nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2017‒09‒24
24 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Export Geographical Diversification and Economic Growth Among ASEAN Countries By Hinlo, Jennifer E.; Arranguez, Grace Ivy S.
  2. Determinants of the Adoption of Organic Tea Production in Northern Vietnam: A Robustness Analysis By Nicolas Lampach; Phu Nguyen-Van; Nguyen To-The
  3. A Fresh Look at the Nutrition Transition in Vietnam using Semiparametric Modeling By Simioni, Michel; Thomas-Agnan, Christine; Trinh, Thi-Huong
  4. Institutional Responsiveness, Authoritarian Orientation and the Internet’s Impact on Institutional Trust Across East Asia By Kao, Lang; Huang, Yi-Hui Christine; Lu, Yuanhang
  5. A New Perspective on Conflict Resolution in Asia: Integration of Peace and Development for the Philippines By Ishikawa Sachiko
  6. Relational integration between supply chain members: Proposal of a measurement scale applicable to Asian emerging countries By Huu Tuyen Duong; Gilles Paché
  7. Poverty and the Colonial Origins of Elite Capture: Evidence from Philippine Provinces By Michael Batu
  8. 대 ASEAN FDI 결정요인의 특징과 정책적 시사점(Factors Influencing ASEAN FDI and the Policy Implications) By Jeong, Hyung-Gon; Bang, Ho Kyung; Lee, Boram; Pek, Jong-Hun
  9. Two scenarios for carbon capture and storage in Vietnam By Minh Ha-Duong; Hoang Anh Nguyen Trinh
  10. Are free loans of land really free? An exploratory analysis of risk-coping motives in land arrangements in the Northeast of Thailand By Gwendoline Promsopha
  11. Comparison of Diffusion Models for Forecasting the Growth of Broadband Markets in Thailand By Sudtasan, Tatcha; Mitomo, Hitoshi
  12. Measuring and Examining Innovation in Philippine Business and Industry By Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Llanto, Gilberto M.; Serafica, Ramonette B.; Vizmanos, Jana Flor V.; Bairan, Jose Carlos Alexis C.; Quimba, Francis Mark A.
  13. Fixed-to-Mobile Substitution: Effects of Mobile Broadband Subscription on Fixed Broadband Termination By Leurcharusmee, Supanika; Sirisrisakulchai, Jirakom; Suriya, Komsan; Keesookpun, Chutipong; Srinuan, Pratompong
  14. Building transnational labor markets: The case of Taiwan By Wang, Chih-Chieh
  15. Analysis on the Key Factors of the Network Separation in China in the Era of Telecommunications 4.0 By Yang, Yu; Song, Luona; Lv, Tingjie; Chen, Xia
  16. Comparing estimated and self-reported markups for formal and informal firms in an emerging market context By John Rand
  17. Strengthening e‐commerce in the Asia‐Pacific region: Opportunities and challenges By Marcus, J. Scott; Petropoulos, Georgios; Jitsuzumi, Toshiya
  18. The Impact of Business-Government Relationship on the Social Role Construction of Cable Television Operators in East Asia: A Case Study of Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan By Sugaya, Minoru; Yonetani, Nami
  19. Phân tích chi phí-lợi ích của đồng đốt sinh khối với than: Trường hợp nhà máy nhiệt điện Ninh Bình By An Ha Truong; Hoang Anh Tran; Minh Ha-Duong
  20. Lessons for Asia from Mexico: understanding costumer satisfaction with fixed internet services by applying a factor analysis using polychoric correlations By Candelaria Barrera, José Alberto
  21. Competition, Markups, and Gains from Trade: A Quantitative Analysis of China Between 1995 and 2004 By Hsu, Wen-Tai; Lu, Yi; Wu, Guiying Laura
  22. Impact of Psychological Needs on Luxury Consumption By Ning Mao; Michael McAleer; Shuyu Bai
  23. Social media marketing analytics : a multicultural approach applied to the beauty & cosmetic sector By Hajer Kefi; Sitesh Indra; Talel Abdessalem
  24. A Generalized Email Classification System for Workflow Analysis By Piyanuch Chaipornkaew; Takorn Prexawanprasut; Chia-Lin Chang; Michael McAleer

  1. By: Hinlo, Jennifer E.; Arranguez, Grace Ivy S.
    Abstract: The study investigated the relationship of export geographical diversification and economic growth among ASEAN countries for the period 1980-2014. With a sample of 5 countries- Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand- the study computed for the geographical diversification of countries using the Herfindahl index. Using time series analysis, with Vector Autoregressive (VAR) analysis and Granger causality tests, the relationship of the two variables among ASEAN countries were tested. The results showed a generally decreasing trend of HHI values of all 5 countries. Results of the analysis of the relationship showed a bidirectional relationship for Malaysia and a unidirectional relationship from export geographical diversification to economic growth in the case of Philippines. For countries Indonesia, Singapore and Thailand, results showed no causality which indicates that the variables are independent for these countries. Based on the results, the study recommendeds the followng: (1) formulation and implementation of appropriate strategies to improve export structure and improve economies for Malaysia and Philppines; and (2) diversification of export structure in terms of market destinations for Philippines to improve its economy.
    Keywords: ASEAN, Export geographical Diversification, Herfindahl index
    JEL: E01 F1 F13
    Date: 2017–04–14
  2. By: Nicolas Lampach; Phu Nguyen-Van; Nguyen To-The
    Abstract: Increasing consumer awareness on sustainable and healthy food choices gave rise to a growing demand for organic tea in the past decades. Most of this demand is met by imports from developing countries. This article examines the main factors affecting the choice of farm households to adopt organic tea production in Northern Vietnam. We apply a logit model to survey data on 241 Vietnamese tea farming households. We assess the robustness of the results by addressing three important statistical issues: (i) regressor endogeneity, (ii) unobserved heterogeneity at farm level and (iii) missing values. The main results are chiefly robust and largely in line with the theoretical predictions. We find that farm households with higher revenues and located in rich natural and physical environments are significantly more inclined to adopt organic tea production. Furthermore, the analysis reveals that farm households being consulted by extension agents and belonging to a tea association increase the odds for the adoption of organic tea cultivation.
    Keywords: Organic farming; Regressor endogeneity; Unobserved heterogeneity; Multiple imputations method; Tea production; Vietnam.
    JEL: Q15 O33 Q18
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Simioni, Michel; Thomas-Agnan, Christine; Trinh, Thi-Huong
    Abstract: Policies aimed at reducing starvation and redressing nutritional deficiencies remain among the most widely accepted policies in the world. These policies can take many different forms, from subsidized prices of basic foodstuffs to cash transfers, and their effectiveness depends on the existence of a sensitivity of food demand to income variation and its magnitude. This paper revisits the issue of estimating the relationship between calorie intake and income. We present and compare estimates of this relationship for Vietnam which has undergone profound economic changes over the last 30 years. After estimating semiparametric generalized additive models are estimated, we compare their performances are compared to the performance of the classical double log model using the recently proposed revealed performance test. This methodology is implemented using successive waves of the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey. The application delivers some new and interesting insights on nutritional transition in Vietnam between 2004 and today. The analysis focuses not only on the comparison of the general shape of the estimated curves but also on the decomposition of the evolution of average calorie intake in terms of changes in the structure of the surveyed sample (greater urbanization, for example) and changes in preferences as reflected by changes in the estimated curves over time.
    Keywords: Calorie -income relationship; Nutritional transition; Vietnam; Semiparametric modeling
    Date: 2017–09
  4. By: Kao, Lang; Huang, Yi-Hui Christine; Lu, Yuanhang
    Abstract: A growing body of research documents the direct relationship between Internet use and institutional trust. However, the research gap remained as its mediating and moderating mechanism. Adopting a cultural-institutional perspective, this study seeks to answer: How does Internet use relate to institutional trust? Under what condition is the indirect association most potent? The present study examines whether authoritarian orientation and perceived institutional responsiveness mediate the relationship between Internet use and institutional trust, and whether the mediating process was moderated by level of democracy in East Asian countries/territories. A total of 20667 respondents from 14 East Asian countries/territories completed anonymous questionnaires. Results showed that the negative relationship between Internet use and institutional trust was mediated by authoritarian orientation and perceived institutional responsiveness. The indirect link through authoritarian orientation was stronger for the countries/territories with a low level of democracy. Vice versa, the indirect link through perceived institutional responsiveness was stronger for the countries/territories with a higher level of democracy.
    Keywords: Internet use,institutional trust,authoritarian orientation,institutional responsiveness
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Ishikawa Sachiko
    Abstract: The peace process between the Philippine government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front is a showcase of a new type of conflict resolution. This process included development and a hybrid form of peacekeeping aside from peacemaking endeavors. Japan’s assistance to the conflict-affected areas in Mindanao demonstrated the notion of human security with a tripartite cooperation arrangement consisting of the International Monitoring Team, the Mindanao Task Force, and the Japan-Bangsamoro Initiative for Reconstruction and Development. Above all, Japan’s participation in the International Monitoring Team opened new pathways for the country to carry out comprehensive support to Mindanao by bridging peace and development. Japan remained in Mindanao even after the peace negotiations reached a stalemate in October 2008. That was the period when the empowerment of local communities and people were at stake under a volatile cease-fire agreement. Japan, in collaboration with local security providers, continued assistance in the conflict-affected areas. In parallel with this effort, the Consolidation of Peace Seminar played a role in introducing local consultation into the peace process; bridging the gap between local civil society and the negotiating panels. These multifaceted endeavors supported local communities in their quest for peace during a critical period of the peace process.
    Keywords: human security, Mindanao, sovereignty, empowerment, self-contained assistance
    Date: 2017–06
  6. By: Huu Tuyen Duong (University of Science, VNU-HCM); Gilles Paché (CRET-LOG - Centre de Recherche sur le Transport et la Logistique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université)
    Abstract: The organisation and functioning of supply chains constitutes a major issue in contemporary management research. It is true that the way in which various companies will coordinate to supply consumption markets in the best possible way constitutes a key question. Even though the sources of competitive advantage usually refer to successful industrial, commercial and financial strategies, the efforts made by a company to conquer a market can be ruined by recurrent logistical failures. This paper particularly focuses on the relational integration process between supply chain members, whose objective is to improve the level of service quality and reduce the costs. It wishes to propose a measurement scale of relational integration applicable to the specific context of emerging countries, and therefore avoid the rashly use of measurement scales created in the context of Western countries. A research lead with 139 Vietnamese companies in the food industry enables to test and confirm the robustness of the retained measurement scale. Its use may be considered in other emerging countries of South East Asia, for cross-cultural research.
    Keywords: Logistics, Outsourcing, Vietnam
    Date: 2016–06–22
  7. By: Michael Batu (Department of Economics, University of Windsor)
    Abstract: This paper offers new evidence on the causal link between poverty and elite capture within a democratic country. The extent of elite capture was derived from the names of 64,152 elected officials in four election cycles at the provincial and municipal levels in the Philippines. To identify the causal relationship between elite capture and poverty, this study exploits the exogenous variation in the number of churches constructed in the Philippines during the Spanish colonization period (1521-1898). These structures were built in locations where political families developed and persisted to the present. Using the number of colonial churches as an instrument in a two-stage least-squares regression, this study finds that poverty in Philippine provinces is inversely proportional to the percentage of positions controlled by elites and directly proportional to decreased competition among elites. Results are robust to the measure of poverty used as well as controlling for other plausible channels through which the presence of colonial churches may influence poverty in the Philippine provinces.
    Keywords: Political elites; elite capture; poverty; institutions
    JEL: D72 F54 I32
    Date: 2017–09
  8. By: Jeong, Hyung-Gon (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Bang, Ho Kyung (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Lee, Boram (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Pek, Jong-Hun (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy)
    Abstract: 본 연구는 아세안 FDI 특징과 비즈니스 여건을 살펴본 후 그 결정요인을 실증적으로 분석함으로써 한아세안 경제협력을 보다 심화시키기 위한 정책적 시사점을 도출하는 데 그 목적이 있다. 본 연구에서는 실증분석을 통해 아세안 FDI 유입 결정요인을 분석하여 그 결과를 제시하였으며, 한국의 대아세안 FDI 활성화를 통한 상호 호혜적 경제성장동력 창출의 측면에서 우리 기업과 한국정부에 시사점을 제시하였다. 본 보고서는 향후 우리 정부의 통상정책과 아세안 지역의 경제협력 정책수립에 큰 기여를 할 수 있을 것으로 판단되며, 아울러 우리 기업의 투자 및 진출전략 수립에도 큰 키여를 할 수 있을 것으로 기대된다. Since the global economic crisis triggered in the United States in 2008, the East Asian economic region has received particular attention as it achieved relatively solid economic growth compared to developed countries, which struggled with recession. The discussion on economic cooperation and economic liberalization within East Asia has mainly focused on the RCEP, with this discussion being led by ASEAN as it calls for ASEAN centrality. ASEAN is currently the second-largest overseas investment destination and second-largest trading partner for South Korea, making it an important partner in economic cooperation for South Korea. Particularly, as China is openly implementing economic retaliatory measures against South Korea for the deployment of THAAD missiles in the nation, South Korea has become more interested in the ASEAN market as it strives to diversify its trade and investment portfolio. Under this background, this research examines the characteristics of ASEAN FDI by income level and doing business conditions, then conducts an empirical analysis of determination factors to draw policy implications for stronger economic cooperation with ASEAN. This report consists of five chapters in total. In Chapter 2 we examine FDI determination factors which have been discussed from a theoretical and empirical viewpoint in the field of international economics. In Chapter 3 we look into the current situation of ASEAN FDI and the characteristics of ASEAN FDI by income level, along with conditions for doing business in the region. In Chapter 4, we conduct an empirical analysis of the determination factors for ASEAN FDI inflow, utilizing a covariance structure analysis. Lastly, in Chapter 5, we suggest implications for the Korean government and enterprises to generate mutually beneficial economic growth momentum by promoting Korea's FDI to ASEAN.
    Keywords: ASEAN; FDI
    Date: 2017–06–30
  9. By: Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Hoang Anh Nguyen Trinh (CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi)
    Abstract: Vietnam plans to develop dozens of new coal-fired power generation units over the next 20 years. In order to reduce emissions, it may appear necessary to dispose of these plants' CO2 by burying it in deep underground geological formations instead of releasing it into the atmosphere, using Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology. We show that CCS has a technical potential in Vietnam. To discuss under which economics conditions this potential could actualize, we examine two scenarios for 2050. In the first scenario, CO2 is used in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) only. The second scenario considers CCS deployment in coal-based power plants, on top of using it for EOR. In both scenarios, a few gas-fired CCS power plants are build, reaching 1GW in 2030, supported by Enhanced Oil Recovery and international carbon finance. The decision point where the two scenarios diverge is in 2030. A scenario to switch all currently existing or planned power plants to low-carbon by 2050 is to retrofit 3.2 GW of coal-fired capacity and install 1.2 GW of gas-fired capacity with CCS every year, starting in 2035 for 15 years. Capture readiness would lower the costs of using CCS in Vietnam, but is not mandatory today.
    Keywords: scenarios, energy,vietnam, carbon capture and storage
    Date: 2017–11
  10. By: Gwendoline Promsopha (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to an emerging literature on the relationship between free exchange of land use rights and risk-coping motives in developing countries. We argue that in-depth empirical analysis of the nature of land arrangements is crucial to understand risk-coping motives in land tenure. Using mixed quantitative and qualitative data collected in Thailand, the paper proposes an innovative framework which looks at transfers of use rights in a continuum from pure market to free exchange. Land transfers are categorized along three dimensions: the nature of the relationship between the parties involved, the nature of the payment made, and how explicit the payment is in the contractual terms. The economic motivations in each of the consequent categories of land arrangement are then analyzed with a multinomial probit. Our main results suggest that while free loans of land are allegedly common practice in Thailand, only a small number of those transfers are really free. Most appear to be a `disguised form of rental contract' set by households who rely heavily on their risk-sharing network for risk-coping, and hold property rights vulnerable to family claims despite the presence of formal titles. Our preliminary results also confirm what the literature has previously shown: when confronted with local social norms and the economic rationales created by multimarket failures, a sound formal property rights system proves non- sufficient to establish de facto formal property rights.
    Keywords: Land tenure, risk coping
    Date: 2016–06–15
  11. By: Sudtasan, Tatcha; Mitomo, Hitoshi
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to investigate the most accurate S-curve model, the Logistic, Gompertz, and Bass models, in forecasting the diffusion of telecommunication markets Thailand. The analyses apply the data of mobile telecommunication market and fixed-broadband market separately without the interaction between both services. The originality of this study is at the diffusion path segmentation intervened by technological change that accelerates or decelerates each market. Parameters of each model are estimated by nonlinear model estimation methodology. By applying those parameters, the accuracy of each model can be identified compared to the actual data. Following the evaluation of the goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability, the Gompertz model shows the best performance in forecasting the diffusion of mobile telecommunication and fixed broadband markets. With the more suitable forecasting model to the markets, the ultimate total number of users in the future period could be more accurately predicted.
    Keywords: Broadband diffusion,Empirical comparison,Logistic model,Gompertz model,Bass model
    Date: 2017
  12. By: Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Llanto, Gilberto M.; Serafica, Ramonette B.; Vizmanos, Jana Flor V.; Bairan, Jose Carlos Alexis C.; Quimba, Francis Mark A.
    Abstract: Innovation involves implementing new or significantly improved goods and services, production processes, marketing, or organizational methods for adding value. The measurement of innovation provides a mechanism for benchmarking national performance, and for examining innovation and its relation to economic growth. Further, examining determinants and bottlenecks to innovation among firms provides inputs to mainstreaming of policies on innovation. This paper describes and discusses the results of the 2015 Survey of Innovation Activities, conducted by the Philippine Institute for Development Studies. Survey results suggest that less than half of the firms in the country are innovators, with larger-sized firms innovating more than micro, small, and medium establishments. Government needs to have a champion for developing stronger policies and interventions to support and encourage innovation. It is also important to improve information dissemination on public programs available to assist firms in innovating. Networking, linkages, and collaboration among the government, industry associations, and universities and research institutions also require further enhancement.
    Keywords: Philippines, micro, small, and medium enterprises, innovation, process innovation, product innovation, organizational innovation, marketing innovation, MSMEs
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Leurcharusmee, Supanika; Sirisrisakulchai, Jirakom; Suriya, Komsan; Keesookpun, Chutipong; Srinuan, Pratompong
    Abstract: Motivation, background and problem statement: Fixed and mobile broadband substitutability has recently been a debate in the telecom industry as the issue affects infrastructure investment decisions of service providers and service obligation regulation decision of telecom authorities. Previous studies have debated over both the definition of substitutability, measurement and the conclusions. Theoretically, substitution is the demand side concept measured using the cross-price elasticity. With a unique dataset, this study takes a simpler approach to examine the fixed-to-mobile substitution. Instead of examining the problem through the estimation of cross-price elasticity, this study estimates the impact of users’ mobile broadband subscription on their decision to terminate fixed broadband subscription. Data and methodology: The data used in this study are from the 2016 Telecom Consumption Survey of Thailand by the National Broadcasting and Telecommunications Commission of Thailand. This study estimates the fixed to mobile substitution using the concept of average treatment effect of mobile broadband usage on the fixed broadband termination. Without random assignment, the estimation of factors determining the fixed broadband termination decision, focusing on the mobile broadband subscription, faces the endogeneity problem. Therefore, we applied the endogenous switching Probit model to estimate the average treatment effect. Results and concluding remarks: From the survey, 1949 respondents subscribed to a fixed broadband service at home at one point. Among them, 85.48 percent remain subscribed to the service and 14.52 percent has canceled the service prior to 2016. The regression analysis shows that mobile broadband subscription has a positive significant effect on the decision to cancel fixed broadband service. The contribution of the study lies on the heterogeneity of the level of fixed to mobile substitution across different groups of internet users. For those who are online for less than 40 hours per day, mobile broadband is considered as a substitute for fixed broadband to a certain level. For those whose lifestyle requires a higher usage of internet, the results show no substitution. As telecom regulations normally target to help users with lower telecom accessibility rather than those with higher level of usage, the higher level of fixed and mobile substitution for individuals with low usage should imply the possibility to unify regulatory framework for fixed and mobile broadband markets.
    Keywords: Fixed to mobile substitution,fixed broadband termination,endogenous switching regression
    Date: 2017
  14. By: Wang, Chih-Chieh
    Abstract: Taiwan has embedded itself in the global markets and established strong economic relations with many countries, especially the neighbors in East Asia. However, working in a foreign country, as part of international economic exchange is still constrained by the regulations and/or socio-cultural barriers in respective countries. Nonetheless, it is argued that transnational labor markets, which are primarily constructed by private actors, are emerging in East Asia. Taking up Taiwan as a case, this study investigates how private actors - temporary help agencies - go ahead of the states and forge institutions that facilitate labor mobility across national borders in the absence of supra-national institutions, such as EU or ASEAN Economic Community, where freedom of movement has taken place or is expected to launch. Based on interviews with staffing agencies, union activists and government officials, it is found that staffing agencies serve as a transnational HR management function, as they develop international networks and provide their clients and workers with services such as visa application and employment arrangements that accommodate to business, employment and social welfare regulations in both sending and receiving countries. Moreover, staffing agencies translate and diffuse socio-cultural meanings between countries by engaging in socio-cultural training for workers as well as their clients to ensure the success of cross-border labor placements. This research contributes to the understanding of transnational labor mobility by studying the process of building transnational institutions and how these institutions make sense to the involved actors.
    Keywords: transnational labor markets,institution building,staffing agency,employment regulation,industrial relations,Taiwan,East Asia
    Date: 2017
  15. By: Yang, Yu; Song, Luona; Lv, Tingjie; Chen, Xia
    Abstract: The era of telecommunications 4.0 is a challenge to regulators and operators insofar as external environment, technology (such as SDN and NFV), and consumers’ requirements have changed. This paper’s main objective is to introduce and discuss several issues around the implementation of network separation as a regulatory remedy. The paper discusses network separation practice in several countries (including Sweden, the UK, Italy, Ireland, New Zealand, Australia and Singapore) and summarizes their advantages, disadvantages, process as well as effects. All findings are rendered in tabular form according to different separation modes which are accounting separation, functional separation, operational separation and ownership separation. Moreover, this paper discusses the main elements of a possible test for the adequacy of network separation. A sequential decision tree procedure with three questions is proposed: (1) Is there significant market power in China in the era of telecommunications 4.0? (2) Are there little vertical complementarities between services along the supply chain? (3) Is network separation a better regulatory tool than any other alternative remedy? By answering these three questions, the paper concludes that network separation is not suitable for China under the current situation.
    Keywords: telecommunications regulation,network separation,telecommunications 4.0
    Date: 2017
  16. By: John Rand
    Abstract: Using a 10-year panel survey covering Vietnamese manufacturing firms, we consistently obtain firm-specific mark-up estimates and relate these to firm-level formality. The average firmspecific mark-up using a trans-log revenue production function specification is estimated to be 1,445, with substantial underlying variation across firm size, location, sector, and ownership form. Zooming in on firm-level registration, we find a formality premium of 16 per cent, even when controlling for selection into formality. Moreover, a firm size threshold exists, confirming that smaller informal firms are less likely to reap eventual benefits of formalization. Finally, we find remarkable similarity between average self-reported and estimated mark-ups, but dynamic aspects of the two estimates along key firm dimensions differ substantially.
    Date: 2017
  17. By: Marcus, J. Scott; Petropoulos, Georgios; Jitsuzumi, Toshiya
    Abstract: What policy measures might contribute to greater use of e‐commerce within the Asia‐Pacific region, especially on a cross‐border basis? What are the potential benefits, versus the potential costs? How feasible might it be to implement such measures? Surveys of consumers and merchants suggest that the Asia Pacific region is subject to challenges similar to those in Europe, where cross‐border e‐commerce has been a major policy focus for the past few years. We attempt in this paper to make a preliminary assessment of the applicability of European approaches to the strengthening of e‐commerce in the Asia Pacific region.
    Date: 2017
  18. By: Sugaya, Minoru; Yonetani, Nami
    Date: 2017
  19. By: An Ha Truong (CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi); Hoang Anh Tran (CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi); Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi)
    Abstract: Đồng đốt sinh khối với than là công nghệ tận dụng sinh khối để phát điện với mức chi phí thấp hơn rất nhiều so với việc xây dựng nhà máy điện sinh khối. Đồng đốt giúp giảm bớt tác động của nhiệt điện than đến kinh tế, môi trường và xã hội. Việt Nam có tiềm năng phát triển công nghệ này do có tiềm năng lớn về sinh khối cũng như do Việt Nam sẽ tiếp tục phát triển các nhà máy nhiệt điện than trong vòng 2 thập kỷ tới theo như Quy hoạch điện mới nhất. Trong số các công nghệ đồng đốt, đồng đốt trực tiếp là công nghệ phù hợp nhất đối với điều kiện Việt Nam hiện nay. Mặc dù tỉ lệ đồng đốt thấp nhưng chi phí chuyển đối thấp nhất và có thể tận dụng hầu hết các loại sinh khối. Việt Nam có nguồn sinh khối dồi dào, đặc biệt là nguồn phụ phẩm, phế phẩm nông nghiệp. Đây là các nguồn sinh khối nên được cân nhắc sử dụng trước tiên cho đồng đốt. Viên nén sinh khối cũng là một lựa chọn tốt cho đồng đốt xét về các đặc tính kỹ thuật cũng như nguồn cung trong nước. Tuy nhiên giá cả của viên nén chưa thực sự cạnh tranh được với than cũng như với nguồn phụ phẩm phế phẩm nông nghiệp. Hiệu quả về mặt kinh tế của đồng đốt sinh khối với than sẽ cao hơn tại các nhà máy có các điều kiện như sau: sử dụng lò đốt than, tiếp cận được với nguồn cung sinh khối ổn định và có mức giá cạnh tranh, có giá than cao, có các điều kiện ưu tiên về thị trường cũng như cơ chế đối với sử dụng năng lượng tái tạo và giảm rác thải. Việt Nam nên bắt đầu thí điểm với các nhà máy nhiệt điện than nằm tại các vùng có trữ lượng sinh khối cao, thuận lợi cho việc thu gom và vận chuyển sinh khối, sử dụng than nhập khẩu có nguồn cung than không ổn định và giá than cao như Vĩnh Tân 2, Duyên Hải 1, Long Phước 1...; hoặc các nhà máy sắp hết thời gian khấu hao như Ninh Bình, Uông Bí hay Phả Lại 1 để tận dụng cơ sở hạ tầng sẵn có. Phân tích trường hợp đồng đốt 5% rơm với than tại nhà máy nhiệt điện Ninh Bình cho thấy đồng đốt đã mang lại hiệu quả kinh tế cho nhà máy trong điều kiện không có cơ chế chính sách hỗ trợ cho đồng đốt cũng như chưa có thị trường cacbon và doanh thu từ bán tro xỉ than. Mặt khác, lợi ích mà đồng đốt đem lại cho xã hội cũng như môi trường là rất đáng kể, đặc biệt là đối với người nông dân và sức khỏe cộng đồng. Các lợi ích này, nếu có cơ chế chia sẽ hợp lý sẽ có thể hỗ trợ cho nhà máy áp dụng đồng đốt đạt hiệu quả cao hơn về mặt kinh tế.
    Keywords: biomass, co-firing, coal, power generation, vietnam
    Date: 2016
  20. By: Candelaria Barrera, José Alberto
    Abstract: The aim of this research consists on determine the factors that explain costumer satisfaction in the Mexican household fixed Internet service industry. The impossibility to measure directly our variable of interest entails the use of a factor analysis methodology which examines latent variables indirectly by employing measurable variables that are believed to be indicators of customer satisfaction. Data gathering is based on an anonymous questionnaire survey of 1481 adults interviewed by telephone conducted by a private consultant by request of the Mexican Federal Institute of Telecommunications on February 2016. The survey includes eight questions that gauge respondent's perceptions about the quality of services offered by his internet service provider. Subsequently, those opinions are coded on Likert scale of scores 1-5. These ordered-category data require the use of Polychoric correlation in order to find patterns between the indicators that allows us to infer their relationship to our unknown latent costumer satisfaction variable. Futher, the data gathered includes demographic characteristics of individuals and detailed information of internet service providers' characteristics, such as internet connection speed. The factor analysis was conducted with varimax rotation to obtain variable loads onto one factor as high as possible. The findings suggest the prevalence of two main factors: the first one related with technical features of the internet service and the second one with the service features provided by the internet service company.
    Keywords: Factor analysis,Polychoric correlation,Customer satisfaction,Internet service industry
    Date: 2017
  21. By: Hsu, Wen-Tai (School of Economics, Singapore Management University); Lu, Yi (School of Economics and Management, Tsinghua University); Wu, Guiying Laura (Division of Economics, Nanyang Technological University)
    Abstract: This paper provides a quantitative analysis of gains from trade in a model with head-to-head competition using Chinese firm-level data from Economic Censuses in 1995 and 2004. We find a significant reduction in trade cost during this period, and total gains from such improved openness during this period is 9:4%. The gains are decomposed into a Ricardian component and two pro-competitive ones. The procompetitive effects account for 25:4% of the total gains. Moreover, the total gains from trade are 17 􀀀 27% larger than what would result from the formula provided by ACR (Arkolakis, Costinot, and Rodriguez-Clare 2012), which nests a class of important trade models, but without pro-competitive effects. We find that head-to-head competition is the key reason behind the larger gains, as trade flows do not reflect all of the effects via markups in an event of trade liberalization. One methodological advantage of this paper’s quantitative framework is that its application is not constrained by industrial or product classifications; thus it can be applied to countries of any size.
    Date: 2017–08–02
  22. By: Ning Mao (China-ASEAN International College Dhurakij Pundit University, Thailand.); Michael McAleer (Department of Quantitative Finance National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan and Econometric Institute Erasmus School of Economics Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands and Department of Quantitative Economics Complutense University of Madrid, Spain And Institute of Advanced Sciences Yokohama National University, Japan.); Shuyu Bai (Limian Material Technology Corporation, China.)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of psychological needs on luxury consumption. Veblen’s Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) invented the term “conspicuous consumption” to describe luxury goods and services, in which Veblen indicated the purpose of luxury consumption was to display wealth and social status. This paper integrates the following two papers: (1) Han and Zhou (2002), who proposed an integrative model, and argued that three variables, namely Country-of-Origin, Brand Name, and Price, were major predictors for overall product evaluation and purchase intentions; and (2) Han, Nunes and Dreze (2010), who proposed a taxonomy called The Luxury 4Ps, to explain the inductive and deductive psychological needs of luxury consumption.
    Keywords: Psychological needs; Luxury consumption; Consumer behavior.
    JEL: N35 Z12 Z13
    Date: 2017–07
  23. By: Hajer Kefi (DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, NUS - School of computing [Singapore] - NUS - National University of Singapore, CEDAG - Centre de droit des affaires et de gestion - UPD5 - Université Paris Descartes - Paris 5); Sitesh Indra (NUS - School of computing [Singapore] - NUS - National University of Singapore, LTCI - Laboratoire Traitement et Communication de l'Information - Télécom ParisTech - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IPAL - Image & Pervasive Access Lab - UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6 - NUS - National University of Singapore - MATHEMATIQUES, SCIENCES ET TECHNOLOGIES DE L'INFORMATION ET DE LA COMMUNICATION (UJF) - A*STAR - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Institute for Infocomm Research - I²R [Singapore]); Talel Abdessalem (IPAL - Image & Pervasive Access Lab - UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6 - NUS - National University of Singapore - MATHEMATIQUES, SCIENCES ET TECHNOLOGIES DE L'INFORMATION ET DE LA COMMUNICATION (UJF) - A*STAR - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Institute for Infocomm Research - I²R [Singapore], LTCI - Laboratoire Traitement et Communication de l'Information - Télécom ParisTech - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, NUS - School of computing [Singapore] - NUS - National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: We present in this paper a multicultural approach to social media marketing analytics, applied in two Facebook brand pages: French (individualistic culture, the country home of the brand) versus Saudi Arabian (collectivistic culture, one of its country hosts), which are published by an international beauty & cosmetics firm. Using social network analysis and content analysis, we identify the most popular posts and the most influential users within these two brand pages and highlight the different communities emerging from brand and users interactions. These communities seem to be culture oriented when they are constructed around socialization branded posts and product-line oriented when advertising branded posts are concerned.
    Keywords: Social Media marketing, Multicultural differences, Social Network analysis, Facebook.
    Date: 2016–06–27
  24. By: Piyanuch Chaipornkaew (College of Innovative Technology and Engineering Dhurakij Pundit UniversityBangkok, Thailand.); Takorn Prexawanprasut (College of Innovative Technology and Engineering Dhurakij Pundit University Bangkok, Thailand.); Chia-Lin Chang (Department of Applied Economics Department of FinanceNational Chung Hsing University Taichung, Taiwan.); Michael McAleer (Department of Quantitative Finance National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan and Econometric Institute Erasmus School of Economics Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands and Department of Quantitative Economics Complutense University of Madrid, Spain And Institute of Advanced Sciences Yokohama National University, Japan.)
    Abstract: One of the most powerful internet communication channels is email. As employees and their clients communicate primarily via email, much crucial business data is conveyed via email content. Where businesses are understandably concerned, they need a sophisticated workflow management system to manage their transactions. A workflow management system should also be able to classify any incoming emails into suitable categories. Previous research has implemented a system to categorize emails based on the words found in email messages. Two parameters affected the accuracy of the program, namely the number of words in a database compared with sample emails, and an acceptable percentage for classifying emails. As the volume of email has become larger and more sophisticated, this research classifies email messages into a larger number of categories and changes a parameter that affects the accuracy of the program. The first parameter, namely the number of words in a database compared with sample emails, remains unchanged, while the second parameter is changed from an acceptable percentage to the number of matching words. The empirical results suggest that the number of words in a database compared with sample emails is 11, and the number of matching words to categorize emails is 7. When these settings are applied to categorize 12,465 emails, the accuracy of this experiment is approximately 65.3%. The optimal number of words that yields high accuracy levels lies between 11 and 13, while the number of matching words lies between 6 and 8.
    Keywords: Email; business data; workflow management system; business transactions.
    JEL: J24 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2017–07

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