nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2017‒08‒27
twelve papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Exchange Market Pressure: Evidences from ASEAN Inflation Targeting Countries By Abdul Aziz, Muhammad; Widodo, Tri
  2. Macroprudential Policy and Financing Behaviour in Dual Banking System: Bank-Level Evidence from Indonesia By Zulkhibri, Muhamed; Sakti, Muhammad Rizky Prima
  3. Stunting Prevalence and Correlates Among Children in Indonesia By Amanda Beatty; Nick Ingwersen; William Leith; Clair Null
  4. The impact of academic service quality on student satisfaction By Manik, Ester; Sidharta, Iwan
  5. The environmental Kuznets curve in Indonesia: Exploring the potential of renewable energy By Sugiawan, Yogi; Managi, Shunsuke
  6. Breastfeeding Practices and Knowledge in Indonesia By Amanda Beatty; Nick Ingwersen; Clair Null
  7. Anemia Prevalence and Correlates Among Young Children and Pregnant Women in Indonesia By Amanda Beatty; Nick Ingwersen; William Leith; Clair Null
  8. Policies for Improved Food Security: - The Roles of Land Tenure Policies and Land Markets By Holden, Stein T,
  9. Medical Brain Drain and Life Expectancy: A Comparative Analysis between Arab, American and Asian Countries By Kouni, Mohamed
  10. Demographics will reverse three multi-decade global trends By Charles Goodhart; Manoj Pradhan
  11. Shadow Economies around the World: New Results for 158 Countries over 1991-2015 By Friedrich Schneider
  12. Competitiveness and Economic Integration in IDB Member Countries By Mohammed Ali, Khalifa

  1. By: Abdul Aziz, Muhammad; Widodo, Tri
    Abstract: Monetary model of Exchange Market Pressure (EMP) is one of the best-known measures to determine size of intervention, which is needed to attain any favored exchange rate target. This study intends to examine the relationship between EMP and its determinant in ASEAN inflation targeting countries during 2006Q1-2016Q4. Monetary model of Exchange Market Pressure is employed. The results show that all variables are corresponding with the theory implies, except change in real income for Indonesia and Thailand, and change in world prices for Philippines. Thus, additional pressure by financial crisis is only found in Indonesian rupiah and Thai baht exchange rates. This study also proves that independent variables, which are used, can attempt favorable prediction of the value of EMP, especially during financial crisis. In the context controlling EMP, this study finds that these countries prefer to hold their currency exchange rate level by managing domestic credit and interest rate.
    Keywords: Exchange Market Pressure, Exchange Rate, Intervention, Inflation Targeting, Financial Crisis
    JEL: F31 F33 F35
    Date: 2017–08–20
  2. By: Zulkhibri, Muhamed (The Islamic Research and Teaching Institute (IRTI)); Sakti, Muhammad Rizky Prima (Islamic Economic Forum for Indonesian Development (ISEFID), Indonesia.)
    Abstract: The loan-to-funding ratio based reserve-requirement (called as RR-LFR) is a macroprudential instrument used by Bank Indonesia to maintain the stability of Indonesian financial system by considering the bank liquidity condition. This paper examines the impact of RR-LFR on financing behaviour in Indonesian dual banking system. The paper uses generalized method of moment estimation (GMM) technique to address the endogeneity of explanatory variables and reduce the possible biases from residual correlation. Using a bank-level data for both Islamic and conventional banks covering the period 2001-2015, we analyze the reaction of bank financing behavior toward RR-LFR policy. The findings indicate that RRLFR is observed to be effective in curtailing financing behaviour of banking institutions. Further, we show that RR-LFR exerts more impacts in managing credit expansion of conventional banks as compared to Islamic banks.
    Keywords: Macroprudential; Dual Banking System; Financing Behaviour; Indonesia; GMM
    JEL: E59 E69 G29
    Date: 2017–03–01
  3. By: Amanda Beatty; Nick Ingwersen; William Leith; Clair Null
    Abstract: Mathematica Policy Research explores the prevalence of stunting and possible nutrition, sanitation, and health factors associated with growth faltering among children 0-35 months old in rural areas of Central Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, and South Sumatra in Indonesia.
    Keywords: stunting, health, nutrition, Indonesia, WASH, infant
    JEL: F Z I0 I1
  4. By: Manik, Ester; Sidharta, Iwan
    Abstract: Implementation of education through higher education is one indicator of high public awareness of the benefits of education. But to prepare high quality education is a major challenge in Indonesia. Many things need to be considered to improve the quality of education services for students. This study aims to measure the level of student satisfaction on academic services with SERVQUAL measuring tool. The research was conducted on computer science and management high school students in Bandung city by using explorative method. Data analysis techniques use structural equation modeling (SEM). The result of research shows that there is a significant influence of SERQUAL on student satisfaction. The results of this study indicate that by increasing SERQUAL, student satisfaction on academic services can be achieved.
    Keywords: Academic Service Quality, Student Satisfaction.
    JEL: M3
    Date: 2017–03
  5. By: Sugiawan, Yogi; Managi, Shunsuke
    Abstract: There is an increasing interest in investigating the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis because it suggests the existence of a turning point in the economy that will lead to a sustainable development path. Although many studies have focused on the EKC, only a few empirical studies have focused on analyzing the EKC with specific reference to Indonesia, and none of them have examined the potential of renewable energy sources within the EKC framework. This study attempts to estimate the EKC in the case of Indonesia for the period of 1971-2010 by considering the role of renewable energy in electricity production, using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration as the estimation method. We found an inverted U-shaped EKC relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions in the long run. The estimated turning point was found to be 7,729 USD per capita, which lies outside of our sample period. The beneficial impacts of renewable energy on CO2 emission reduction are observable both in the short run and in the long run. Our work has important implications both for policymakers and for the future development of renewable energy in Indonesia.
    Keywords: Renewable energy; environmental Kuznets curve; Cointegration
    JEL: O13 Q43 Q48
    Date: 2016–02–20
  6. By: Amanda Beatty; Nick Ingwersen; Clair Null
    Abstract: Mathematica Policy Research examines breastfeeding practices and knowledge in the first two years of life among caregivers of children 0-35 months old in rural areas of Central Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, and South Sumatra in Indonesia.
    Keywords: Breastfeeding, health, nutrition, Indonesia, stunting, infant
    JEL: F Z I0 I1
  7. By: Amanda Beatty; Nick Ingwersen; William Leith; Clair Null
    Abstract: Mathematica Policy Research uses household survey data from Indonesia to examine the prevalence of anemia among children 6-35 months old and pregnant women and identifies risk factors for anemia in those populations.
    Keywords: Anemia, health, nutrition, Indonesia, stunting, infant
    JEL: F Z I0 I1
  8. By: Holden, Stein T, (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: This chapter provides an overview of what we know about farm size distributions, the emerging land markets, the role of tenure systems, tenure reforms and land policies in shaping the distribution of increasingly scarce land resources. The primary focus is on Africa while making some comparisons with Asia. Climate risk and change have serious implications for household vulnerability and food security. While there is a need to absorb further population growth in rural areas, a rapid rise in rural-urban migration is inevitable. Careful land use planning and tenure reforms are needed to smooth the transition towards more intensive land use.
    Keywords: Small farms; food security; land tenure; land markets; land governance
    JEL: Q15
    Date: 2017–08–10
  9. By: Kouni, Mohamed
    Abstract: Purpose: In this paper we use the most recent database on medical brain drain (estimated by Bhargava, Docquier and Moullon in 2010) in order to analyze the consequences ofincreasing medical migration flowson human development, in particular on life expectancy in three developing country groups. Methodology: Our aim is to study the quantitative and qualitative effect of medical brain drain (MBD) on life expectancy in the Arab, Asian and American countries. Findings: The results showed that the MBD has an important and significant quantitative effect on life expectancy in Arab and Asian countries. Indeed, the elasticity of life expectancy with respect (1+MBD) is positive and significant at 1% level in all regressions for the two groups. Nevertheless, this relationship is not clear for central and Latin American countries where elasticity is not significant in two among three regressions. Moreover, the qualitative MBD effect is negative for all countries in the three groups. Recommendations: Therefore, there is a need for the majority of these countries to change both their labor and emigration policies. This can be achieved by a veritable incentive policy and by reinforcing networks between emigrant physicians and their origin society.
    Keywords: Brain Drain, Human Capital, Development
    JEL: F22 J24 O15
    Date: 2016
  10. By: Charles Goodhart; Manoj Pradhan
    Abstract: Between the 1980s and the 2000s, the largest ever positive labour supply shock occurred, resulting from demographic trends and from the inclusion of China and eastern Europe into the World Trade Organization. This led to a shift in manufacturing to Asia, especially China; a stagnation in real wages; a collapse in the power of private sector trade unions; increasing inequality within countries, but less inequality between countries; deflationary pressures; and falling interest rates. This shock is now reversing. As the world ages, real interest rates will rise, inflation and wage growth will pick up and inequality will fall. What is the biggest challenge to our thesis? The hardest prior trend to reverse will be that of low interest rates, which have resulted in a huge and persistent debt overhang, apart from some deleveraging in advanced economy banks. Future problems may now intensify as the demographic structure worsens, growth slows, and there is little stomach for major inflation. Are we in a trap where the debt overhang enforces continuing low interest rates, and those low interest rates encourage yet more debt finance? There is no silver bullet, but we recommend policy measures to switch from debt to equity finance.
    Keywords: demography, global labor supply, ageing, real interest rates, inequality
    JEL: J11 J18 E43 D63 E31 H63
    Date: 2017–08
  11. By: Friedrich Schneider
    Abstract: This paper is a first attempt to estimate the size and development of the shadow economy of 158 countries over the period 1991 up to 2015. Using the Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes (MIMIC) method we apply for the first time (i) the light intensity approach instead of GDP avoiding the problem that quite often GDP is used as a cause and indicator variable, (ii) the Predictive Mean Matching (PMM) method, and (iii) a variety of robustness tests. Results suggest that the average size of the shadow economy of these 158 countries over 1991-2015 is 32.5% of official GDP, which was 34.82% in 1991 and decreased to 30.66% in 2015. The lowest size of the shadow economy East Asian countries with 16.77% averaged over the period 1991- 2015, then follows OECD countries with 18.7% and the highest value have Latin American and sub-Saharan African countries with values above 35%.
    Keywords: Shadow economies of 158 countries, MIMIC estimations, the light intensity approach, tax burden, regulation, trade openness, corruption.
    JEL: C39 C51 C82 H11 H26
    Date: 2017–07
  12. By: Mohammed Ali, Khalifa (The Islamic Research and Teaching Institute (IRTI))
    Abstract: Recently the issue of the real exchange rate management has received renewed attention from prominent development economist in leading universities and development intuitions. Example of some of the recent work include Gala (2007), Eichengreen (2007), Prasad et al. (2006) and Rodrik (2009). The main theme of this recent research is the importance of managing the real exchange rate as growth facilitating factor. Research on this area has shown that both the level and the volatility of the real exchange rate have important impact on exports, investment and growth in developing countries. This study uses a new large data set for the real effective exchange rate for estimating real exchange rate over/under valuation for member countries. The study also discusses the implication of the results on member countries of the Islamic Development Bank Group
    Keywords: Risk Management Practices; Islamic banking; Nigeria; Malaysia
    JEL: G20 G21 G28
    Date: 2017–02–20

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