nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2017‒04‒23
thirty papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. 신기후체제하에서의 국제 탄소시장 활용방안 (Utilization of International Carbon Market under the Paris Agreement) By Moon , Jin-Young; Jung , Jione; Song , Jihei; Lee , Sung Hee
  2. An Assessment of the Potential Economic Impacts of RCEP on Vietnam Automobile Sector By Le, Minh Ngoc; Tu, Thuy Anh
  3. Analysis of "Dutch Disease Effects" on Asian Economies By Taguchi, Hiroyuki
  4. Trade impacts of the European Union - Vietnam Free Trade Agreement: The Sussex Framework Analysis By Ha, Le Thu
  5. Scaling Up Sanitation: Evidence from an RCT in Indonesia By Cameron, Lisa A.; Shah, Manisha
  6. Ethnic inequality and community activities in Indonesia By Christophe Muller
  7. Effects of gender, age, research experience and leading role on academic productivity of Vietnamese researchers in the social sciences and humanities: exploring a 2008- 2017 Scopus dataset By Quan-Hoang Vuong; Tung Manh Ho; Nancy K. Napier; Thu Trang Vuong; Hiep Hung Pham
  8. Distributional Impacts of Climate Change and Food Security in Southeast Asia By Srivatsan V. Raghavan; Jiang Ze; Jina Hur; Liu Jiandong; Nguyen Ngoc Son; Sun Yabin; Liong Shie-Yui
  9. Impact of Transport Costs on Vietnamese Textile Exports By Huong, Trinh Thi Thu
  10. Firm Risk and Performance: The Role of Corporate Governance in Dutch Lady Malaysia By Alyamutty, siti Nasirah
  11. Evaluation of the Financial Sustainability of the Agricultural Insurance Programs of the Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation By Virola, Romulo A.
  12. Decomposing Gender Equality along the Wage Distribution in Vietnam during the Period 2002–14 By Vu, Tien Manh; Yamada, Hiroyuki
  13. Horizontal inequality, status optimization, and interethnic marriage in a conflict-affected society By Omar Shahabudin McDoom
  14. Bond Yield Spillovers from Major Advanced Economies to Emerging Asia By Belke, Ansgar; Dubova, Irina; Volz, Ulrich
  15. Stratégies de financement des PME et des entrepreneurs du tourisme By OCDE
  16. Risk Aversion and Son Preference: Experimental Evidence from Chinese Twin Parents By Soo Hong Chew; Junjian Yi; Junsen Zhang; Songfa Zhong
  17. Inequality, ethnicity, and cross-group ties By Omar Shahabudin McDoom
  18. Firm Size Distribution, Production Efficiency, and Returns to Scale: A Stochastic Frontier Approach By Hien Thu Pham; Shino Takayama
  19. How Instant Payment Systems can change our world? By Robert Taczmann
  20. Etude des effets de la rénovation urbaine sur l’évolution du bâti et du peuplement dans les quartiers ciblés entre 2004 et 2013 By Nina Guyon
  21. Drivers of productivity in Vietnamese SMEs: The role of management standards and innovation By Elisa Calza; Micheline Goedhuys; Neda Trifkovic
  22. 아프리카 도시화 특성분석과 인프라 협력방안 (An Analysis of Urbanization in Africa and Its Implication for Korea's Cooperation in Infrastructure Development) By Park , Young Ho; Bang , Ho-Kyung; Cheong , Jae Wan; Kim , Yejin; Lee , Boyan
  23. 한ㆍ아세안 기업간 지역생산네트워크 구축전략 (Study on Strategies for Building Regional Production Networks in the ASEAN Region) By Kwak , Sungil; Cheong , Jae Wan; Kim , Jegook; Shin , Minlee; La , Meeryung
  24. The effects of the TPP in the Mexican economy: CGE assessment. By Gabriela Ortiz Valverde; María de la Concepción Latorre Muñoz
  25. Technology and Knowledge Transfers in Production Networks: Case Study on Philippine Food Manufacturing Firms By Rosellon, Maureen Ane D.; Del Prado, Fatima Lourdes E.
  26. Achieving Innovation Without Formal R&D: Philippine Case Study of Garment Firms By Rosellon, Maureen Ane D.; Del Prado, Fatima Lourdes E.
  27. Revisiting the “Missing Middle†: Productivity Analysis By Hien Thu Pham; Shino Takayama
  28. Fiscal decentralization and the shadow economy By Petr Janský; Miroslav Palanský
  29. Policy Review on Employment of Disabled Persons By Anna Marie Dela Cruz
  30. Competition for the Market: A Policy Framework for Improving Bus Operation along EDSA By Llanto, Gilberto M.; Gerochi, Hope A.

  1. By: Moon , Jin-Young (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Jung , Jione (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Song , Jihei (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Lee , Sung Hee (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy)
    Abstract: Korean Abstract: 본 연구는 신기후체제 출범에 대비하여 온실가스 감축목표 이행을 위한 국제 탄소시장 메커니즘 활용방안을 제시하였다. 시장 매커니즘에 관한 그간의 논의 경과를 정리하고, 특히 현재 운영 중인 국제사회의 탄소 상쇄 프로그램의 주요 내용과 특징을 검토하였다. 우리나라는 국가 감축목표 달성을 위해 국제 탄소시장 메커니즘 활용계획을 수립한바, 본 연구에서는 해외 감축사업을 위한 유망 분야 및 지역 선정 시 적용가능한 '탄소감축협력지수'를 개발하였다. 아울러 민간기업의 해외 감축사업 추진을 위한 제약요인을 분석하고, 향후 활성화 과제를 제시하였다. English Abstract: Adopted at the UNFCCC COP21, the Paris Agreement is recognized as the most significant international environmental agreement since the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992. Laying the foundation for the post-2020 climate regime, the Paris Agreement emphasizes GHG mitigation efforts by all parties, including developed and developing countries. Korea decided to cut the national greenhouse gas emission by 37% in 2030 compared to the business-as-usual emission estimate and included the statement in its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution. In achieving the target, Korea stated that 11.3%p of greenhouse gas reduction will be achieved through international carbon market mechanism while the remaining 25.7% will come from domestic source. Nevertheless, the international community is in the process of developing consensus around the details of trans-boundary carbon market mechanism that is environmentally sound and sustainable enough to be recognized under the Paris Agreement. In this regard, the study aims to present ways for Korea to properly respond to the issue by observing the progress in the climate discussions and analyzing major carbon programs. Particularly since the Korean government is considering the use of cross-border carbon offset programs, the study comprehensively reviews a number of international carbon offset programs and thus seeks to provide implication for Korea. The study considers key principles highlighted in the international community and develops a Mitigation Cooperation Index (MCI), applicable to identifying prospective regions and fields for carbon offset programs. The study also looked at constraints to private participation in implementing international carbon projects and suggests ideas to increase private participation. In order to identify potential carbon partner countries for Korea, the study devised a set of index, namely 'Mitigation Cooperation Index.' The study deemed the following elements as essential: GHG emission level and intent for international carbon transfer, economic ties with Korea, and national development potential. By sub-categorizing and indexing the above-mentioned elements (emission level index, economic exchange index, and national capacity index) and varying the weight among the elements, the study induced values between 0 and 1, with 0 being less prospective and 1 being more prospective. When placing most weight on emission environment, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and Vietnam were analyzed as the most potential partners. Nine out of thirty most potential partners were Asian countries. In terms of economic exchange, Vietnam, Indonesia, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Myanmar and several other Asian countries were included in the more prospective group. In regards to national development capacity, countries with higher income levels while classified as developing countries in the UNFCCC (i.e. Singapore, Israel, Chile, Qatar, etc.), were in the top tier. However, through a MCI analysis, we were able to conclude that it is most effective when national capacity support is provided along with cooperation in carbon reduction in a number of Asian countries. On the Korean side, while private companies are willing to participate in overseas reduction projects, many of them lack local network and capacity. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance private sector competitiveness through adequate institutional and policy design. In terms of finance, Korea must seek a linkage between ODA resources and international carbon reduction programs. Given the financial constraints of low-carbon projects, ODA resources can be linked to lowering entry barriers and inducing private capital inflows. Also, active participation in international carbon finance initiatives by multilateral banks and organizations should be considered. In conclusion, the study suggests the followings to facilitate Korea's participation in international GHG reduction. First, the government should set up and implement a mid- to long-term plan to assist the private sector participation in climate change mitigation. There is a need for a powerful inter-agency control tower beyond the current level to perform and coordinate relevant action plans established by each ministries. Secondly, active support from the government is needed to promote private participation in climate change projects overseas. For example, establishing a one-stop support organization for Korean companies to successfully launch business in overseas green industry sector, building a system for companies to transfer overseas carbon credits to domestic reduction, and supporting private sector competency and experience through domestic institution building. In addition, resource mobilization must be considered. In this respect, Korea may consider supporting GHG mitigation projects in connection with ODA, multilateral funds, and various other financial instruments. Particularly, enhanced efforts to access the Green Climate Fund is necessary. Access to the Fund can be highly potential through a well-devised project plan. Finally, efforts are needed for Korea to engage and collaborate in various international carbon partnership programs. Through participation in the discussions with major international organizations, donors and recipients, Korea will be able to access first-hand information and also cultivate climate capabilities while engaging in actual business. Engagement in such activities will also increase business opportunities and partnership with interested parties.
    Date: 2016–12–30
  2. By: Le, Minh Ngoc; Tu, Thuy Anh
    Abstract: SECO Working Paper 5/2017 by Thuy Anh Tu and Minh Ngoc Le
    Abstract: This research aims at examining impacts of ASEAN+6 trade agreements on the automobile industry in Vietnam. Vietnam's automobile industry competes with Thailand, Indonesia and the ASEAN countries as well as China, Korea, Japan and those covered by the ASEAN agreement. By 2018, the automobile import tariff from China, Korea and Japan will be reduced to 5%. In the context of multiple trade agreements, the study of the automobile industry has recently become an interesting topic, especially for policy debate.
    Date: 2017–03–15
  3. By: Taguchi, Hiroyuki
    Abstract: This chapter addresses the issue of the Dutch Disease in relationship with capital inflows through exporting natural resources, accepting foreign aids and emigrant remittances. The analysis focuses on Asian economies that are expected to sustain their growth, and adopts a vector auto-regression model with Granger causality and impulse response tests. The main finding are as follows. First, from the perspective of natural resource abundance in Asian economies, the Dutch Disease was identified for 1980-1995, but not for 1995-2014, probably because of their institutional improvements. Second, in the economies of Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Vietnam, their accepted foreign aids have not caused the Ditch Disease and have rather promoted their economic growth, due to their aid contributions to infrastructure development. Third, regarding the Ditch Disease effects of emigrant remittances, the disease was verified in Nepal but not in Bangladesh, due to their different demand structures and policy efforts.
    Keywords: Dutch Disease, Asian Economies, Capital Inflows, Natural Resources, Foreign Aids, Emigrant Remittances, and Vector Auto-regression (VAR)
    JEL: F21 F24 O53
    Date: 2016–12–30
  4. By: Ha, Le Thu
    Abstract: SECO Working Paper 3/2017 by Le Thu Ha
    Abstract: In February 2016, after more than three years of negotiation, the European Union and Vietnam officially announced the conclusion of negotiation and published the text of the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (EVFTA). This research focuses on the impacts of EVFTA on both economies. By using the Sussex Framework, the EVFTA is expected to have positive impacts on both economies, also exposing many opportunities and challenges to Vietnam as a developing country when trading with an economy giant of the EU. Based on the results of both quantitative and qualitative analysis, the research proposed some recommendations for Vietnamese government and enterprises to enhance the benefits of the FTA.
    Date: 2017–03–10
  5. By: Cameron, Lisa A. (Monash University); Shah, Manisha (University of California, Los Angeles)
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a widely used sanitation intervention, Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), using a randomized controlled trial. The intervention was implemented at scale across rural East Java in Indonesia. CLTS increases toilet construction, reduces roundworm infestations, and decreases community tolerance of open defecation. Financial constraints faced by poorer households limit their ability to improve sanitation. We also examine the program's scale up process which included local governments taking over implementation of CLTS from professional resource agencies. The results suggest that all of the sanitation and health benefits accrue from villages where resource agencies implemented the program, while local government implementation produced no discernible benefits.
    Keywords: impact evaluation, sanitation, scale up, development, health
    JEL: O12 I15
    Date: 2017–03
  6. By: Christophe Muller
    Abstract: For the first time in Indonesia, we jointly analyse several economic statistics and ethnic diversity indicators at national and local levels. Nationally, we find very high levels of economic inequality, measured from household asset values or consumption expenditure. In contrast, the levels of ethnic diversity, while non-negligible, are much lower, whether they reflect fractionalization, polarization, or ethnic inequality based on individual living standards. All ethnic inequality indicators surged after the Asian economic crisis. Ethnic inequality based on education is much lower and decreasing. In panel data models, individual participation in community activities is found to be much determined by local patterns of ethnic diversity. Different dimensions of ethnic diversity generate distinct effects. Ethnic polarization stimulates participation in strategic activities. Instead, ethnic fragmentation and ethnic inequality depress most local activities. Finally, we provide tentative explanations of local ethnic inequality in regressions that show a mixed pattern of socioeconomic influences.
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Quan-Hoang Vuong; Tung Manh Ho; Nancy K. Napier; Thu Trang Vuong; Hiep Hung Pham
    Abstract: Academic productivity has been studied by scholars all around the world for many years. However, in Vietnam, this topic has thus far been under-researched. This research therefore aims to better understand the correlations between gender, age, research experience, the leading role of corresponding authors and the total numbers of their publications, in the specific realm of social sciences. The study employs a Scopus dataset during 2008-2017, containing publication profiles of 410 Vietnamese researchers. Contrary to a range of previous studies, the results indicate that among accomplished social scientists, males have not been more productive or proficient than females with respect to academic publications (βmale = -0.179, p = 0.60). On the other hand, the proficient skills and broad vision of corresponding authors have proved to exert a rather strong influence on their sheer number of papers (ρ = 0.832). Older age and longer research time also contribute to more success in their academic careers (βage≥50 = 0.950, p
    Keywords: Social science publications; corresponding author; career age; age; gender
    JEL: I23 O38 P36
    Date: 2017–04–20
  8. By: Srivatsan V. Raghavan; Jiang Ze; Jina Hur; Liu Jiandong; Nguyen Ngoc Son; Sun Yabin; Liong Shie-Yui
    Abstract: Climate and agriculture are closely linked, as weather and climate are the primary factors in agricultural production. Due to high levels of CO2, future projections of climate change indicate increasing temperatures and varied rainfall, both which will have major impacts on the agricultural sector. In this context, this paper assesses food security with respect to climate changes over Southeast Asia, with a focus on southern Viet Nam. This multidisciplinary study integrates regional climate modelling, agricultural science-crop modelling and risk assessments, which form the base for the creation of regional/local information products that will have direct societal applications. This study is useful for assessing socio-economic risks and leads to opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration, which will bring direct benefits to the Southeast Asian/Association of Southeast Asian Nations region to develop adequate adaptive practices towards risk management, food security, diversification, and planning.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Floods, Droughts, Risk Management, Food Security, Policy
    JEL: Q18 Q54
    Date: 2017–03
  9. By: Huong, Trinh Thi Thu
    Abstract: SECO Working Paper 2/2017 by Trinh Thi Thu Huong
    Abstract: Transport cost is a critical component that structure price of goods at destination points in international trade. This research explored and analysed transport cost and its impact on export by investigating the relationship between transport cost and export of textile (a specific sector) in Vietnam (a developing country) from 2012 to 2014.
    Date: 2017–03–07
  10. By: Alyamutty, siti Nasirah
    Abstract: The objective of this paper to characterize some indicators of overall performance of Dutch Lady Malaysia with specific risk factors and macroeconomics factors (GDP, inflation rate) on return on assets (profitability). The information was collected from Dutch Lady Malaysia annual report for five consecutive year (2011-2015). A correlation model comprising dependent variable (ROA) and numerous independent variables was used to analyse performance of Dutch Lady Malaysia. This study empirical result indicated that liquidity ratio is the most significant meaning in performance of Dutch Lady Malaysia.
    Keywords: Specific Risk; Macroeconomics Factors; Return on Assets (ROA); Liquidity
    JEL: D00 D01 D02 D03 D04 D60 D63
    Date: 2017–04–17
  11. By: Virola, Romulo A.
    Abstract: The Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation (PCIC) started implementing the Agriculture Insurance Program (AIP) of the Philippines in 1981. Since then, the AIP has expanded its coverage from palay and corn to other crops and to other services including life and accidental death insurance to farmers and their families. As with most AIPs in other countries, the program provides premium subsidy that averaged 61 percent of gross premiums from 1981 to 2014 for palay and corn farmers. The paper finds that from 1987 to 2013, the penetration rate for the AIP has not been impressive: 4.5 percent for palay and 0.9 percent for corn; some regions have been underserved; and operating costs had been high with a historical average of 50 percent of premiums. Moreover, the AIP incurred an average loss ratio of 61 percent from 1981 to 2013 and the insurance coverage share of palay and corn farmers has shrunk over the years with the biggest share now going to Term Insurance Packages. While clear improvements have been incorporated in the program, such as the subsidized coverage of the Registry System for Basic Sectors in Agriculture beneficiaries and the streamlining of PCIC operations, the paper notes various areas of concern that need to be addressed toward improving the AIP: increasing penetration rate and expanding the coverage of marginalized farmers, rationalizing the subsidized coverage of even big-time farmers; extending coverage to underserved regions especially those prone to typhoons and flooding; introducing innovative insurance products that can reduce operating costs; reviewing the premium and premium subsidy structure including differentials across regions; irregular or unsustained actuarial inputs in assessing the actuarial solvency of the AIP; and the need for regulatory oversight on PCIC insurance operations.
    Keywords: Philippines, farmers, Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation, Agricultural Insurance Program, PCIC, premium rates, claims, loss ratio, penetration rate, insurance coverage
    Date: 2017
  12. By: Vu, Tien Manh; Yamada, Hiroyuki
    Abstract: In this paper, we decompose the gender wage gap along the wage distribution in Vietnam during the period 2002–14 and search for the presence of a glass ceiling/sticky floor in wages using the method proposed by Chernozhukov, Fernandez-Val, and Melly (2013). We focus on the formal sector and further divide the sample by educational level, age profile, occupational type, and industry. We find evidence for a total gender wage gap with the price of skills (the price gap) being the main contributor. There are also findings of increases and decreases in equality along the gender wage gap distribution and the formation of a sticky floorand a glass ceiling in 2014 in some of the data.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, inequality, wage distribution, Vietnam, J31, J71, J16, J21
    Date: 2017–03
  13. By: Omar Shahabudin McDoom
    Abstract: Although several theories of interethnic conflict emphasize ties across group boundaries as conducive to ethnic coexistence, little is known about how such ties are formed. Given their integrative potential, I examine the establishment of cross-ethnic marital ties in a deeply divided society and ask what drives individuals to defy powerful social norms and sanctions and to choose life-partners from across the divide. I theorize such choices as the outcome of a struggle between social forces and individual autonomy in society. I identify two channels through which social forces weaken and individual autonomy increases to allow ethnic group members to establish ties independently of group pressures: elite autonomy and status equalization. I find, first, that as an individual’s educational status increases, and second, as between-group inequality declines, individuals enjoy greater freedom in the choice of their social ties. However, I also find that in an ethnically ranked society this enhanced autonomy is exercised by members of high-ranked and low-ranked groups differently. Members from high-ranked groups become more likely to inmarry; low-ranked group members to outmarry. I suggest a status-optimization logic lies behind this divergent behaviour. Ethnic elites from high-ranked groups cannot improve their status through outmarriage and their coethnics, threatened by the rising status of the lower-ranked group, seek to maintain the distinctiveness of their status superiority through inmarriage. In contrast, as their own individual status or their group’s relative status improves, members of low-ranked groups take advantage of the opportunity to upmarry into the higher-ranked group. I establish these findings in the context of Mindanao, a conflict-affected society in the Philippines, using a combination of census micro-data on over two million marriages and in-depth interview data with inmarried and outmarried couples.
    Date: 2016
  14. By: Belke, Ansgar; Dubova, Irina; Volz, Ulrich
    Abstract: This paper explores the extent to which changes to long-term interest rates in major advanced economies have influenced long-term government bond yields in Emerging Asia. To gauge long-term interest spillover effects, the paper uses VAR variance decompositions with high frequency data. Our results reveal that sovereign bond yields in Emerging Asia responded significantly to changes to US and Eurozone bond yields, although the magnitudes were heterogeneous across countries. The size of spillovers varied over time. The pattern of these variations can partially be explained by the implementation of different unconventional monetary policy measures in advanced countries.
    Keywords: Long-term interest rates,bond yields,monetary policy spillovers,Emerging Asia
    JEL: E52 E58 F42
    Date: 2017
  15. By: OCDE
    Abstract: L’accès aux financements est un sujet essentiel pour encourager le développement des PME, l’entrepreneuriat et instaurer un secteur du tourisme compétitif, innovant et durable. Ce rapport examine donc les mécanismes permettant d’améliorer l’accès aux financements pour les PME et les entrepreneurs du tourisme à chaque étape du cycle de vie des entreprises, en s’attachant plus particulièrement aux micro- et petites entreprises. Il aborde aussi les questions clés et les considérations d’ordre politique qui favorisent l’amélioration des conditions d’accès, élargissent la palette des instruments financiers disponibles et encouragent le recours à d’autres dispositifs. Dans un certain nombre de pays, des études de cas en matière de financement soutiennent les discussions des politiques et fournissent des informations techniques. Ce rapport tient compte des points de vue des décideurs politiques, des organismes et institutions de financement et du secteur du tourisme, et a bénéficié d'importantes contributions de la part de 21 pays: Allemagne, Autriche, Canada, Chili, Croatie, Danemark, Égypte, Fédération de Russie, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Japon, Mexique, Norvège, Nouvelle-Zélande, Pays-Bas, Philippines, Portugal, Slovénie, Suède et Suisse.
    Date: 2017–04–22
  16. By: Soo Hong Chew (National University of Singapore); Junjian Yi (The University of Chicago); Junsen Zhang (Chinese University of Hong Kong); Songfa Zhong (National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: We study the role of risk aversion underlying son preference in patriarchal societies, where sons serve as better insurance for old-age support than daughters. The implications of an insurance motive on son preference are two-fold. First, prior to the birth of their children, more risk-averse parents have a stronger preference for sons than for daughters. Second, after the birth of their children, parents with sons are more risk seeking, compared to parents with daughters. We adopt a within-twin-pair fixed-effects estimator with a weak identification assumption, which enables us to jointly identify these two effects. We further conduct an incentivized choice experiment to assess parental risk attitude in a sample of Chinese twins with children, and follow up with a second twin sample to examine the replicability of the findings. In both samples, we find that parents with higher risk aversion before the birth of their children are more likely to have sons through sex selection than parents with lower risk aversion. Additionally, having sons significantly decreases parental risk aversion. These results contribute to the literature on the sources of son preference and help shed light on the nature of gender inequality.
    Keywords: risk aversion, son preference, twins, experimental economics
    JEL: C93 D10 D80 J13
    Date: 2017–04
  17. By: Omar Shahabudin McDoom
    Abstract: How do changes in socioeconomic inequality between ethnic groups affect interethnic ties in a divided society? I analyse the evolution of cross-ethnic marriages in a society affected by violence along ethnic boundaries and make three principal findings. First, as inequality between ethnic groups increases, the prospects of interethnic marriages decline. Status equalization between ethnic groups promotes cross-ethnic ties. Insofar as intermarriage indicates social cohesion, reducing ethnic inequality in multiethnic societies may facilitate ethnic integration. Second, the effect of ethnic inequality is not uniform across ethnic groups. Endogamy remains high among certain groups even when socio-economic disparities diminish. I suggest this is because the ethnic norms and sanctions proscribing outmarriage are particularly powerful within these groups. Third, the social and political salience of ethnic boundaries may be distinct. Intermarriages can increase even as civil war violence intensifies. Ethnic divisions risk being overstated by assuming political attitudes also drive choices in the social sphere. I establish these findings in the deeply-divided society of Mindanao in the southern Philippines by analysing over 6.2 million marriages and comparing individual-level census data for the years 2000 and 2010. Mindanao is home to a longstanding insurgency, waged by rebels drawn from the native Muslim Moro population resentful of their minoritization and dispossession by Christian settlers.
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2017–04–08
  18. By: Hien Thu Pham (School of Economics, The University of Queensland); Shino Takayama (School of Economics, The University of Queensland)
    Abstract: This paper empirically investigates the relationship between firm size, production efficiency, and returns to scale. Using a recently developed stochastic frontier approach and data from Vietnam, our analysis shows that across all of the sectors we consider, production efficiency is most variable among middle-sized firms, with these firms across all sectors tending to have the lowest production efficiency. While most firms across different sized groups show constant returns-to-scale technologies, our analysis using Spearman coefficients shows that there is a significant difference in technologies and this difference varies substantially across size groups in all sectors. Furthermore, we show that the least-efficient size also differs across sectors. Although our analysis is a snapshot of the Vietnamese manufacturing industry, the diverse production efficiencies in the middle-sized groups can be thought of as a risk that small-sized firms would face in expanding their business.
    Keywords: Firm size distribution, Missing middle, Productivity, Efficiency, Stochastic frontier.
    JEL: D21 D22 L25
    Date: 2017–04–19
  19. By: Robert Taczmann (University of Pecs)
    Abstract: Modernizing a national financial system is one of the most complex economical decisions as it has impacts on the whole national economy. Based on my research the fundamen-tals of this process span across the basic idea, market consultation, modeling and simula-tions, discovering technology barriers and regulations by law.The appearance of the basic need is the very first step of a long journey, typically lasts 5 to 10 years. Many countries ? like United Kingdom, United States of America, Switzerland, Poland, Sweden, Denmark, Singapore, Australia as well as the European Central Bank ? have already implemented an instant payment system, though each is different.As first step, a round-table discussion with market players is suggested to collect their ideas and expectations on the new system, however involving government and private sector might also be one of the key success factors. Based on the results, model making and simulation running comes next in order to set the field for the project, via determining payment limits; the way and conditions of clearing and settlement; working model; service hours; and provided services. Technology and resource barriers further helps in cleaning the possible project portfolio, however, a Central Bank is often contemplated as having no limits on these. In reality an instant payment system also needs its funds, basically coming from latter transaction fees charged to individuals spread over typically 10 years. Last but not least the field defined by the legal system has to be checked as many con-necting codes need a change. Even though this is a long and resource absorbing pro-cess most Central Banks acts as legislator, codifying the changes not taking longer than a year.However a new payment system is highly time consuming, the basic idea and the possi-ble solutions have to be challenged in each and every phase of the program. The uniqueness of the program makes it extremely difficult, scaling is a suggested method of avoiding an unsuccessful implementation.
    Keywords: Instant Payment Systems, Fast, Immediate, Secure, Secondary ID
    JEL: R11
  20. By: Nina Guyon (Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Alors que l’Etat s’apprête à investir 20 milliards d’euros dans le Nouveau Programme National de Renouvellement Urbain (NPNRU), le LIEPP publie son rapport sur les effets de son prédécesseur, le Programme National pour la Rénovation Urbaine (PNRU), mis en œuvre depuis 2004. Cette étude a été réalisée dans le cadre d’un partenariat de recherche entre le LIEPP Sciences Po - en la personne de Nina Guyon - et le Commissariat général à l’égalité des territoires (CGET). Elle repose sur l’exploitation des données CGDD-SOeS Filocom détenues par le Service de l’Observation et des Statistiques (SOeS) du ministère de l’écologie, du développement durable et de l’énergie. L’étude a reçu l’appui financier direct de la National University of Singapore (à hauteur de 85%) et du Commissariat Général à l’Egalité des Territoires (à hauteur de 15%).
    Date: 2016–12
  21. By: Elisa Calza; Micheline Goedhuys; Neda Trifkovic
    Abstract: Using a rich panel dataset of SMEs active in the manufacturing sector in Viet Nam, this paper investigates the drivers of firm productivity, focusing on the role played by international management standards certification. We develop and test the hypothesis that, controlling for technological innovation (product and process) and other variables related to technological capabilities, international standards are still conducive to higher productivity, through improved management practices associated with their adoption. In line with the requirement of continuous improvement implied by most international standards, the main findings show that the possession of an internationally recognized standard certificate leads to significant productivity premium. We further investigate the relationship between technological innovation and standard adoption. We find that the likelihood of certificate adoption is higher when firms implement technological innovations and that the effect of certification on productivity is particularly strong for firms with technological innovation.
    Date: 2017
  22. By: Park , Young Ho (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Bang , Ho-Kyung (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Cheong , Jae Wan (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Kim , Yejin (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Lee , Boyan (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy)
    Abstract: Korean Abstract: 아프리카 국가들은 지속가능한 도시개발을 국가발전 전략의 핵심으로 다루고 있는데, 도시개발정책, 물적·제도적 인프라 정비, 신도시 개발, 도시생산기반 구축 등을 주요 골자로 하고 있다. 주요 거점도시를 연결하는 범(汎) 아프리카 차원의 인프라 개발 프로젝트 추진 역시 탄력을 받고 있는데, 개발회랑 (development corridor) 구축과 이를 통한 역내 경제통합을 목표로 하고 있다. 이러한 아프리카의 도시화 현상은 우리에게 개발협력과 경제협력의 기회를 동시에 제공해주고 있다. 본 연구는 아프리카의 경제·사회적 발전패러다임 변화 중 하나인 도시화 문제를 다루는 것으로, 아프리카의 도시화 현상을 심층적으로 분석하고, 인프라 분야에서 한국의 협력방안을 모색하고자 하였다. English Abstract: Urbanization refers to a demographic change where the population residing in urban areas increases. Africa's urbanization is happening at an unprecedented speed as its urban population is expected to increase from its current level of 40% to over 50% by 2030. Generally speaking, urbanization leads to economic development through the agglomeration of factors of production, economies of scale, reduction of transaction costs and productivity advancement, attraction of domestic and foreign investment, and technology absorption. In fact, urbanization can be seen as the cradle of industrialization and economic development. The compressed and rapid growth of Asian countries such as Korea and China is in great part due to the development of urban areas. However, the cities of Africa seem to create "a new form of poverty" rather than acting as a driving force for development. Gleaser (2011) and others determine the favorable functions of urbanization based on the development theory of Arthur Lewis and Simon Kuznets, but also mention the vicious cycle of development due to "urbanization of poverty" or "geographical concentration of poverty." Africa is a case of the latter, where the lack of physical and institutional infrastructures is exacerbated by the population increase, thus leading to the deterioration of cities. Nevertheless, Africa's urbanization is gaining the spotlight as cities provide a geographical space that produces the most economic value and function as a powerhouse for economic growth. In fact, because cities create 80% of the global GDP it is difficult to find a country that has achieved attractive economic development without urbanization. Obviously urbanization itself does not necessarily mean industrialization or economic development but it certainly functions as an engine for economic growth and transformation. African states underline sustainable urban development in their national development strategies, which include urban development policies, physical and institutional infrastructure servicing, new town development, urban production base as the essentials. A Pan-African infrastructure project that connects important point cities to create a development corridor and encourage intra-economic integration is under progress.
    Date: 2016–12–30
  23. By: Kwak , Sungil (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Cheong , Jae Wan (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Kim , Jegook (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Shin , Minlee (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); La , Meeryung (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy)
    Abstract: Korean Abstract: 한국은 최근 직접투자를 통해 ASEAN과 상호 의존적인 경제관계를 확대하고 있으므로, 장기적 안목에서 어떻게 전략적 관계를 발전시켜나갈지 고민할 때다. 양자간 관계를 더욱 강화하기 위해 본 연구는 한국의 ASEAN 역내 지역생산네트워크 구축 전략과 방안을 제시한다. ASEAN 지역 생산네트워크 구축 경험을 분석하고, ASEAN에 진출한 한국기업과 현지 토착기업을 대상으로 설문 조사와 심층 인터뷰를 진행하여 현실감 있는 전략과 방안을 도출하였다. English Abstract: Recently, there has been growing interest in the use of production networks in the ASEAN region, which has emerged as a new production base and consumer market for Korea. If Korean firms establish regional production networks with intra-regional enterprises, they can improve production efficiency by heightening the possibility of local survival and international market competitiveness. Meanwhile, given the fact that Korea has gained a trade surplus of about $ 30 billion in 2015 from the ASEAN region, Korean firms should seek further cooperation with local ASEAN firms. If the new protectionism that has been spreading across the world contaminates ASEAN member states (AMS), AMS may complain about the trade imbalance. ASEAN member states have recently demonstrated their willingness to support the participation of SMEs in global production networks. If firms in AMS successfully participate in a global production network and upgrade their competitiveness, they can become competitors to Korean firms working in the ASEAN region. The utilization of local firms can be considered a countermeasure against the growth of ASEAN firms. Based on the above needs, it will be necessary to establish regional production networks (RPN) in the ASEAN region, as a new strategy for increasing both the sustainability and efficiency of Korean firms in ASEAN. In addition, this will lead to the expansion of exports. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to establish strategies for regional production networks in the ASEAN region.
    Date: 2016–12–30
  24. By: Gabriela Ortiz Valverde; María de la Concepción Latorre Muñoz
    Abstract: The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is an ambitious multilateral agreement. Only a few studies have comprehensively evaluated the effects of TPP in different regions or have compared it with other Free Trade Agreements (TTIP, RCEP) using a CGE methodology. The TPP was signed in October 2015. That is why previous studies were done in a framework of uncertainty about the final outcome of the negotiations. The goal of this paper is to offer an updated analysis based on the TPP that has been signed. We focus in Mexico because it plays an important role to consolidate the bridge, between North American region and the Pacific Alliance. By contrast, previous studies have mainly focused on Asian countries. In addition, given the relative increase of services in the trade, we will pay particular attention to the impact of lowering those specific barriers. We want to analyze the effects of reduction in non-tariffs barriers and evaluate its effects at the microeconomic and macroeconomic level. We use a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, which incorporates the complex analysis of reductions in NTBs. The estimates from NTBs are taken from the existing estimations of gravity-models, which provide Ad valorem tariff equivalents of the NTBs. We estimate an increase on production and trade flow across sectors, as well as in GDP, welfare and aggregate exports and imports. Because the TPP was signed in October 2015. This could be the right time to put into perspective the results of previous studies with ours.
    Keywords: México, General equilibrium modeling, Trade issues
    Date: 2016–07–04
  25. By: Rosellon, Maureen Ane D.; Del Prado, Fatima Lourdes E.
    Abstract: This paper investigates firm-to-firm technology and knowledge sharing in firms from the food manufacturing sector. Traditionally driven by secret recipes and family-grounded procedures, food processing firms are naturally unwilling and indisposed to embrace collaborative undertaking and develop external ties due to perceived risks of leakage of company specific assets. This paper attempts to document the practical experiences of two manufacturing firms and their views on sharing technology and knowledge to their partners in the production network.
    Keywords: Philippines, technology transfer, knowledge transfer, production networks, knowledge sharing, food manufacturing
    Date: 2017
  26. By: Rosellon, Maureen Ane D.; Del Prado, Fatima Lourdes E.
    Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that technological innovations that can come from research and development (R&D) are crucial to industry competitiveness and sustained economic growth. Although R&D remains to be the central focus of policymaking and research, not all firms can afford and do R&D activities. Non-R&D innovation, which is a common economic phenomenon, is often ignored in the policy research arena. Using three case studies, this paper attempts to address this gap. It describes how firms in low-technology sector adapt to fast-changing industry needs and respond to market demands, and generate products and services at a lower cost and within shorter cycle-times without the aid of a traditional R&D program. Findings indicate product or process upgrading even without the presence of a formal R&D unit is possible. To be able to carry out upgrading/innovation activities, it is necessary to hire the appropriate personnel that will undertake specific tasks in order to execute the product specifications required by the clients. Machinery/technology acquisition was also found to be indispensable, as it not only allows the firms to produce the required product but it also makes production cost efficient. Finally, the business strategy or decision of the owner/manager of the firm also plays an important role on the decision to innovate.
    Keywords: Philippines, innovation, non-R&D innovation, non-R&D activities, garments
    Date: 2017
  27. By: Hien Thu Pham (School of Economics, The University of Queensland); Shino Takayama (School of Economics, The University of Queensland)
    Abstract: This paper investigates empirically the relationship between firm size and production effi- ciency and inefficiency associated with the production scale. We study the possible sources of the missing middle phenomenon, which refers to the fact that most employment in developing countries is located in either small-sized or large-sized firms. Using Vietnamese data, we show that middle-sized firms’ production efficiencies tend to be lower than small-sized or large-sized firms in most of the manufacturing industries, that the least efficient firm tends to be middle-sized, and that efficiency scores are more diverse for middle-sized firms, which is arguably associated with the uncertainty that a small firm faces when increasing its size. Our work also indicates that the large-sized firms may be unable to fully utilize their inputs.
    Keywords: firm size distribution, missing middle, productivity, efficiency, data envelopment analysis, free disposal hull
    JEL: D21 D22 L25
    Date: 2017–04–17
  28. By: Petr Janský; Miroslav Palanský
    Abstract: In this paper we use the new Government Revenue Dataset to analyse fiscal decentralization. We find that developed countries are on average more decentralized than developing countries and that Asia, Europe and North America are among the most fiscally decentralized regions. In our econometric analysis, we examine the relationship between fiscal decentralization and the shadow economy. We hypothesize that decentralization can negatively or positively affect the size of the shadow economy, increasing or decreasing its size, and that this effect can vary according to a country’s level of development. We first replicate earlier results of cross-country analysis and proceed by estimating a fixed effects model, which provides evidence of a relatively robust and statistically significant relationship between tax revenue decentralization and the size of the shadow economy. We find that in developing countries a higher level of decentralization is associated with an increase in the size of the shadow economy, while in developed countries the opposite effect prevails.
    Date: 2016
  29. By: Anna Marie Dela Cruz (Policy Analyst and Development Consultant, Philippines)
    Abstract: Our attitude toward persons with disabilities has changed over time. From considering them as being inferior, disgrace, unfit and so much more, we have come a long way to acknowledging their contributions as productive members of the society. They were once considered as outcasts to a point where we reject them as members of the society. As we grow as human beings, we have learned to embrace diversity, we have come to accept the reality, and we keep on making ways in order to create an environment equal and accessible to all. Instead of removing, contesting or stigmatizing, we acknowledged the existence of persons with disabilities and the limitations of this group in terms of participation in all sectors of our society. Laws were created in order to preserve and maintain equality amongst members of the society. Special interests were given on issues concerning people with disabilities. In the context of human resource and management, a huge amount of progress can be observed in terms of employment of persons with disabilities. The goal of this paper is to examine the policy on human resource management in relations to persons with disabilities. The focus will be on the issues regarding the inadequacy of the policies constructed concerning persons with disabilities specifically the blinds and deaf-mutes. Despite the overwhelming laws on promotion of equality and accessibility on employment with regards to persons with disability, there is still an observable inequality within the workplace and an obvious disparity between the disabled persons and those that are not. There are noticeable problems within these laws passed by the government. The laws are theoretically good; however, certain aspects of the laws or policies are inadequate in achieving their goals. There is a need to review the policies regarding employment of persons with disabilities and to reassess the competence of the unit implementing the policies.
    Keywords: Persons with Disabilities, Laws, Policies, Human Resource, Blinds, Deaf-mutes, Equality, Accessibility, Employment, Inadequacy, Disparity
    JEL: J78 J21 L38
  30. By: Llanto, Gilberto M.; Gerochi, Hope A.
    Abstract: The EDSA bus market is fiercely competitive. In theory, allowing competition among many bus operators is expected to result in cost-effective and reliable transport services, and efficient use of roads. However, in reality, the outcomes are far different: daylong traffic jam and poor bus service along Metro Manila's most important road artery. This paper examined an option proposed by some quarters that consolidating bus operation along EDSA will solve road congestion. It was thought that having fewer but bigger bus operators will be the solution. Based on a review of country experiences, this paper argues that one way to address road congestion and other market failures in the bus markets is to shift the regulatory framework for bus transport services from the current competition "in the market" (the status quo) toward competition "for the market". Bus consolidation is an initial step to relieve the roads of traffic congestion, but it is not a sufficient condition for sustainable quality bus service. However, casting bus consolidation within a competition for the market regulatory framework presents a better and more workable option for improving bus transport services in EDSA. The alternative regulatory approach called "competition for the market framework" provides a stronger incentive for bus operators to consolidate because a competitive tendering mechanism is used to select an optimum number of formal bus transport operators that will serve the market. Government takes more control of critical aspects of bus services (design of the bus network, quality standards, frequency, among others), which, thus, provide an opportunity to address the market failures that are inherent in liberalized urban bus markets. The government via its pipeline of bus rapid-transit (BRT) projects--including one being prepared for EDSA--seems to lean in favor of this framework. To be effective and to encourage the application of this new framework also to non-BRT corridors, complementary reforms have to be implemented in parallel and these would include improving the capacity of regulatory agencies, institutions (rules of the game), procurement, contract monitoring, and traffic management.
    Keywords: Philippines, urban bus market, market failures, consolidation, competition-for-the-market, competitive tendering, bus-rapid-transit system (BRTS), competition-in-the market, bus transport, traffic management, bus regulation, urban transport
    Date: 2017

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