nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2018‒03‒19
48 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Analysis of Islamic Banking Efficiency Using Maqashid Shariah Approach (Study on Islamic Banks in Indonesia and Malaysia) By Novi Puspitasari
  2. Audit Firm Reputation versus Auditor Capability: Their Effect on Audit Quality in Indonesia By Astrid Rudyanto
  3. Intention to Migrate Among International Muslim Students in Malaysia By Bik Kai Sia
  4. Antecedent Factors on an Auditors' Attitude Towards Conducting an Intended Qualified Audit By Hendrian
  5. The Position Of The Bank Indonesia As The Lender Of Last Resort After The Enactment Of Law No. 9 Of 2016 On Prevention And Mitigation Of Financial System Crisis By Theresia Anita Christiani
  6. The Determinants of Service Quality and Its Impact on Customer Satisfaction (A Survey of Islamic Banks Customers in Indonesia) By Salamah Wahyuni
  7. The Effect of IFRS Convergence on Earnings Quality: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia By Paulina Sutrisno
  8. Is electricity affordable and reliable for all in Vietnam? By Minh Ha-Duong; Hoai Son Nguyen
  9. E-Government as an Anti-Corruption Tool: Experience from Indonesia By Dyah Setyaningrum
  10. The Influence of Brand Equity and Green Marketing on Consumer's Decision to Purchase Honda Beat Series in Surabaya By Syaifurrizal Wijaya Putra
  11. Earnings Management, Corporate Governance and Tax Avoidance: The Case in Indonesia By Lulus Kurniasih
  12. Decent work inter-regional SAM modelling with employment satellite extension including regional infrastructure scenarios case study 2005 IRSAM By Alarcón-Rivero, Jorge V.; Ernst, Christoph
  13. Maintaining Food Security of Local Communities in Underdeveloped Regions through Agrarian Reform in Napan Village, Indonesian By Nia Kurniati
  14. Employment implications of trade and changes in skills demand evidence from selected countries By Tarjáni, Hajnalka.
  15. "Infrastructural Development and Poverty Alleviation in Indonesia (Municipal Panel Data 2002 – 2013)" By Puspita Ayuningtyas Prawesti
  16. "Impact of the Free Trade Zone on Cigarette Consumption: An Examination of Indonesian Households" By Mohtar Rasyid
  17. Family size, Increasing block tariff and Economies of scale of household electricity consumption in Vietnam from 2010 to 2014 By Hoai-Son Nguyen; Minh Ha-Duong
  18. The impact of credit policy on rice production in Myanmar: A fuzzy regression discontinuity design approach By Nilar Aung; Hoa-Thi-Minh Nguyen; Robert Sparrow
  19. Paraphrasing in English Academic Writing by Thai Graduate Students By Buaboun Pinjaroenpan
  20. Determinants of Firms’ Capital Structure Decisions in Highly Dollarized Economies: Evidence from Cambodia By Hidenobu Okuda; Daiju Aiba
  21. "The Role of Street-Level Bureaucrats in Implementing Renewable Energy Policy in Indonesia" By Anugerah Yuka Asmara
  22. Building a better trade model to determine local effects: A regional and intertemporal GTAP model By Pham Van Ha; Tom Kompas; Hoa-Thi-Minh Nguyen; Chu Hoang Long
  23. Application of a green jobs SAM with employment and CO2 satellites for informed green policy support the case of Indonesia By Alarcon, J. V.; Ernst, C.
  24. Strengthening Research Self-Efficacy and Research Productivity through Research Culture Implementation By Raden Lestari Garnasih
  25. The Effects of the Days of the Week on the Indonesian Stock Exchange By Christiyaningsih Budiwati
  26. "The Demand for Different Types of Childcare by Working Mothers in Palembang, South Sumatera, Indonesia" By Marieska Lupikawaty
  27. Analysis of Factors Affecting Economic Growth in Bangka Belitung Province, Indonesia With LSDV and FGLS Methods By Saputra, Darman
  28. Renewable Energy Policy in Indonesia: The Qur'anic Scientific Signals in Islamic Economics Perspective By Jaelani, Aan; Firdaus, Slamet; Jumena, Juju
  29. The Impact of Good Corporate Governance on Financial Distress in the Consumer Goods Sector By Sri Marti Pramudena
  30. "The Canvas Model as a Strategy for Improving Financial Profits: A Casey Study of Online Businesses in Indonesia" By Sri Hapsari Wijayanti
  31. Return or Not Return? The Role of Home-Country Institutional Quality in Vietnamese Migrants’ Return Intentions By Ngoc Thi Minh Tran; Michael P. Cameron; Jacques Poot
  32. The Effect of Corporate Governance, Ownership and Tax Aggressiveness on Earnings Management By Nico Alexander
  33. Psychosocial Factors and Quality of Life Among Flood Victims in Malaysia By Najib Ahmad Marzuki
  34. Absolute Poverty: When Necessity Displaces Desire REVISED By Robert C. Allen
  35. Pathways out of poverty in rural Laos By Jonna P. Estudillo; Keijiro Otsuka; Saygnasak Seng-Arloun
  36. Le droit à l'énergie : dangereuse chimère ou juste exigence ? By Minh Ha-Duong
  37. Importing, Exporting and Aggregate Productivity in Large Devaluations By Joaquin Blaum
  38. The Prediction of Bankruptcy Using Altman Z-Score Model (Case Study In BRI Bank, BNI Bank, Mandiri Bank, BTN Bank) By Herlin, .
  39. Have a son, gain a voice: Son preference and female participation in household decision making By Mazhar Yasin MUGHAL; Rashid JAVED
  40. "Management Control Systems within Sustainable Ecotourism: A Study of Belitung" By Daryanto Hesti Wibowo
  41. Agricultural extension in Cambodia: An assessment and options for reform: By Ke, Sam Oeurn; Babu, Suresh Chandra
  42. Experiential Marketing to Increase Net Marketing Contribution Margin (NMCM) through Customer Value By Khusnul Khotimah
  43. Transformational Leadership vs Change Self-Efficacy and Its Impact on Affective Commitment to Change By Denvi Giovanita
  44. The Mediating Role of Adherence on the Relationship between Health Locus of Control and Quality of Life in Adults with Asthma By Anindita Chairina
  45. "Modern Hypermarket Receiving Yard Utilization: The Implementation of a Simulation Model" By Mohammad Annas
  46. A Comparative Review of Turnover Models and Recent Trends in Turnover Literature By Abdul Samad
  47. The Effect of Application of Management Accounting To Performance through Strategy By Ali Muktiyanto
  48. Energy, knowledge, and demo-economic development in the long run: a unified growth model By Victor Court; Emmanuel Bovari

  1. By: Novi Puspitasari (Economic Faculty, Universitas Riau, Pekanbaru, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Devi Hardiyanti Rukmana Author-2-Workplace-Name: University of Jember, Jl. Kalimantan 37 Jember, 681121, Jember, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Hari Sukarno Author-3-Workplace-Name: University of Jember, Jl. Kalimantan 37 Jember, 681121, Jember, Indonesia)
    Abstract: Objective – This research aims to analyse the efficiency of Islamic banking in Indonesia and Malaysia based on the maqashid shariah approach. Methodology/Technique – This research uses individual education, creation of justice, and achievement of welfare to measure the efficiency variable. The research period covers the period from 2011 to 2015, using data envelope analysis (DEA). Findings – The result show that there are three (3) Islamic banks that achieve maximum efficiency in Malaysia. These are: Affin Islamic Bank Berhad, which achieved maximum efficiency in terms of distribution and profitability output, CIMB Islamic Bank, which achieved maximum efficiency in terms of distribution output, and RHB Islamic Bank Berhad, which achieved maximum efficiency in terms of distribution output. Meanwhile, two (2) Islamic banks which were considered to be efficient, although not at the maximum level. Novelty – This study shows that Bank Panin Syariah achieves maximum efficiency with respect to distribution output, and that Bank Mega Syariah is considered efficient with respect to profitability output and personal revenue output.
    Keywords: Islamic Banks; Efficiency; Maqashid Shariah; DEA; Indonesia; Malaysia.
    JEL: G20 G21
    Date: 2017–12–09
  2. By: Astrid Rudyanto (Department of Accountancy, Trisakti School of Management Author-2-Name: Dipta Daniswari Author-2-Workplace-Name: Trisakti School of Management, Jl. Kyai Tapa No 20, 11440, Jakarta, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Yuli Oktaviani Author-3-Workplace-Name: Trisakti School of Management, Jl. Kyai Tapa No 20, 11440, Jakarta, Indonesia)
    Abstract: Objective –The emergence of the ASEAN Single Window has triggered the need for higher audit quality in ASEAN countries, including Indonesia. A recent study conducted in Indonesia reveals that the reputation of auditing firms, as rated by clients and users, and auditor's competence, as rated by the auditor, are the primary determinants of audit quality. The purpose of this study is to analyze whether the reputation or competence of an auditor affects audit quality, within manufacturing companies in Indonesia. Methodology/Technique –This paper contributes to the creation of new measurements for auditor capability, by highlighting empirical evidence concerning the determinants of audit quality in Indonesia. Findings – By using discretionary accrual as the inverse determinant of audit quality, the result show that financial statements audited by reputable auditing firms contain the same discretionary accruals as those audited by other firms. The results further demonstrate that auditor capability does not affect audit quality. Audit quality in Indonesia is therefore not determined by firm reputation or auditor capability. Hence, it is important to search for new determinants of audit quality. Research Limitations/Implications – The limitation of this research is the low number of reputable audit firms and specialized auditors used by the sample firms, which lead to the exclusion of numerous controlled variables that may be integral when explaining audit quality. Future studies may use other sample firms and use additional controlled variables, to further explain audit quality.
    Keywords: Audit Quality; Discretionary Accrual; Audit Firm Reputation; Auditor Capability
    JEL: M40 M42
    Date: 2017–12–16
  3. By: Bik Kai Sia (Faculty of Accountancy and Management, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia Author-2-Name: Hirofumi Okai Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Human Sciences, Waseda University, Japan Author-3-Name: Sor Tho Ng Author-3-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya, Malaysia Author-4-Name: Hirofumi Tanada Author-4-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Human Sciences, Waseda University, Japan Author-5-Name: Nai Peng Tey Author-5-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya, Malaysia)
    Abstract: Objective – The primary objective of this study is to examine the association of the push-pull factors, perceived job prospects for students following graduation, religious considerations, and adaptability of international students with their intention to migrate. Methodology/Technique – A total of 373 international students, enrolled in undergraduate and postgraduate university programs in Malaysia, participated in the study. An online self-assessment and questionnaire was used to collect the results, using a series of questions and responses from the students. Findings – The empirical findings of the study reveal that the intentions of international students to migrate to Malaysia are mainly aroused by the Muslim environment in Malaysia, and other religious factors. On the other hand, economics and development were the primary considerations of international students intending to migrate elsewhere (excluding Malaysia). Novelty – Malaysia should continue to promote and market itseld more efficiently to international students, especially those from Asia and Africa, to position itseld as an "Educational Hub" (eduhub) within South-east Asia. In addition, international students' intentions to migrate were perceived to be closely connected to the actual numbers for future migration to Malaysia, and mobility of skilled labour; this may be identified as an area for further study.
    Keywords: Transnational Migration, Intention, Migrants, Push-pull, Student Mobility, Religion.
    JEL: A2 A29
    Date: 2017–12–22
  4. By: Hendrian (Universitas Terbuka,Indonesia Author-2-Name: Rini Dwiyani Hadiwidjaja Author-2-Workplace-Name: Universitas Terbuka, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Eko Suwardi Author-3-Workplace-Name: Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia)
    Abstract: Objective – This study proposes to investigate an auditor's works by usingthe model on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), with the inducement of intervention by a supervisor, that influences an auditor's aattitudes. The study uses the TRA proposed by Fishben and Ajzen (1975) to predict and explain the behaviors of Indonesian auditors. The results reveal those factors influencing an auditor's intention to provide qualified and reliable audit reports. Methodology/Technique – The study focuses on audit implementation in the public sector, specifically the auditing of financial statements in regional administrations. The study examined a total of 53 governmental auditors from the Audit Board of the Indonesian Republic (BPK-RI). A Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used for the analysis. Findings – The results of the study show that perceived audit risk, moral norms, and incentives have a positive and statistically significant impact on an auditor's attitude when performing an audit. Meanwhile, intervention by a supervisor has a negative impact, and is not statistically significant towards the auditor's attitude and behavior. This means that the auditor's attitude and behavior implies that there is no intervention from their supervisor when performing an audit. Furthermore, an auditor's attitude influences their intention to perform qualified and credible audits. Novelty – This study infers that The Indonesian Republic Decree No. 188 of the Year 2014 regarding Personel Performance Benefit in the Audit Boards of Indonesia Republic (BPK-RI) is achieving its intended purpose.
    Keywords: Auditor; Attitude; Risk Perception; Audit Reports
    JEL: M40 M42
    Date: 2017–12–21
  5. By: Theresia Anita Christiani (Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta, Jalan Babarsari 44, 55281, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.)
    Abstract: Objective – This paper explores the role of the Indonesian Central Bank as the Lender of the Last Resort. Methodology/Technique – This research uses normative juridical research and secondary data. Findings – The results indicate that the Bank of Indonesian, in coordination with the Financial Services Authority, still has the authority to grant short-term loans for banks with liquidity issues. Nevertheless, the Bank of Indonesia does not have authority to provide emergency finance facilities where the funding is granted at the government's expense. Novelty – This paper uses normative juridical research and qualitative data analysis.
    Keywords: Authority, Bank, Crises, Position, Prevention, Indonesia.
    JEL: K10 K20
    Date: 2017–12–11
  6. By: Salamah Wahyuni (Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta Author-2-Name: Arif Lukman Santoso Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta Author-3-Name: Yacob Suparno Author-3-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta)
    Abstract: Objective – This study examines the factors affecting the quality of Islamic banking services in Indonesia, and its impact on customer satisfaction. Methodology/Technique – Questionnaires were distributed to 300 people, with 286 respondents having completed and returned the questionnaires. A descriptive analysis was conducted to ascertain the elements of Islamic banking services. Further, multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the influence of the quality of Islamic banking services on customer satisfaction. The results show that all elements of banking services are not in accordance with the expectations of the respondents as customers, particularly with respect to Automatic Teller Machine ('ATM') services. Findings – The results show that, with respect to all elements examined, the value of expectations was higher than the service received by customers. In addition, not all of the study hypotheses were accepted. The expectations of banking services were not influenced by Word of Mouth ('WOM'), personal characteristics or experience. Further, the source of information obtained, the age or income of the respondents, and their education and experience, did not have an effect on the expectations of Islamic banking services. Novelty – A high quality of Islamic banking services significantly affects customer satisfaction. In an effort to improve services in that industry, Islamic banking in Indonesia would benefit from placing more attention on all elements of the services provided to customers, particularly ATM services. Further, based on the findings of this study, the elements of customer service should be addressed regardless of the characteristics of the customers, such as age, income, education or experience.
    Keywords: Service Quality; Customer Satisfaction; Islamic Banks; Indonesia
    JEL: G20 G21 G29
    Date: 2017–12–02
  7. By: Paulina Sutrisno (Trisakti School of Management Author-2-Name: Indra Arifin Djashan Author-2-Workplace-Name: Trisakti School of Management)
    Abstract: Objective –The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of the International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) convergence in Indonesia on earnings quality. Methodology/Technique – Earnings quality is measured on both accrual earnings management and real earnings management. Indonesia began convergence IFRS in 2012. IFRS is considered capable of improving comparability, transparency, and earnings information, which is expected to ultimately improve earnings quality. The sample in this research uses manufacturing firms listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange that were suspected to avoid loss during the observation period. The data consist of 45 companies examined between 2008 and 2015. Results –This study uses statistical methods and multiple regression linear to analyse the data. The research results show that IFRS convergence in Indonesia has had a negative impact on accrual earnings management and no impact on real earnings management. Novelty –The evidence shows that IFRS convergence in Indonesia has the ability to improve earnings quality related to a decrease in accrual earnings management but not real earnings management.
    Keywords: IFRS; Discretionary Accrual; Abnormal Cash Flow Operation; Abnormal Production; Abnormal Discretionary Expenditure.
    JEL: M40 M41 M49
    Date: 2017–12–09
  8. By: Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement); Hoai Son Nguyen (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement)
    Abstract: Access to clean and affordable energy for all is the seventh sustainable development goal. This manuscript examines the state of access to electricity for all in Vietnam, based on national households’ surveys conducted in the time period 2008-2014. We find that in Vietnam, the problem of providing access to clean energy for all is largely solved for now: the fraction of households without access to electricity is below two percent, the median level of electricity usage in 2014 was 100 kWh per month per household, the fraction of households declaring unsatisfied electricity needs is below three percent. We find that electricity is becoming a heavier burden in Vietnamese households’ finances. In 2010, the electricity bill exceeded 6% of income for 2.4% of households, but in 2014 that number reached 5.5% of households. In practical terms, we discuss the challenge of a socially just increase of electricity tariff, necessary to finance a clean development of energy system. Our theoretical contribution to debates on energy poverty is to account for the human dimension by using a self-reported satisfaction indicator. Our study shows that subjective energy poverty indicators –designed from surveys asking people if they had enough electricity to meet their households needs– are as relevant as objective indicators –from engineering or economic data. While objectivity is laudable, development is not only about technology and money: measuring human satisfaction matters.
    Keywords: Electricity,Vietnam,Sustainable Development Goals,Indicators
    Date: 2018–01–25
  9. By: Dyah Setyaningrum (Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia)
    Abstract: Objective – Transparency is promoted as one of the most important measures against corruption. E-government provides greater access to information that can subsequently increase transparency, accountability, and be used as an effective anti-corruption tool. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between e-government and corruption. Methodology/Technique – To gain more insight, we also investigate the effect of e-procurement as one of the egovernment initiatives for tackling corruption. We use observations from local government (districts and cities) in Indonesia during the period 2012–2015. Findings – The results show that e-government implementation is associated with lower corruption. E-government reduces corruption by removing discretion, thereby curbing the opportunities for arbitrary action that often result in corruption. Novelty – Moreover, the results also show that adopting e-procurement increases transparency and accountability through increased competition among bidders and enables real-time access to information, which ultimately reduces corruption in public procurement.
    Keywords: accountability, corruption, e-government, e-procurement, transparency
    JEL: M10 M48
    Date: 2017–12–05
  10. By: Syaifurrizal Wijaya Putra (University of Jember, Jalan Kalimantan 37, Jember, Jawa Timur 68121 Indonesia Author-2-Name: Tatang Ary Gumanti Author-2-Workplace-Name: University of Jember, Jalan Kalimantan 37, Jember, Jawa Timur 68121 Indonesia)
    Abstract: Objective – Brand equity and green marketing are becoming increasingly relevant to brand competition. Brand equity and green marketing of a product are able to influence a costumer's purchasing decision (Kotler and Armstrong, 2007). This study aims to test the relationship between brand equity, green marketing, and the decision to purchase certain goods. Methodology/Technique – The study uses a sample of 120 respondents, all of whom are purchasers of a Honda Beat Series vehicle, and who live in Surabaya. The data is analyzed using multiple linear regression. Findings – The study examines the purchase of the Honda Beat Series motorcycle in Surabaya City, in the East Java Province, Indonesia. East Java is regarded as a province with the highest selling rate; in 2014, the province recorded a market share of 17.1%. This study found that brand equity and green marketing both have a significant positive effect on a consumer's decision to purchase. Novelty – This study assesses the efficacy of Honda's green marketing strategy, through the use of the PGM-Fi system, which is considered to set them apart from its competitors.
    Keywords: Brand Equity; Green Marketing; Marketing; Decision to Purchase; Regression Analysis
    JEL: M30 M31
    Date: 2017–12–16
  11. By: Lulus Kurniasih (Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Sulardi Author-2-Workplace-Name: Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Sri Suranta Author-3-Workplace-Name: Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia)
    Abstract: Objective – This study aims to determine the effect of earning management and corporate governance mechanisms on corporate tax avoidance. Methodology/Technique – Corporate governance mechanisms use institutional ownership, the size of the board of commissioners, the percentage of independent commissioners, auditing committees, and audit quality as proxies. Meanwhile, earnings management uses the modified Jones model. The sample of this study includes non-financial companies that are listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX) between 2014 and 2016. Findings – Corporate tax avoidance can be detected by using the effective tax rate (ETR), which is the ratio of income to tax expenses. This sample was chosen using a purposive sampling method, resulting in 871 firms. The results suggest that earnings management has a significant impact on ETR. Novelty – This study identifies that only independent commissioners and audit quality have a significant influence on ETR.
    Keywords: Tax Avoidance; Earnings Management; Corporate Governance; Effective Tax Rate; Audit Quality.
    JEL: G3 G39 G39
    Date: 2017–12–02
  12. By: Alarcón-Rivero, Jorge V.; Ernst, Christoph
    Abstract: This study, prepared under EU funding and on request by the Indonesian government,has the ambition to understand the inter-regional dynamics in terms of economics, but also in terms of employment and Decent Work (DW) dimensions. It tries to showcase, with the help of simulations, on how to combine macro policy instruments more effectively with inter-regional characteristics, i.e. by identifying the most important “within” region activities, main natural resources, strategic or privileged location and how each region relates to the other regions. Its ultimate goal is to provide insight into how to enhance different types of regional programmes and investments of certain main regional sectors and how such investments relate to higher region’s growth and regional employment creation for different types of workers. The study uses the Social Accounting Matrix methodology for ex-ante“decent employment” impact assessment of key sectoral policies in Indonesia. Such approach builds on work developed by the ILO, EMPINVEST, on Dynamic SAM and Inter-Regional SAM and the indicators compiled and analyzed in the case of Indonesia.
    Keywords: 1, 2, 3, 4
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Nia Kurniati (Law Faculty, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Reginawanti Hindersah Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung Sumedang KM.21, Hegarmanah Jatinangor, Sumedang 45363 West Java, Indonesia)
    Abstract: Objective – The objective of this study is to identify the food security characteristics in local communities at Napan Village, Nusa Tenggara Timur Indonesia and to study the implementation of agrarian reform principles covering asset reform and access reform, in achieving food sustainability. Methodology/Technique – The method used is a normative judicial method. The data is analysed through qualitative judicial means, supported by Focus Group Discussion, to obtain primary qualitative data. Findings – The results show that synchronization of agrarian reform programs, including asset reform with "Food Intensification Program" along with "Social Forestry Program", reinforce farmers' rights over their farmlands and assure farmland tenure and ownership. The approach of "access reform" by means of the "Food Intensification Program", integrated with government intervention, might serve as the base for achieving the inclusivity and continuity of food sustainability in Napan Novelty – This study highlights the need for central and local governments to accelerate food production in underdeveloped regions through asset and access reform programs. Land Certification, Social Forestry Program, and the Food Intensification Program can all be implemented to strengthen farmers' land rights as well as their productivity.
    Keywords: Agrarian Reform; Food Security; Napan Village; Indonesia
    JEL: Q1 Q18
    Date: 2017–12–15
  14. By: Tarjáni, Hajnalka.
    Abstract: This paper provides analysis on the implications of international trade on employment and skills demand in selected countries, including Cambodia, Ghana, Jordan, Malawi,Morocco, Myanmar, the Philippines, Tunisia and Viet Nam. It is based on a number of background studies which were prepared to support the implementation of the ILO’s Skills for Trade and Export Diversification Programme in these countries. These countries are at different stages of opening up to trade and integration to the global economy, and pursue different strategies to realise growth through trade. The paper looks at trends in exports between 2000–2015, and discusses the direct and indirect effects of exports on production and employment in interconnected sectors of the domestic economy. Subject to the limited availability of labour market data from most of these countries, the paper seeks corresponding changes in the structure of employment, and summarises information one xisting skills imbalances.
    Keywords: 1, 2, 3, 4
    Date: 2017
  15. By: Puspita Ayuningtyas Prawesti (Brawijaya University, Jl. M.T. Haryono 163, 65145, Malang, Indonesia.)
    Abstract: "Objective – This study attempts to provide comprehensive findings on the impact of several kinds of infrastructural developments and government budgets on specific purposes, as well as agricultural and non-agricultural productions, on poverty alleviation in Indonesia between 2002-2013. Methodology/Technique – This study uses macroeconomic data at a municipal level to provide more precise findings when comparing provincial and national level data. The study uses an adaptation of the theory of international development. Findings – This research shows that electricity and sanitation are more effective at eradicating poverty than water infrastructure. In addition, household access to infrastructure is more effective in combatting poverty than the government budget for infrastructure development. The study also performs correlation matrices, dividing the data into the western and eastern parts of Indonesia, to provide more robust findings. Agricultural production is more effective in the western part of Indonesia, yet non-agricultural production is more relevant towards poverty reduction in the eastern part of Indonesia. Novelty – This study yields some empirical results and conclusions for economic development in Indonesia, finding that the key problem lies in the effectiveness of budget arrangement within the framework of fiscal decentralization."
    Keywords: Infrastructure Development; Fiscal Decentralization; Government Expenditure; Poverty Rate; Poverty Reduction.
    JEL: H54 P30 P36
    Date: 2017–12–07
  16. By: Mohtar Rasyid (Trunojoyo Madura University, Jl.Raya Telang Kamal, Bangkalan 69162, Indonesia)
    Abstract: "Objective – The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of the Free Trade Zone ('FTZ') in the Riau Islands Province (Batam, Bintan and Karimun) on specific products, i.e. cigarettes. Methodology/Technique – To investigate the demand for cigarettes in the FTZ area, this study examines data on cigarette consumption in Batam and surrounding areas before and after the implementation of the FTZ. The data is collected from SUSENAS surveys conducted in 2003, 2005, 2008, 2011 and 2014. To examine the net impact of the FTZ, this study also uses an experimental approach; the implementation of the FTZ can be viewed as a natural influence on a decrease in prices of specific products. The subject group includes households in the Riau Islands Province. Households in the surrounding provinces are therefore used a control groups. Several indicators were used to identify and establish the control groups, including: cigarette consumption, population, sex ratio, life expectancy and education level. Following this criteria, Bengkulu Province was selected as the ideal group of control candidates. Findings – The results show that there has been a significant increase in cigarette consumption in the Riau Islands Province following the implementation of the FTZ. Novelty – The introduction of the FTZ means that trade commodities, including cigarettes, are no longer subject to excise duty. As a result, the selling price of tobacco products has become very cheap"
    Keywords: Cigarette Tax; Free Trade Zone; Indonesian Households; Natural Experiment.
    JEL: F10 F13 F19
    Date: 2017–12–13
  17. By: Hoai-Son Nguyen (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi, ABIES Doctoral School); Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi)
    Abstract: Household electricity consumption potentially offers economies of scale, since lighting, cooling or cooking can be shared among household members. This idea needs to be tested empirically. Under an increasing block tariff schedule the marginal and average price of electricity increases with total consumption. Does this effect offset economies of scale in the larger families? This paper uses data from Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS) in 2010, 2012 and 2014 to investigate whether there are economies of scale for Vietnam household electricity consumption in that period. The data will be tested formally by an OLS model and checked robustness by visualization of local linear regressions. Estimated results and robustness check confirm that in general, economies of scale do exist for household electricity consumption in Vietnam from 2010-2014.
    Keywords: electricity use,increasing block tariffs,household economies of scale
    Date: 2018–02–22
  18. By: Nilar Aung; Hoa-Thi-Minh Nguyen; Robert Sparrow
    Abstract: Rural finance has long been an important tool for poverty reduction and rural development by donors and governments, but the impacts have been controversial. Measuring impact is challenging due to identification problems caused by selection bias and governments' targeted interventions, while randomised trial data is scarce and limited to contexts where little to no rural fiance exists. Using an author-collected data set, we provide insights on a large-scale long-lasting subsidized rice credit programme in Myanmar, one of the poorest and, until recently, most economically isolated countries in Asia. Identification relies on a fuzzy regression discontinuity design, exploiting an arbitrary element to the credit provision rule which is based on rice land holding size. Although we find little evidence that rice yield or output is increased, we do see that the program has some positive effects on total household income, suggesting a positive spillover effect on other farm income activities.
    Keywords: Rural finance, regression discontinuity, credit, rice production, Myanmar
    Date: 2018–01
  19. By: Buaboun Pinjaroenpan (Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Khon Kaen University Author-2-Name: Uthaivan Danvivath Author-2-Workplace-Name: Khon Kaen University, 123 Moo 16 Mittapap Rd., Muang District, 40002, Khon Kaen, Thailand,)
    Abstract: Objective – The primary objective of this study is to investigate the use of paraphrasing in writing, as practiced by graduate students who are majoring in English Language at a university in Thailand. Methodology/Technique – The research data was collected from multiple sources including a questionnaire survey, semi-structured interviews, and students' written assignments. The participants were graduate students majoring in English at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, at Khon Kaen University. Students' paraphrased texts were analysed using a coding scheme adapted from Campbell (1987), Keck (2006), and Shi (2004). The coding scheme focuses on textual transformation, which has been further analysed for retaining the original meaning of the paraphrased text. Findings – The results reveal that, generally, students had a sound appreciation and understanding of paraphrasing and plagiarism at a conceptual level. However, the students made clear errors when required to paraphrase. In many cases, their lack of skill and knowledge led to instances of plagiarism in a significant number of respondents. In conclusion, greater attention should be given to educating graduate students how to paraphrase, to reduce plagiarism as well as to improve the standard of academic writing. The findings of this study provide beneficial knowledge concerning the practice of paraphrasing by graduate students' in Thailand; this understanding may foster improved paraphrasing standards among students. Novelty – This study is specifically concerned with the examination of perception, knowledge, and paraphrasing typology of students' English within a foreign language context.
    Keywords: Academic Writing; English as a Foreign Language; Graduate Students; Paraphrasing; Plagiarism
    JEL: I20 I21
    Date: 2017–12–24
  20. By: Hidenobu Okuda; Daiju Aiba
    Abstract: This paper empirically investigates the features and determinants of capital structure decisions of firms in an almost completely dollarized credit market using survey-based data collected by the National Bank of Cambodia and JICA Research Institute in 2014. Specifically, we estimate the determinants of the ratio of bank loans to total assets, using a sample selection model. The major findings are as follows: Firstly, we find that loans from commercial banks are important funding sources for Cambodian firms, and all of the bank loans are denominated in FX currency, especially US dollars. Secondly, the ratio of bank loans to total assets depends positively on how much collateral they can provide for bank loans. Thirdly, firms that possess property and casualty insurance have higher ratios of bank loans to total assets. Lastly, in the Cambodian situation where bank loans are only available in FX currency, currency mismatch risks push firms to reduce the ratio of bank loans to total assets, especially for highly profitable firms. We find that highly profitable firms tend to decrease (increase) the ratio of bank loans in response to an increase (a decrease) in currency mismatch risk, although less profitable firms are not affected by such currency mismatch risks. These results suggest that, as well as other developing countries, external debt procurement heavily depends on how much collateral the Cambodian firms can provide and the extent of their business risks. Furthermore, our results also suggest that, in highly financially dollarized economies with underdeveloped financial systems such as Cambodia, firms with currency mismatch risks tend to reduce bank loans to deal with currency mismatch risks. Therefore, development of a local currency loan market would allow Cambodian firms with local currency revenues to hedge their currency mismatch risks, leading to improvements in financial deepening and inclusion.
    Keywords: Cambodia, Dollarization, Capital structure, Sample selection model
    Date: 2018–02
  21. By: Anugerah Yuka Asmara (Researcher of Science-Technology-Innovation Policy at Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Master Student of Public Administration and Policy at University of Indonesia (UI))
    Abstract: "Objective – This empirical paper aims to describe what action the Government of Indonesia is taking to provide alternative energy sources, such as solar cells, biomass, wind energy, ocean energy, and other renewable energy (RE) sources. Methodology/Technique – The method of analysis used in this study consists of an individual factor, a contextual factor, an external factor, an organizational factor, and a political factor. Findings – The results show that the role of street level bureaucrats in implementing RE policy in Indonesia is influenced by legal regulation and specific values in internal organizations, created by themselves. Novelty – The study highlights that street-level bureaucrats in Dirjen-EBTKE have a discretion when introducing and implementing new RE programs. The paper involves qualitative research by providing descriptive data through a case study"
    Keywords: Role; Street-Level Bureaucrats; Renewable Energy; Policy; Indonesia.
    JEL: P40 P48 P59
    Date: 2017–12–26
  22. By: Pham Van Ha; Tom Kompas; Hoa-Thi-Minh Nguyen; Chu Hoang Long
    Abstract: Intertemporal CGE models allow agents to respond fully to current and future policy shocks. This property is particularly important for trade policies, where tariff reductions span over decades. Nevertheless, intertemporal CGE models are dimensionally large and computationally difficult to solve, thus hindering their development, save for those that are scaled-down to only a few regions and commodities. Using a recently developed solution method, we address this problem by building an intertemporal version of a GTAP model that is large in dimension and can be easily scaled to focus to any subset of GTAP countries or regions, without the need for ‘second best’ recursive approaches. Specifically, we solve using a new parallel-processing technique and matrix reordering procedure, and employ a non-steady state baseline scenario. This provides an effective tool for the dynamic analysis of trade policies. As an application of the model, we simulate a free trade scenario for Vietnam with a focus on the recent Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). Our simulation shows that Vietnam gains considerably from the TPP, with 60 of the gains realised within the first 10 years despite our assumption of a gradual and linear removal of trade barriers. We also solve for intertemporal and sector-specific effects on each industry in Vietnam from the trade agreements, showing an added advantage of our approach compared to standard static and recursive GTAP models.
    Keywords: Intertemporal CGE modelGTAPTrans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)EU-Vietnam Free Trade AgreementVietnam
    Date: 2018–01
  23. By: Alarcon, J. V.; Ernst, C.
    Abstract: Climate change is a challenge world-wide; hence countries must adjust their economies as well as their labour markets. Recently, most economies attempt to shift to more environmentally friendly consumption and production patterns as well as compatible technologies, among others, to improve labour conditions and reduce emissions. The Green Jobs Social Accounting Matrix (GJ- SAM) -based analysis, combined with scenario simulation, has the ambition to provide helpful inputs for policy discussion and decision-making. The results based on the analysis of derived SAM model indicators and two sets of simulations results form the core of this study. The scenario simulations refer to a counter-factual of a fiscal stimulus package that can help test green-jobs sectors performance vis-à-vis brown-jobs sectors, in particular, and hybrid sectors, in general, by providing insights into how to comparatively evaluate policies aimed at shifting towards ecologically friendly technologies. This study shows that shifting towards a green economy may help reducing green-house gas emissions in Indonesia, however, as expected, the process situation is more complex and less straightforward. It also shows clearly the inter-dependencies between the economic, the environmental and the labour spheres; hence a successful sustainable and inclusive development strategy would need to take into account all three spheres simultaneously.
    Keywords: 1, 2, 3, 4
    Date: 2017
  24. By: Raden Lestari Garnasih (Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Ina Primiana Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Nury Effendi Author-3-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia Author-4-Name: Joeliaty Author-4-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia)
    Abstract: Objective – This study aims to determine the conditions relating to research culture, research self-efficacy and research productivity at private universities in Riau, Indonesia, to examine the direct and indirect influences among research culture, research self-efficacy and research productivity. Methodology/Technique – A questionnaire was used to obtain responses from lecturers at 12 private universities (with a total of 349 responses). The data collected from the sample was analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM) software as the verification method. Findings – The results show that research self-efficacy among lecturers is high. Lecturers have a high research selfefficacy in writing the introduction and method of research, and a high-enough score for a broad view of research, results and discussion, and publication. The last variable is research productivity, which was also grouped in the highenough category. The quantity dimension has average score of 2.6 which means that it is high-enough, while the scores for the quality dimensions are also high. Research culture, which has eight dimensions, has a direct influence on both research self-efficacy and research productivity. Research self-efficacy also directly influences research productivity. Novelty – This study reveals that research self-efficacy plays an important role in mediating research culture and research productivity variables.
    Keywords: Research Self-Efficacy; Research Productivity; Research Culture; Higher Education.
    JEL: M30 M31 M41
    Date: 2017–12–07
  25. By: Christiyaningsih Budiwati (Universitas Sebelas Maret, Indonesia Author-2-Name: SE,M.Si,Ak,CA Author-2-Workplace-Name: Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36a, Solo, Indonesia Author-3-Name: Ryan Noor Yudana Author-3-Workplace-Name: Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36a, Solo, Indonesia)
    Abstract: Objective – The study aims to identify the difference of returns that occur on every trading day, to identify the occurrence of the phenomenon of the Day of the Week Effect; to identify the occurrence of Monday Effect on stock trading in the Indonesian Stock Exchange; and to identify the occurrence of Weekend Effect on the Indonesian Stock Exchange. Methodology/Technique – This study examines companies listed in the LQ 45 Index between January 2016 and December 2016. The results are tested using a comparative method. The sample used consists of 41 companies. The hypothesis was testing using a one-way ANOVA and independent sample t-test. Findings – The results show that there is a difference of stock return occuring on every trading, day indicating the occurrence of the day of the week effect phenomenon. Further, there was no Monday Effect phenomenon observed during the study period and there was no Weekend Effect Phenomenon observed during the study period. Novelty – Based on the results, it can be concluded that the phenomenon of the Day of the Week Effect occurred between January 2016 and December 2016, while the phenomenon of Monday Effect and Weekend Effect did not occur during the study period.
    Keywords: Stock Return; The Day of The Week Effect; Monday Effect; Weekend Effect; LQ-45 Index
    JEL: G10 G12
    Date: 2017–12–12
  26. By: Marieska Lupikawaty (Business Administration Department, State Polytechnic of Sriwijaya, Indonesia.)
    Abstract: "Objective – This study aims to analyse the factors effecting the different demand on childcare services made by working mothers, focusing on two types of childcare. Methodology/Technique – The analysis method used is a logit regression with a binary dependent variable worth. The respondents are working mothers who with young children, living in Palembang. This research uses primary data to perform the data collection, through the use of questionnaires and interviews. Findings – The results show that the cost of daycare and the hours spent in daycare have an affect on a working mother's choice of the type of daycare used. Novelty – This study represents a different approach from previous studies because: (i) the study examines whether the cost of child care has an effect on a working mothers' choice of the type of daycare and (ii) the study also tests whether the number of hours mothers leave their children in daycare has an effect on their choice of daycare. "
    Keywords: Demand; Child Care; Working Mothers; Palembang; Indonesia.
    JEL: J10 J13
    Date: 2017–12–05
  27. By: Saputra, Darman
    Abstract: The Least Square Dummy Variable (LSDV) method can be used to estimate parameters in the panel data regression model incomplete one-way fixed effect. To produce the best model with GDP data of GRASB. Variables that do not occur heteroscedasticity and models that meet the smallest sum square of error is the variable Mining and Processing Industry, this variable affects the per capita income. The Feasible Generalized Least Square (FGLS) method can be used to estimate the regression parameters for incomplete panel data for a one-way random effect. In this model produce the best model with non-oil and gas GRDP data. The variables that fulfil it are the processing Industry, service, and agriculture of Forestry and Fishery. Therefore looking at the above model can be concluded non-oil and Gas GRDP has three factors that affect per capita income in Bangka Belitung. This should be a reference of local governments to further improve the quality or production in agriculture and services because this potential is more promising for the future. Software used to analyze data in this paper is with R.
    Keywords: Heteroscedasticity, Panel data is not complete, Least Square Dummy Variable (lSDV), Feasible Generalized Least Square (FGLS), R.
    JEL: O41 O47
    Date: 2017–01–30
  28. By: Jaelani, Aan; Firdaus, Slamet; Jumena, Juju
    Abstract: This study confirms that renewable energy sources become the solution for energy development in Indonesia due to the increasingly depleted use of fossil-based energy, due to an increase in the population that increases energy consumption and waste in fuel consumption. The Qur'an has provided simple concepts and illustrations about renewable energy sources that can be utilized by humans, energy conservation, and energy enrichment. With the codification and content analysis approach to energy policy in Indonesia and energy themes in the Qur'an, this paper asserts that the Government of Indonesia's renewable energy policy focuses on providing and developing renewable energy as part of sustainable development. This renewable energy policy can be proven scientifically with the implementation of scientific Qur'anic terms about renewable energy sources such as water, geothermal, ocean, vegetation, and wind. The policy on energy conservation through energy saving becomes a religious obligation for every person, institution, and government because to meet the needs of consumers, maintain the survival of the community, and preserve the environment.
    Keywords: renewable energy, energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy economy
    JEL: Q20 Q28 Q42 Q48 Q58
    Date: 2017–06–01
  29. By: Sri Marti Pramudena (STIE Binaniaga Bogor, Padjadjaran street No. 100 Bogor, West of Java, Indonesia)
    Abstract: Objective – Financial distress is referred to as a condition in which a company's operations result in insufficient funds to meet its obligations (insolvency). The success or failure of a company greatly depends on the corporate governance of the company. This study aims to identify the relationship between the existence of good corporate governance and the probability of financial distress. Methodology/Technique – This study used secondary data obtained from annual reports from 2009 to 2014. The data is gathered from consumer goods manufacturing companies, that are listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (BEI). The sample includes 10 companies. The method of analysis used is multiple linear regressions. Findings – The results of the study show that institutional ownership and managerial ownership adversely affect the possibility of financial distress. On the other hand, the proportion of commissioners and the number of board of directors have a positive effect on the probability of financial distress. Novelty – This study found that institutional ownership (IO) has an inverse effect on the financial distress of a company.
    Keywords: Good Corporate Governance; Financial Distress; Corporate Performance
    JEL: G30 G34 G39
    Date: 2017–12–11
  30. By: Sri Hapsari Wijayanti (Faculty Economics and Business, Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia)
    Abstract: "Objective – The aim of this study is to identify how the strategy of online businesses can be improved to increase financial profits. The focus of this study is on online businesses selling flowers, taking into consideration the fact that the freshness of flowers does not last long, and that the price and quality of flowers fluctuates depending on climatic conditions. Methodology/Technique – The data used in this research is primary data, obtained by distributing questionnaires for market research, tested against 57 respondents. The respondents were selected using non-probability sampling with a purposive sampling technique. The results of the validation test r count > r table, with 5% significance, shows that businesses providing flower arrangements are in high demand. Findings – The results of the model business identification canvas and the profit and loss projections indicate that the choice of the business strategy series for cut flowers on each element is accurate. The results of the analysis of the strengths and threats also identifies that selling price varies depending on the types of flowers used in an arrangement, and accessories used. Novelty – This research studies how the types of flowers used, the design of an arrangement, accessories used, packaging, and family ownership of a business can effect the interest of potential customers in the Fiore shop in Afrodite. "
    Keywords: SWOT; Canvas Models; Communication; Online Business; Indonesia.
    JEL: C50 C53 C59
    Date: 2017–12–17
  31. By: Ngoc Thi Minh Tran (University of Waikato); Michael P. Cameron (University of Waikato); Jacques Poot (University of Waikato)
    Abstract: Previous research has shown that institutions matter in decisions regarding migration. This paper extends investigation of the role of institutional quality in migration to the return intentions of international migrants. Using data from a web-based survey that we conducted in OECD countries in 2016, we examine both micro-level and macro-level determinants of the intentions to repatriate among Vietnamese migrants. The results of our logistic regression analysis suggest that those migrants who attach greater importance to the institutional quality in Viet Nam are less likely to have the intention to return than other Vietnamese migrants. However, there is considerably heterogeneity by gender. The concern about institutional quality in Viet Nam is only statistically significant for males. Nonetheless, our findings underscore the necessity of institutional reforms in Viet Nam to encourage return migration for development.
    Keywords: institutional quality; international migration; return intentions; Viet Nam
    JEL: F22 O15
    Date: 2018–03–03
  32. By: Nico Alexander (Trisakti School of Management, Kyai tapa No. 20, 11440, Jakarta, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Silvy Christina Author-2-Workplace-Name: Trisakti School of Management, Kyai tapa No. 20, 11440, Jakarta, Indonesia)
    Abstract: Objective –The purpose of this research is to empirically examine the effect of corporate governance, ownership and tax aggressiveness on earnings management. Methodology/Technique –The population of this research consists of non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX) between 2013 and 2015. This research uses 3 recent years and utilizes different variable that have not been used in prior research. The 67 samples were choose using a purposive sampling method. The hypotheses are tested using multiple regression analysis with the SPSS program, to investigate the influence of each independent variable on earnings management. Findings –The results show that the board of director have a positive influence on earnings management, while board independence, audit quality, managerial ownership, and tax aggressiveness have no influence on earnings management. Novelty –This research add value in the existing literature and empirically study the effect of the board of directors, independence of the board, audit quality, managerial ownership, and tax agressiveness on earnings management.
    Keywords: Earnings Management; Corporate Governance; Ownership; Tax Aggressiveness.
    JEL: M40 M41 M49
    Date: 2017–12–21
  33. By: Najib Ahmad Marzuki (School of Applied Psychology, Social Work and Policy, Universiti Utara Malaysia Author-2-Name: Che Su Mustaffa Author-2-Workplace-Name: School of Multimedia Technology and Communication, Universiti Utara Malaysia Author-3-Name: Mohd Sukeri Khalid Author-3-Workplace-Name: School of Government, Universiti Utara Malaysia)
    Abstract: Objective – The study seeks to determine the relationship between psychosocial factors, namely social support, impression management and emotional factors (stress, anxiety and depression), with quality of life among flood victims. The Conservation of Resources Stress Approach Model and The Social Support Deterioration Model suggest that quality of life is dependent upon these psychosocial factors. Methodology/Technique – The cross-sectional study examined 1300 flood victims in flood prone areas in Malaysia. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, The Bolino and Turnley Impression Management Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale questionnaires were used to measure the psychosocial factors, while The WHO Quality of Life instrument was used to measure quality of life. The results were analysed using Pearson Correlations. Findings – The findings demonstrate that, in general, psychosocial factors are associated with quality of life. Social support dimensions and emotional factor dimensions were significantly correlated with quality of life. In addition, two dimensions of impression management were correlated with quality of life. The findings are consistent with the psychosocial theory that implies an overall relationship between the variables studied. Novelty – This study suggests that there is much to be done in terms of community flood education in Malaysia, as well as training for emergency aid providers to decrease the likelihood of negative effects of psychosocial factors on individuals' quality of life. A psychosocial support programme is recommended to enhance overall quality of life for flood victims.
    Keywords: Psychosocial; Social Support; Impression Management; Stress; Anxiety; Depression; Quality of Life
    JEL: I30 I31
    Date: 2017–12–22
  34. By: Robert C. Allen (Division of Social Science)
    Abstract: A new basis for an international poverty measurement is proposed based on linear programming for specifying the least cost diet and explicit budgeting for non-food spending. The use of linear programming to specify the diet ensures that the diets reflect local prices while maintaining a uniform standard across countries that is defined in terms of nutritional requirements for good health. The non-food spending includes clothing, bedding, foot ware, fuel, and lighting. The specification varies between countries depending on climate. Nonfood spending also includes rent for accommodation shifting the poverty line between rich and poor countries to reflect the great differences in real estate costs. This approach is superior to the World Bank’s ‘$-a-day’ line because it is (1) clearly related to survival and well being, (2) comparable across time and space since the same nutritional requirements are used everywhere while non-food spending is tailored to climate, (3) adjusts consumption patterns to local prices, (4) presents no index number problems since solutions are always in local prices, and (5) requires only readily available information. The new approach implies much more poverty than the World Bank’s, especially in Asia.
    Date: 2017–06
  35. By: Jonna P. Estudillo; Keijiro Otsuka; Saygnasak Seng-Arloun
    Abstract: Using a rare individual-level data set, this paper explores the role of education and farmland on the choice of job of three generations of household members in rural Laos. While the first (G1) and the second (G2) generations are mainly engaged in farming, the youngest generation (G3) is engaged in nonfarm wage and overseas work. Education matters in nonfarm wage work, but not necessarily in overseas work. The female members of G3 are more likely to migrate. Our findings imply a shortage of jobs in rural Laos, pushing the less educated and the females to cross the border to Thailand.
  36. By: Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - AgroParisTech - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement)
    Abstract: Survivre au froid en hiver et au chaud en été sont des besoins humains essentiels, tout comme manger cuit dans un air intérieur libre de fumée. L’objectif de développement durable « Accès à une énergie propre et abordable pour tous » reconnaît ainsi un droit à l’énergie comme une juste exigence universelle. Mais le garantir au quotidien pour sept milliards de contemporains soulève des questions pratiques : Les pays en développement ont ils le droit d’utiliser les énergies fossiles comme l’ont fait les pays riches ? Comment définir et repérer les ménages en situation de précarité énergétique, et comment les aider ? Ce texte propose quelques réponses concrètes, qui s’appuient sur le cas d’un pays riche la France, et d’un pays à revenu intermédiaire le Vietnam.
    Date: 2018–01–25
  37. By: Joaquin Blaum (Brown University)
    Abstract: Large economic crises are characterized by sharp currency devaluations, collapses in imports and declines in aggregate TFP. The standard mechanism for the decline in aggregate productivity is that firms' access to foreign inputs is restricted when foreign goods become more expensive. The effect of the crisis therefore crucially depends on the degree of substitutability between domestic and foreign inputs in firms’ technologies. Because this elasticity is typically estimated above unity, recent quantitative trade models imply that import shares, both at the firm and aggregate level, should decrease after a crisis. I provide evidence that in fact aggregate import shares increase after large depreciations, such as Mexico 1994, Brazil 1998, the East Asian crisis in 1997 and Argentina 2001, among others. Using Indonesian firm-level data, I show that this fact is explained by the entry of new exporters, as well as by existing exporters increasing their export intensity, after the devaluation. Because exporting is an import-intensive activity, this can account for the increase in the aggregate import share. These facts suggest that understanding the macroeconomic effects of large crises requires a joint account of the import and export behavior of firms. To explore this hypothesis, I develop a model with firm heterogeneity where exporting and importing decisions are made jointly. Exporting and importing are complementary activities because increases in revenue and reductions in unit cost interact in the profit function. I discipline the model to match salient features of the Indonesian micro data. I explore the effects of a devaluation on aggregate productivity and compare the results to the standard model of the literature which only features the importing channel. [work in progress].
    Date: 2017
  38. By: Herlin, .
    Abstract: Based on the calculation of the Altman model in predicting bankrupt at PT. Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk in 2014, 2015, 2016, PT. Bank Mandiri (Persero) Tbk in 2014 and 2015 and is PT.Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero) Tbk in 2014 with a score of Z-score above 2.99 indicates that included in the company healthy or not potential to go bankrupt. Companies included in the category of unhealthy or potential companies to go bankrupt with a Z-score of less than 1.81 ie PT. Bank Tabungan Negara (Persero) Tbk in 2014 with a Z-score of 1.405 (
    Keywords: Altman Model, Financial Distress
    JEL: G21
    Date: 2018–01–30
  39. By: Mazhar Yasin MUGHAL; Rashid JAVED
    Abstract: Son preference is common in many Asian countries. Though a growing body of literature examines the drivers and socioeconomic impacts of phenomenon in case of China and India, work on other Asian countries is scarce. This study uses nationally representative survey of over 13 thousand households from Pakistan (PDHS 2012-13) to analyze the effects of observed preference for sons on women‘s participation in intra-household decision-making. Four key intra-household decisions are considered: decisions regarding healthcare, family visits, large household purchases and spending husband's income. These correspond to four categories of household decisions, namely healthcare, social, consumption and financial. Probit and Ordered Probit are employed as the main estimation techniques and other determinants of household decision-making are controlled for. Besides, a number of matching routines are employed to account for the possibility of potential selection bias. We find that women with at least one son have more say in household decisions. Bearing at least one son is associated with 5%, 7% and 5% higher say in decisions involving healthcare, social and consumption matters respectively. Women's role in financial affairs, however, does not differ significantly from women with no sons. Female participation in decisionmaking grows significantly with the number of sons but only up to the third parity. These results are particularly visible among younger, wealthier and educated women, and those who got married earlier. The findings suggest a limited improvement in women's bargaining power at home resulting from the birth of one or more sons. This in part explains higher desire for sons expressed by women compared to men in household surveys.
    Keywords: Son preference, Gender bias, Sex selection, Female decision-making, intrahousehold bargaining, Pakistan
    JEL: C13 C70 D13 J13
  40. By: Daryanto Hesti Wibowo (Padjadjaran University/Institut STIAMI, Jl. Dipati Ukur No. 35, 40132, Bandung, Indonesia)
    Abstract: "Objective – This study aims to examine the implementation of ecotourism management control systems in Belitung. The purpose of this is to make the management system more effective and efficient in achieving its targets. Methodology/Technique – Questionnaires were delivered to tourism department officers in Belitung and a direct interview was also conducted with the Regent. The established goals for the development of ecotourism management are defined using the Management Control System ('MCS') framework to effectively and efficiently obtain and utilize resources to achieve those objectives. These goals require targeted congruence, supported by motivated employees, running on formal and informal control mechanisms with the application of risk allocation. Findings – This research shows that management control systems have been applied in the development of inclusive and sustainable ecotourism. However, personal and organizational target congruence shows areas for improvement, particularly with respect to shifting from mining to ecotourism as the the source of economic profitability. Novelty – The Belitung local government has recently amended its policies to focus more heavily on the development of inclusive and sustainable ecotourism. "
    Keywords: Ecotourism; Effective; Efficient; Management Control System; Sustainability.
    Date: 2017–12–19
  41. By: Ke, Sam Oeurn; Babu, Suresh Chandra
    Abstract: This paper assesses the performance of Cambodia’s agriculture extension system, identifies challenges and analyzes constraints and opportunities for that system, and finally identifies actions needed to improve the extension system. We offer recommendations for both policy makers and practitioners regarding the current status of extension in Cambodia.
    Keywords: agricultural extension, extension programmes, extension programs, agricultural research, advisory services, agricultural sector, rural development, agricultural development, evaluation, smallholders,
    Date: 2018
  42. By: Khusnul Khotimah (Department of Management, Universitas Yapis Papua, Indonesia.)
    Abstract: Objective – Experiential Marketing may have a positive effect on both the formation of customer value and in the generation of profits for a company. Methodology/Technique – This study examines the calculation of the Net Marketing Contribution Margin (NMCM) in achieving a company's return. The survey shows an increase in total business income in 2014 by IDR 3.59 trillion, and in 2015 by IDR 3.8 trillion. However, the scheduled passenger income has decreased by 20.61%. Findings – The findings show that the ratio of promotions, tickets, and sales expenses to the total number of sales fluctuated between 2009 and 2015. This is contrary to the revenue generated through Experiential Marketing, which continued to increase from year to year. Novelty – The study shows that, without a strong communication strategy, a company may not be able to reach its full potential.
    Keywords: Customer Value; Experiential Marketing; Net Marketing Contribution Margin (NMCM); Marketing Communication.
    JEL: M30 M31 M41
    Date: 2017–12–14
  43. By: Denvi Giovanita (Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI, 16424, Depok, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Wustari L. Mangundjaya Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI, 16424, Depok, Indonesia)
    Abstract: Objective – It is essential for organizations in 21st century to evolve with time. In this regard, both the management and employees of an organization play an essential role in the implementation of change. One way of determining the success of organizational change is by identifying the employees' commitment to change. This research aims to identify the effect of transformational leadership (organizational factors) and employees' change self-efficacy (individual factors) on effective commitment to change, to identify which of those two factors has a more significant effect on affective commitment to change. Methodology/Technique – The respondents of this study are employees in the finance sector. The data was collected using commitment to change, change self-efficacy and transformational leadership inventories. The data was analyzed using multiple hierarchical regressions. Findings – The result show that both transformational leadership and change self-efficacy have a positive and significant effect on affective commitment to change. Furthermore, change self-efficacy proved to have a more significant effect on affective commitment to change compared to transformational leadership. Based on these results, organisations may wish to further focus on the development of change self-efficacy of individuals. Novelty – This study can be used by HR practitioners when dealing with organizational change, as a guide to improving the success of such change.
    Keywords: Affective Commitment to Change; Change Self-Efficacy; Leadership; Organizational Change; Transformational Leadership.
    JEL: M10 M19
    Date: 2017–12–02
  44. By: Anindita Chairina (Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI, Depok, 16424, Indonesia Author-2-Name: Sali Rahadi Asih Author-2-Workplace-Name: Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI, Depok, 16424, Indonesia)
    Abstract: Objective – It was previously assumed that the relationship between HLOC and quality of life may be mediated by adherence. HLOC plays a role in determining a person's behavior, including adherence to medical regimens. Methodology/Technique – HLOC was measured by the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, adherence was measured by the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8), and quality of life was measured by the Quality of Life Scale. Findings – The results indicate that Internal HLOC (ß = 0,497, p
    Keywords: Asthma; Adherence; Chronic Illness; Health Locus of Control, Quality of Life
    JEL: I10 I19
    Date: 2017–12–11
  45. By: Mohammad Annas (Universitas Multimedia Nusantara, Tangerang, 15153, Indonesia)
    Abstract: "Objective – This research is a direct observation of initial queuing, using data that is categorised into two clusters: the number of people queuing at busy hours, and processing times in the same circumstances. Methodology/Technique – The raw data was converted for use in the Poisson distribution test, as well as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov exponential distribution options. An arena simulation model was also applied to identify the vendor's waiting time and to analyse receiving yard utilization. The average waiting time according to the Poisson distribution, the average serving time per vendor by an exponential distribution, and the number of receiving yards, are all essential factors effecting the utilization of receiving yards. Findings – The study compares the length of queues, serving times, arrival rate, and time in the system using dual and single receiving yard systems. However, the utilization rate on a two receiving yards system is less than the rate on single receiving yard system. As the aim of this study is to identify the utilization rate of the receiving yard, a single receiving yard operation is more representative of modern hypermarkets, and more efficient in terms of resource efficiency. Novelty – This study depends fully on the homogeneous operating hours of the retailers' receiving yards, the type of vehicle used by vendors to unload merchandises, procedures on moving the products to the inspections phase, a generalization of the products delivered by the vendors and the size of the modern hypermarkets business itself. "
    Keywords: Receiving Yard Utilization; Hypermarket Receiving Yard; Queuing Simulation.
    JEL: M1 M10 M19
    Date: 2017–12–12
  46. By: Abdul Samad (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Author-2-Name: Roselina Ahmad Saufi Author-2-Workplace-Name: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia)
    Abstract: Objective – Employee retention is a challenging agenda in human resource management. This paper attempts to undertake a comparative analysis of primitive turnover models with more recent trends in turnover literature, and highlight the importance of environmental factors in retaining employees. Methodology/Technique – Literature of turnover, turnover intention and turnover models were reviewed. Findings – Traditionally, scholars such as William H. Mobley (1977), Price and Mueller (1981), and Bluedorn (1982) emphasised job satisfaction, organisation commitment, performance, job searching and job opportunities as the main predictors of employee turnover. However, in the 21st century, scholars such as Hassan, Akram, and Naz (2012); Mishra (2013); Chon (2012); Yilmaz and Ovunc (2015); and Sun and Wang, (2016) have begun to extend the retention model by including work life balance, human resource management practices, organizational reputation and prestige. This paper examines the development of retention models in the 1980s and 2000s. The study examines the evolution of retention determinants – beginning from organisational focus to a combination of organisational, non-organisational, economical, and environmental factors. The implication is that there has been a shift in the momentum of turnover predictors from attitudinal and behavioural factors, to a combination of external factors. To improve employee retention, an organisation must consider individual, organisational, and environmental factors and develop a more comprehensive strategy by incorporating every aspect of work and non-work settings. Novelty – This study undertakes a comparative review of turnover models with recent literature of turnover which has not been done extensively in previous literature.
    Keywords: Employee Turnover; Organisational Reputation; Organisational Prestige; Work life Balance
    JEL: J63 J64
    Date: 2017–12–01
  47. By: Ali Muktiyanto (Universitas Terbuka, Jalan Cabe Raya-Pamulang, 15418, Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia)
    Abstract: Objective – The context strategy as process and strategy as content have significant impact to the correlation between strategy and management accounting (Muktiyanto, 2016; Parnell, 2010). In the context strategy as process, this paper aims to investigate the role of management accounting to performance through the choice of strategy. Methodology/Technique – The method by structural equation modeling on 70 (seventy) of undergraduate Accounting Study Program (composition: 70% Private Universities and 30% Public Universities). Opposite with Henry (2006) and Widener (2007) and support with Speklé and Verbeeten (2014) and Acquaah (2013). Findings – This paper shown that the accounting management directly influence the performance, but not mediated by strategy. The practice of budgetary slack, the implementation of modern accounting such as activity-based costing and target costing, the use of performance measurement techniques such as the balanced scorecard, measurements based performance, and the economic value added, as well as integrated information system is an important factor in improving the performance of Higher Education. Unfortunately, the choice of strategy moderate or "stuck in the middle" has not been able to improve the performance of Higher Education directly nor as a mediating between management accounting and performance. However, in the context strategy as process, management accounting have positive influence to the strategic choice. Novelty – The effort of Higher Education to improve the performance is choose a single strategy or focus on the prospector's strategy.
    Keywords: Management Accounting, Strategy, Performance, Indonesia.
    JEL: M40 M41
    Date: 2017–12–23
  48. By: Victor Court (CERES-ERTI - Centre d'Enseignement et de Recherche sur l'Environnement et la Societé / Environmental Research and Teaching Institute - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris); Emmanuel Bovari (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This article provides a knowledge-based and energy-centered unified growth model of the economic transition from limited to sustained growth. In an overlapping generation framework, we introduce final energy as a production factor of a composite final good sector, along with human capital, a learning-by-doing technology, and a Schumpeterian technology. Final energy results from a CES aggregation of energy inputs that come from renewable (biomass, wind, water) and exhaustible (coal, oil, gas) primary resources. The production of those inputs also requires human capital along with specific learning-by-doing and Schumpeterian technologies. Furthermore, with an endogenous sequence of General Purpose Technologies (GPTs), we explicitly feature pure technological externalities that foster the efficiency of both learning-by-doing and R&D-based technological progress. This setting allows us to distinguish two economic regimes: (i) a pre-modern organic regime dominated by limited growth in per capita output, high fertility, low levels of human capital, technological progress generated by learning-by-doing, and rare GPT arrivals; and (ii) a modern fossil regime characterized by sustained growth of per capita output, low fertility, high levels of human capital, technological progress generated by profit-motivated R&D, and increasingly frequent GPT arrivals. Most importantly, these economic, technological and demographic regimes' changes are associated with an energy transition. This transition results from the endogenous shortage of renewable resources availability and the arrival of new GPTs, which redirect technological progress towards the exploitation of previously unprofitable exhaustible energy carriers. Calibrations of the model are currently in progress and will allow a simulation of the historical experience of England for the period 1560-2010. In a second step, we plan to reiterate these simulations to compare the different trajectories of Western Europe and Eastern Asia.
    Keywords: Unified Growth Theory,Useful Knowledge,Energy Transition,Demography
    Date: 2018–01–31

This nep-sea issue is ©2018 by Kavita Iyengar. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.