu Lim (School of Economics, Singapore Management University); Xiao, Weilin (School of Management, Zhejiang University); Yu, Jun (School of Economics, Singapore Management University)
    Abstract: This paper considers the grid bootstrap for constructing confidence intervals for the persistence parameter in a class of continuous time models driven by a Levy process. Its asymptotic validity is established by assuming the sampling interval (h) shrinks to zero. Its improvement over the in-fill asymptotic theory is achieved by expanding the coefficient-based statistic around its in fill asymptotic distribution which is non-pivotal and depends on the initial condition. Monte Carlo studies show that the gird bootstrap method performs better than the in-fill asymptotic theory and much better than the longspan theory. Empirical applications to U.S. interest rate data highlight differences between the bootstrap confidence intervals and the confidence intervals obtained from the in-fill and long-span asymptotic distributions.
    Keywords: Grid bootstrap; In-fill asymptotics; Continuous time models; Long-span asymptotics.
    JEL: C11 C12
    Date: 2018–11–09
  29. By: Kanthanut Sinsomboon (Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University)
    Abstract: This study aims to study the retention of the staff members of the Graduate School of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University by examining the relationship between the staff members? satisfaction with the work and the retention of these staff members. This research was a quantitative research. The sample consisted of 40 staff members of the Graduate School. The study was carried out between September 2017 and July 2018. Data were collected via a mean of a questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics including percentage, mean, standard deviation, Pearson?s Correlation Coefficient, and multivariate statistics. According to the sample? profile, it was found that most of them were female (86.11 %), aged between 26-30 years old (48.14%), had worked for 3-4 years (4.52%). The research findings showed that overall, the staff members were satisfied with their work at the Graduate School. Their satisfaction was rated at a moderate level ( =3.55). When considering at each aspect of their satisfaction with their work, it was found that these staff were happy with their relationship in the organization and freedom at work. Moreover, this study concludes that the staff members? overall satisfaction with work had a relationship with their retention which was consistent with the research hypothesis. However, when examining at each aspect of their satisfaction, it was found that satisfaction on works, freedom at work, job characteristics, organization policies, and relationship within the organization had a positive relationship with their retention. Additionally, the staff?s satisfaction on compensation and benefits had no relationship with their retention and commitment to the organization (x¯=3.89). The study also concluded that the staff?s commitment to the organization could predict their retention by 24.3 percent.
    Keywords: Factors Influencing the Retention, Staff members of the Graduate School
    JEL: Y80
    Date: 2018–11
  30. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This FAD mission reviewed recent progress to improve tax administration and identified areas of priority tax administration modernization for 2019–23. The MEF has been implementing the RMS, a major component of which is the strengthening of the administration of the GDT. As the RMS ends in 2018, the MEF is now developing the next phase of reforms to strengthen the revenue system of Cambodia over the period 2019 to 2023. The GDT has made significant progress with implementing the RMS measures under its responsibility, and achieved extremely positive revenue growth and collections. The GDT has completed 71 out of the 86 RMS tax administration measures; the remaining 15 are under active progress. Since 2012, the GDT has routinely exceeded its revenue targets, and year-on-year revenue growth has far exceeded the annual levels of economic growth. Cambodia’s 2017 tax-to-GDP ratio of 17.2 percent is now comparable with many regional countries.
    Date: 2018–11–07
  31. By: Emeline Bezin (Paris School of Economics); Bastien Chabé-Ferret (ISER, University of Essex & IZA, Bonn); David de la Croix (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES))
    Abstract: Fertility becomes a strategic choice when having a larger population helps to gain power. Minority groups might find it optimal to promote high fertility among their members - this is known as the \weapon of the womb" argument. If, in addition, parents have to invest resources to educate their children, a higher fertility for strategic motives might reduce their investment. Indonesian census data dispel this view, as minority religious groups do not invest less in education. If anything, they invest more in education, as well as in their number of children. This finding is consistent with human capital being an input to appropriation. Solving for the Nash equilibrium of a game between two groups with two strategic variables, we derive the condition under which the minority group displays a higher investment in both the quantity and quality of children. The material cost of conflict involved through the weapon of the womb mechanism is mitigated when human capital enters the contest function.
    Keywords: fertility, quality-quantity trade-off, minorities, conflict, population engineering, human capital, Nash equilibrium, Indonesia
    JEL: D74 J13 J15
    Date: 2018–10–19
  32. By: Kim, Seonghoon (Singapore Management University); Koh, Kanghyock (Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: We study the effects of Massachusetts' healthcare reform on individuals' subjective well-being. Using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we find that the reform significantly improved Massachusetts residents' overall life-satisfaction. This result is robust to various sensitivity checks and a falsification test. We also find that the reform improved mental health. An additional analysis on the Tennessee healthcare reform supports our findings' external validity. Using the reform as an instrument for health insurance coverage, we estimate its large impact on overall life-satisfaction. Our results provide novel evidence on the psychological consequences of Massachusetts' healthcare reform.
    Keywords: health insurance, life satisfaction, happiness, subjective well-being, Massachusetts healthcare reform
    JEL: I13 I18 I31
    Date: 2018–10

This nep-sea issue is ©2018 by Kavita Iyengar. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.