nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2017‒03‒26
nineteen papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. A Study on Intra-Household Gender Relations of Ethnic Minorities in Northern Vietnam By Doanh , Nguyen Khanh; Kien , Tran Nhuan; Do , Long Dinh; Hang , Bui Thi Minh; Huyen , Nguyen Thi Thanh
  2. Power Sector Vision Towards 100% Renewable Electricity by 2050 In Greater Mekong Region - Vietnam Report Part A By Jean-Philippe Denruyter; Thu Trang Nguyen; Thanh Binh Hoang; Lee Poston; Kelsey Hartman; Shoon So Oo; Aung Myint; David Allan; Pierre-Marc Blanchet; Richard De Ferranti; John Mcginley; Cam Nhung Pham; Khanh Nguy Thi; Decharut Sukkumnoed; Trine Glue Doan; Hoang Anh Nguyen Trinh; Minh Ha-Duong; Hai Long Nguyen; Hoai-Son Nguyen
  3. Biomass gasification in Southeast Asia: Factors influencing technology adoption in Cambodia By Hong Nam Nguyen; Hoai-Son Nguyen; Minh Ha-Duong; Laurent Van de Steene
  4. The Automotive Value Chain in Thailand By Ikuo Kuroiwa
  5. 미얀마 국가협력전략(Cps) 수립을 위한 개발협력방안 연구 (A Study on the Cooperation Strategy in Establishing the CPS with Myanmar) By Kang , In Soo; Jang , Jun Young; Thein , Daw Cho Cho
  6. Promoting Dynamic & Innovative Growth in Asia: The Cases of Special Economic Zones and Business Hubs By Jeong , Hyung-Gon; Zeng , Douglas Zhihua
  7. Synthesis Report on Socio-environmental Impacts of Coal and Coal-fired Power Plants in Vietnam By Minh Ha-Duong; An Truong; Hong Nam Nguyen; Hoang Anh Nguyen Trinh
  8. Formation of Automotive Manufacturing Clusters in Thailand By Ikuo Kuroiwa; Kriengkrai Techakanont
  9. 중국과 베트남의 금융개혁이 북한에 주는 시사점 (Financial Reform in China and Vietnam: Potential Lessons for DPRK) By Dollar, David
  10. Role of gender gap in economic growth: Analysis on developing countries versus OECD countries By Sanika Sulochani Ramanayake; Taniya Ghosh
  11. 중국 · 베트남 금융개혁이 북한에 주는 함의 (Implication of Financial Reforms in China and Vietnam for North Korea) By Lim , Ho Yeol; Kim , Young Chan; Bang , Ho-Kyung; Kim , Junyoung; Choi , Philip Pilsoo
  12. 2015 Trans-Pacific Intellectual Dialogue By Chung , Chul; Morrison , Charles E.; Thoma , Mark; Barfield , Claude E.; Bark , Taeho; Cheong , Inkyo; Cho , Yoonje; Greaney , Theresa M.; Karacaovali , Baybars; Kim , Inchul; Lee , Il Houng; Lee , Jang Yung; Noland , Marcus; Roberts , Michael J.; Shan , Xiaotong; Wan , Ming; Wang , Yijiang; Wang , Yong
  13. Reevaluating Agricultural Productivity Gaps with Longitudinal Microdata By Joan Hamory Hicks; Marieke Kleemans; Nicholas Y. Li; Edward Miguel
  14. The impact of rule of laws on the recovery of distressed PPP infrastructure Projects By Kokkaew, Nakhon; Oliveira Cruz, Carlos; Alexander, Derek
  15. What do we know about teachers’ selection and professional development in high-performing countries? By OECD
  16. Different Faces of Inequality across Asia: Decomposition of Income Gaps across Demographic Groups By Vladimir Hlasny
  17. Growing Without Changing: a Tale of Egypt's Weak Productivity Growth By Hanan Morsy; Antoine Levy; Clara Sanchez
  18. The Labour Productivity Gap between agricultural and non-agricultural sectors and Poverty in Asia By Katsushi S. Imai; Raghav Gaiha; Fabrizio Bresciani
  19. "Just Do Your Job": Obedience, Routine Tasks, and the Pattern of Specialization By Filipe R. Campante; Davin Chor

  1. By: Doanh , Nguyen Khanh (Thai Nguyen University of Economics and Business Administration); Kien , Tran Nhuan (Thai Nguyen University of Economics and Business Administration); Do , Long Dinh (Thai Nguyen University of Economics and Business Administration); Hang , Bui Thi Minh (Thai Nguyen University of Economics and Business Administration); Huyen , Nguyen Thi Thanh (Thai Nguyen University of Economics and Business Administration)
    Abstract: Vietnam is divided into three large regions: the northern region, the central region and the southern region. Within each of the three regions, there are subregions. The Northern region includes 2 subregions namely, Red River Delta and Northern Midlands and Mountain Area. The latter is defined as including 14 provinces: Ha Giang, Cao Bang, Bac Kan, Tuyen Quang, Lao Cai, Yen Bai, Thai Nguyen, Lang Son, Bac Giang, Phu Tho, Dien Bien, Lai Chau, Son La, and Hoa Binh with diversity in population. This Northern Midlands and Mountain Area or the Northern Mountainous Area of 14 provinces encompasses over 90,000 km2, accounting for almost one third of the country’s area and is home to approximately 11.7 million people, including 31 of the officially recognized 54 ethnic groups of Vietnam. Rocky mountains with high terrain and steepness are main characteristics of the region. As a result, the population density is just 122 people per km2, well below to the national average density of 274 people per km2. The region therefore is diverse in terms of ecology, area, population and cultures. Ethnic minorities are concentrated in upland and mountainous areas where access to infrastructure or health and educational facilities is limited and they are much poorer than other groups. They are among the poorest groups residing in Northern Vietnam. Being physically, economically, and culturally isolated from the rest of the nation, these groups are the most neglected and traditional, while benefit the least from the development process of Vietnam brought about by the reform program. Among them, women are the poorest and most disadvantaged. New changes and challenges brought about by the reform program of Vietnam in the late 1980s have put the women of these groups, who were originally disadvantaged and less productive, to a more disadvantaged position. Increased excessive workload as well as access to and control over resources are among the factors that reduce opportunities for building women's capacities and hinder their advancement. Before 1980s, gender inequality in Vietnam is often attributed to the Confucian traditional view on women's and men's role. Traditional women use the whole life to serve for their husband and sons. In the period of collectivization the traditional norms on gender relations were challenged both in ideology and in practice. Women were mobilized to contribute to the American war by stepping up production and running family affair, and to show their responsibility for national defense. In the period of 1980s and onward, the intra-household gender relations have been changed on the basis of the combination of traditional gender norms, residual of socialist ideology, and new socio-economic reform policies. The roles of social expectation on men's and women's "proper" sphere have been redefined and provide ideological ground to bargain a solution. Most ethnic minority groups operate under a patriarchal system, which does not give women the right to participate in the decision making process in their families and communities. Due to the influence of patriarchy, they have a strong boy-preference because of the requirement of husband's family after woman's marriage to take care of her parents-in-law until they pass away. In addition, the social security system for the elderly is still lacking in Vietnam Therefore, married women are required to have a son, and this fact leads to a number of issues such as abortions and an imbalance of sex ratio at birth. Vietnamese government has diversified policies focusing on ethnic minority development in rural and remote areas. These policies were concretized by many poverty reduction programs for specific targeted poor household groups and regions, such as Program Program 135 and Program 30a with the aim of improving the living conditions of ethnic minorities; Program 132 and Program 134 which targeted mainly at the Central Highlands to increase access to land and improve housing condition; the Hunger and Poverty Eradication Program; health insurance program for the poor. However, these programs aimed at a specific commune rather than ethnic minority people or households. For instance, Program which was first approved in 1998 directed to the poor communes and allocated financial resources for investing in local infrastructure, out of options including roads, schools, health centers, irrigation system, water supply systems, etc. The creation of such programs represented an attempt of Vietnamese government to narrow the distance of socio-economic development among rural and remote areas. However, it is revealed that the shortcomings of these programs soon became apparent: too few of interventions focused on health, too few of attention to gender inequality among ethnic people, a lack of community mobilization on poverty reduction (Adams, 2005). Vietnam has received donation from sources of assistance development. World Bank, Asia Development Bank, Japan, France, Germany are major donor. So far, Vietnam has been the 2nd or 3rd largest Korea’s ODA recipient in Asia. Korea's ODA has also played an important part in the considerable success of Vietnam's socio-economic development and poverty reduction. However, Korea’s ODA allocation has mainly focused on improving transportation infrastructure (51.9% of loan from EDCF), health, environment, water supply and sanitation. In comparison with the other major ODA donors in Vietnam, such as ADB, WB, and Japan, Korea has paid little attention on cross-cutting issues including gender relations in ethnic minority people. With the above arguments, this study investigated the impact of rural de-collectivization and economic integration on intra-household gender relations in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam for the period 1986 onward and the determinants of women’s decision making in household of ethnic minorities in Northern of Vietnam. It examined relatively unexplored questions on gender and development in comparative regional studies: How have intra-household gender norms and relations in the cultures of ethnic minority groups been redefined in the period of rural de-collectivization and economic integration? To what extent can change intra-household gender relations in ethnic minority groups influencing the development of their household economies and the Northern Uplands of Vietnam? To which extent can gender relations in ethnic minority groups be improved to be beneficial to the development of their household economies and the Northern Uplands of Vietnam? With a focus on gender relations within ethnic minorities, this study aims at strengthening the roles and positions of ethnic minorities, especially women, so that both women and men will invest their resources more effectively in the development of their household economies and the Northern Uplands of Vietnam. The results of this study would be useful to all participants of the study, including ethnic minority groups under study, local authorities, policy makers, and academic and research institutions. Findings and conclusions made from this study make it possible to provide strategies and lines of actions to the policy makers in order that the presence and future generations of ethnic minority people contribute more effectively to and benefit from the development cause of the Northern Uplands of Vietnam. In order to fufill the above objectives, a theoretical framework to measure factors affecting the intra-household gender relations in ethnic minority group in Northern Mountainous Area of Vietnam was developed. With the total sample of 480 households located in Thai Nguyen and Son La provinces, the respondents are women who all have husband and at least one child. Regarding the role of women in family decision making, our result shows that 49.2 percent of respondents made decision themselves on health care while only 7.1 percent on household purchases. In terms of making decision about daily household needs, 81.7 percent of respondents are women. The results show the importance of ethnic minority women in daily decision making, but their role on deciding considerable problems is neglected. The results also show an interesting point. That is the decision on visiting to family or relatives does not belong to woman but her husband. Husbands play a crucial role in deciding whom to visit in 87.5 percent of families. Child care decision is affected by the role of both husband and wife with 76.7 percent of respondents' consent. As for regression analysis, we include model summary and ANOVA and coefficient analysis to explore the important factors that affect women’s decision-making within household. By using the appropriate statistical package, it is found that women’s family decision making is affected by major factors, including women's years of schooling, income contribution to household, granted assets as getting marriage and male family member working far from home have a positively significant effect on the level of their decision making power at household level. The results of multiple regression analyses also indicate that husband's years of schooling, gender of household head, household current assets and husband granted asset are the major factors deterring women's autonomy in Northern households. With a focus on gender relations within ethnic minorities in Northern Vietnam, there are several policy implications for both local authorities as well as the policy makers from the results of this research: (i) In order to increase ethnic women's autonomy in decision making in Northern Vietnam, it is necessary to organize professional training courses for ethnic minority women. The finding of our results show that years of schooling of spouse affects to women's decision making. This implies that the higher education the woman is, the higher autonomy she is in decision making. Thus, as the local authority provide professional training courses, they will create favourable chance for ethinic minority women to increase their necessary skills as well as basic knowledge. Accordingly, more training programs should be provided to ethnic minority households in rural areas of Northern Vietnam. These programs should be focused in the main areas including health, education, agricultural development. In order to improve the quality of training, multi-year training programs should be implemented along with the expansion of long-term degree courses and short-term special vocational training. (ii) Besides, ethnic minority women should actively participate in projects and/or programs in order to increase their income. Local authorities may create favorable conditions for enterprises located in the Northern to offer employment opportunities toward ethnic minority women. The number of jobs available for women relative to those available for men in any economic sectors is considered to be an important role increasing women's decision making within households. (iii) Strengthening the cooperation between many organizations, individuals and societies to improve gender equality in remote areas, especially in areas where ethnic minorities live. Local authorities may cooperate with private organization to conduct conversations toward ethnic families about the introduction of a parental or paternity leave to show government support for men to play a larger role in child care and to support their spouses in pursuit of careers. They may work with youth to engage them on gender equality, rights of women, roles of men in childcare, healthcare and home management, as well as roles of women as leaders in the workplace and community. (iv) Diversifying resources mobilization from State, enterprises and social community to implement the plan, in which the local authorities will priotize the allocation of state budget for implementation of National targets on gender equality. Enhancing, inspecting and building the capacity for specialized inspectors in gender equality activities and the violation case law on gender equality.
    Keywords: Economic Cooperation; Economic Development; Vietnam
    Date: 2015–12–30
  2. By: Jean-Philippe Denruyter (WWF - Fonds mondial pour la nature); Thu Trang Nguyen (VSEA - Vietnam Sustainable Energy Alliance); Thanh Binh Hoang (VSEA - Vietnam Sustainable Energy Alliance); Lee Poston (VSEA - Vietnam Sustainable Energy Alliance); Kelsey Hartman (VSEA - Vietnam Sustainable Energy Alliance); Shoon So Oo (VSEA - Vietnam Sustainable Energy Alliance); Aung Myint (VSEA - Vietnam Sustainable Energy Alliance); David Allan (VSEA - Vietnam Sustainable Energy Alliance); Pierre-Marc Blanchet (VSEA - Vietnam Sustainable Energy Alliance); Richard De Ferranti (VSEA - Vietnam Sustainable Energy Alliance); John Mcginley (VSEA - Vietnam Sustainable Energy Alliance); Cam Nhung Pham (VSEA - Vietnam Sustainable Energy Alliance); Khanh Nguy Thi (VSEA - Vietnam Sustainable Energy Alliance); Decharut Sukkumnoed (VSEA - Vietnam Sustainable Energy Alliance); Trine Glue Doan (VSEA - Vietnam Sustainable Energy Alliance); Hoang Anh Nguyen Trinh (CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi); Minh Ha-Duong (CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi, CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Hai Long Nguyen (GreenID - Trung tâm Phát triển Sáng tạo Xanh, VSEA - Vietnam Sustainable Energy Alliance); Hoai-Son Nguyen (CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi, CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Although electricity from renewable resources, primarily from hydro energy, has been increasing in Vietnam in the last two decades, fossil fuel-based electricity still dominates the power generation system in the country. The share of power generation capacity from coal and gas was nearly 54% in 2015 . This share is expected to further increase in the coming years based on the official power development plan of Vietnam, despite Vietnamese fossil energy resources being scarce, with its oil and gas reserves likely to be depleted in the few decades to come . Hence, a necessary question is: could Vietnam be successful in achieving a low carbon power system and pursue a low carbon economy in the next few decades? Or will the country continue its dependence on fossil fuels? The Intelligent Energy Systems Pty Ltd (“IES”) and Mekong Economics (“MKE”) were commissioned by WWF – Greater Mekong Programme Office (“WWF-GMPO”) to undertake a project called “Power Sector Vision: Alternatives for power generation in the Greater Mekong Sub-region”. This was to develop scenarios for the power sector of countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) that are in line with WWF’s Global Energy Vision that outlines a 100% renewable energy supply by 2050. The objectives of WWF’s energy vision are: (i) contribute to reduction of global greenhouse emissions (reduction by >80% based on1990 levels by 2050); (ii) reduce dependency on unsustainable hydro and nuclear power; (iii) enhance energy access; (iv) take advantage of new technologies and solutions; (v) enhance power sector planning frameworks: multi-stakeholder participatory process; and (vi) develop enhancements for energy policy frameworks. The purpose of Power Sector Vision report is to provide detailed country-level descriptions of three scenarios for the power sector of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam (Viet Nam): • Business as Usual (BAU) power generation development path which is based on current power planning practices, current policy objectives. • Sustainable Energy Sector (SES) scenario, where measures are taken to maximally deploy renewable energy and energy efficiency measures to achieve a near-100% renewable energy power sector; and • Advanced Sustainable Energy Sector (ASES) scenario, which assumes a more rapid advancement and deployment of new and renewable technologies as compared to the SES. The scenarios were based on public data, independent assessments of resource potentials, information obtained from published reports and power system modelling of the GMS region for the period 2015 to 2050.
    Keywords: électricité, scénarios, Vietnam
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Hong Nam Nguyen (CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi); Hoai-Son Nguyen (NEU - National Economics University (Ha Noi, Vietnam), CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi); Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi); Laurent Van de Steene (USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi, CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement)
    Abstract: Electricity price in Cambodia is among the highest in the region due to limited fossil resources. The national grid provides electricity with cheapest tariff, from $0.11 to $0.27 per kWh, but only 25% of Cambodians are having access to it. Since 2003, scores of rice mills have installed rice husk gasification systems (RHGs) to produce electricity with a cost from $0.06 to $0.27 per kWh. RHG development is showing signs of slowing down while national grid is continuing to expand its supply area. The study was carried out to identify some factors influencing RHG adoption in Cambodian rice mills, based on data of rice mills (n=396) and report on power sector of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2015. Field trips to rice mills (n=8) and interviews with RHG stakeholders (n = 66) were also conducted. Results indicated that technical support for RHG and annual production of rice mills had positively influenced adoption of RHG. In contrarily, results showed an insignificant correlation between the presence of national grid and RHG adoption. This study will help planners, policy makers, researchers and farmers prioritize factors affecting RHG adoption decisions and hence provide insight on pathways to increase RHG adoption.
    Keywords: rice husk, national grid, gasification, Cambodia,biomass
    Date: 2016–12–24
  4. By: Ikuo Kuroiwa (Institute of Developing Economies Japan External Trade Organization(IDE-JETRO))
    Abstract: A country's participation in global value chains (GVCs) is increasingly becoming important as a strategy for economic development. However, participation in GVCs alone is not sufficient. Industrial deepening - or the formation of backward linkages by creating robust supplier bases - is necessary to sustain economic growth. This paper explores how the automotive value chain has evolved in Thailand since the 1990s. Trade in value-added analysis is applied to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's Inter-Country Input-Output data. Moreover, the concept of value chain mapping is introduced to illustrate upstream and downstream transactions of goods and services along the value chain. Results show that international linkages were strengthened because of the expanding production networks in Southeast Asia. On the other hand, domestic linkages and domestic content started to decline after a certain point. These results suggest that the benefits of specialisation and exchange have outweighed those of agglomeration in recent decades.
    Keywords: valu chain mapping, trade in value added, automotive value chain
    JEL: D57 F14 O53
    Date: 2017–03
  5. By: Kang , In Soo (Sookmyung Women's University); Jang , Jun Young (Hankuk University of Foreign Studies); Thein , Daw Cho Cho (Yangon University of Economics)
    Abstract: Korean Abstract: 2015년부터 미얀마가 제2기 중점협력국으로 새롭게 선정되었다. 미얀마를 중점협력국으로 선정한 배경에는 서방세계의 경제제재 완화 이후 미얀마의 개방이 빠르게 진행되고 있고, 지정학적 요충지라는 점 이외에도 풍부한 자원보유와 향후 발전 잠재력이 크다는 점 등이 반영되었을 것으로 판단된다. 본 연구에서는 신규 중점협력국으로 선정된 미얀마를 대상으로 국가협력전략(CPS) 수립 시 고려해야 할 대상국의 기초 환경과 개발 수요, 분야별 개발 현황을 조사·분석하고, 우리나라의 비교우위와 전략적 협력 방향을 연구하여 주요 협력분야에 대한 지원방안을 제시하고자 한다. 이를 위해 대상국 현황 및 개발전략·정책 문서, 개발지표 현황 관련 자료 등 관련 문헌을 광범위하게 조사하고, 수원국 정부 관련 부처 및 공여기관, 현지 사업 이행기관과 면담 조사를 실시하여 향후 협력전략 및 지원방안을 수립하기 위한 유용한 시사점을 도출하였다. 미얀마에 대한 개발협력전략은 기본적으로 한국 ODA의 차별화를 위한 원칙과 틀을 갖추고, 원조효과성과 관련된 국제원조규범에의 부합도를 제고하며, 한국 원조체제의 문제점을 해소하는 것이어야 한다. 이러한 점들을 반영하여 미얀마에 대한 CPS는 지역연구 및 기존 원조성과 분석, 지원 목표와 원칙, 지원 분야 및 이행수단, 포괄적 이슈, 성과관리 시스템 등을 핵심 구성요소로 하여 한국 ODA의 차별적인 특성과 국제원조규범을 반영하도록 작성되어야 한다. 한국의 경제개발 성공 경험을 단순히 경제성장률 제고의 의미로만 해석하지 말고 사회적 합의를 토대로 제도, 사회, 교육 등을 포함한 광의의 개념으로 이해해야 한다. (후략) English Abstract: 2015 Korean government selected Myanmar as a new Priority ODA Partner Country. As western countries has eased the economic sanctions, Myanmar has opened its economy and made important reforms, including FX system. In addition to its strategic geopolitical location, Myanmar has abundant resources and young population which are important factors for future development. Since Myanmar is newly selected, it is necessary to prepare Country Partnership Strategy(CPS). This study aims to provide the background information about Myanmar. As Myanmar is politically in the transition period, it is very important to understand the governance structure of Myanmar, including ODA implementing system. It is expected that National League for Democracy(NLD) will take over the political power next year. Economic liberalization is likely to be pursued more rapidly under NLD regime. Economic cooperation and investment from the western countries will increase, which will bring both more competition and more chance. Despite the political changes, the direction of economic policies is likely to be maintained. This research has reviewed the Myanmar's national economic development plans and economic indicators in order to figure out the 'needs' of Myanmar. Since the official documents occasionally do not reflect the true needs of Myanmar, the authors interviewed many local professionals, including Myanmar's related ministries, donor agencies and local implementing institution. Basically, Myanmar's Country Partnership Strategy should adhere to the rules and the framework that differentiates Korea’s ODA. The comparative advantage of Korea needs to be reflected. Also, the international norms, such as ownership,alignment, harmonization, mutual accountability, and managing for results should be considered. CPS should be compact and follow the guideline of International Development Cooperation Committee of Korea which emphasizes the priority areas of each CPS. Korea needs to take the role as a ladder builder in ODA. Myanmar also wants to benchmark Korea's economic development. However, successful experiences of Korea's economic development should not be interpreted in a narrow sense. It does not mean just economic growth, rather it contains institutional capacity, education, and social cohesion.
    Keywords: Economic Cooperation; Economic Development; Development Environment-Myanmar; Korea--Trade--Myanmar; Korea--Investment--Myanmar; Korea; Myanmar
    Date: 2015–12–30
  6. By: Jeong , Hyung-Gon (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Zeng , Douglas Zhihua (World Bank)
    Abstract: Around the world, there are 4,300 special economic zones throughout more than 130 countries: the zones in Asian countries have been quite successful, while on the other hand, those of Africa and some other countries have not performed well so far. In particular, some special economic zones and business hubs in Asian countries such as South Korea, China, Hong Kong and Singapore, as well as Dubai, have been quite successful in terms of innovative and dynamic economic growth. Not all of the zones in the countries were successful: some of those have been recognized as "white elephants." As successful cases receive more and more attention, there has been a steady increase in the need to learn the secret of success from these cases, in terms of policy implications. This paper was designed to fulfill these needs, and especially to be a fine policy guidebook for developing countries which will introduce special economic zones as a way to boost their economies in the near future.
    Keywords: Asia; Special Economic Zone (SEZ)
    Date: 2016–11–02
  7. By: Minh Ha-Duong (CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi, CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); An Truong (CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi); Hong Nam Nguyen (CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi); Hoang Anh Nguyen Trinh (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - USTH - University of sciences and technologies of hanoi)
    Abstract: This report shows the impacts of coal mining and coal-based electricity generation on the Vietnamese society and environment. Five impacts categories were examined: water, air and soil pollution, local people’s livelihood and health. We studied impacts now and extrapolated according to Vietnam’s current Power Development Plan –namely PDP VII revised– which prescribes to expand the coal-fired power capacity from about 10 GW today in 2015 to 55 GW by 2030. Results show that coal mining and coal-based electricity generation have high, unsustainable, local impacts. Our studies found that levels of dust in the air systematically exceeded the legal safe standards. So did the level of heavy metals and other toxic pollutants in the water we studied. We observed resettlement issues which were not solved appropriately, and local job creation promises which were not followed up in action. We assess that by 2030, Vietnam’s coal power plants would create 30 million tonnes of coal ash to be disposed. We estimate that the PDP VII entails importing at least 50 million tonnes of coal per year in 2030. This would compromise energy independence, creating national security risks. We argue further that a fivefold expansion of coal power generation capacity is incompatible with the humanity’s goal of stabilizing climate change below 2°C of global warming. In conclusion, we propose engineering and public policy recommendations towards the green growth strategy of Vietnam, which would better integrate the country in the world’s energy transition towards a low carbon society.
    Keywords: vietnam, impact, charbon
    Date: 2016–06–30
  8. By: Ikuo Kuroiwa (Institute of Developing Economies Japan External Trade Organization(IDE-JETRO)); Kriengkrai Techakanont (Thammasat University, Thailand)
    Abstract: The development of the local supplier base and the formation of industrial clusters are important for industries, especially the automotive industry. This study focuses on local supplier development and the formation of automotive clusters in Thailand. Using the Thailand Automotive Industry Directory 2014, the study investigates the type of parts produced by the respective suppliers, as well as the geographical distribution of suppliers in the automotive clusters. The study finds that the number of firms producing each type of parts is different, depending on the ownership structure. Also, the location of automotive establishments has changed over time, reflecting the changes in location advantages of the respective regions as well as government policy.
    Keywords: Automotive industry, industrial cluster, Location of firms
    JEL: L62 O53 R12
    Date: 2017–02
  9. By: Dollar, David (World Bank - Development Economics Group (DEC))
    Abstract: Korean Abstract: 중국과 베트남은 지난 25년 간 세계에서 가장 빠른 경제 성장세를 보였다. 양국 모두 소련을 모델로 계획경제체제를 운영하였으나, 결과가 실망스러움에 따라 과거로부터 벗어나 공산당 중앙위원회가 비준한 시장경제체제로 전환했다. 중국은 1978년 소집된 회의이후 “개혁개방”을 시작했고, 베트남은 몇 년 후인 1986년 “도이머이(쇄신)” 라는 슬로건을 가진 정책으로 개혁을 시작했다. 각 국가의 금융제도 개혁은 개혁 전반에 있어 중요한 요소이며, 어려운 동시에 리스크에 쉽게 노출되는 부분이다. 중국과 베트남의 금융개혁의 성과, 유사점, 차이점 등을 조사하여 다른 개발도상국 및 북한이 배울만한 점을 살펴보고자 한다. 북한은 중국과 베트남 개혁 초기단계와 유사한 양상을 띠고 있다. 만약 북한이 시장경제로의 개혁을 추구한다면, 중국과 베트남의 경우에서 배울 점들이 있을 것이다. 중국과 베트남은 금융제도의 전환, 즉 단일은행제도에서 실질경제에 도움이 되면서도 시장에 기반을 둔 시장지향제도로의 전환을 성공적으로 이룩했다고 평가된다. 이들의 경험에서 몇 가지 배울만한 교훈이 있다. 첫째, 이들은 수십 년에 걸쳐 개혁을 점진적으로 추구해왔다. 둘째, 개혁의 특성 중에는 국가 상황에 따라 결정된 것도 있다. 이러한 여건 하에서, 여러 결정을 함에 있어 어느 정도의 자유가 있었고, 중국과 베트남이 각기 다른 선택을 한 것이 흥미롭다. 중국과 베트남의 금융개혁에서 배울 수 있는 점은 두 나라의 서로 다른 선택과 그에 따른 결과를 비교하면 알 수 있다. 그렇다면 북한에 시사하는 바는 무엇일까? 상업은행 부문에서 중국과 베트남 모두 상업은행의 기능을 중앙은행에서 분리했으며, 다수의 국유상업은행을 설립했다. 개혁 과정에서 두 나라는 은행의 효율적 운영에 초점을 맞추었으며, 오늘날까지도 국가가 은행의 과반을 소유하도록 했다. 중국과 베트남 모두 국책은행을 설립해 특정 부문(농업, 인프라, 대외무역)에 정책금융을 할 수 있도록 했다. 양국 모두 은행 간 경쟁 및 소규모 신규진출을 허용했다. 두 국가 간에 차이가 나는 부분은 상업은행의 외국인투자였다. 베트남은 외국은행 설립에 더 개방적이었다. 외국은행의 진출은 은행부문의 건전한 경쟁과 안정을 가져다 준다. 중국은 2015년까지 외국은행의 중국 내 독립적 운영을 막았으며, 이들의 시장점유율도 1% 정도로 제한하고 있다. 중국은 외국은행의 독립적 운영은 원치 않았으나, 큰 규모의 국제은행을 소수의 전략적 파트너로 영입하는 이점은 누렸다. 부실채권을 대차대조표에서 제거하고, 은행의 자본을 재구성하여 전략적 파트너를 영입함으로써, 중국은 SOCB 역량을 개선할 수 있었으며, 홍콩에서의 성공적인 IPO 기반을 다질 수 있었다. 베트남은 외국은행을 전략적 파트너로 영입하지 않았기 때문에 국내 IPO가 성공적이지 못했다. (후략) English Abstract: China and Vietnam have been the two fastest growing economies in the world in the past 25 years. Each started out as a planned economy in the model of the Soviet Union, and each achieved disappointing economic results. In each country there was a clear break with the past and a shift to a more market-oriented economic system, ratified by a decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. In China the key meeting was held in 1978 and launched gaige kaifang (reform and opening up). In Vietnam reform was launched a number of years later at a Party meeting in 1986 under the banner of doi moi (renovation). In each country reform of the financial system was one important element of reform, an aspect that is difficult and prone to risks. It is useful to examine their record of financial reform, the similarities and differences, and to draw some lessons -- lessons that would be helpful for developing countries in general, and potentially for DPRK in particular. DPRK has some important similarities with China and Vietnam in the early stages of their reform. If DPRK were to pursue market-oriented reform, then the financial lessons of China and Vietnam could be quite relevant. China and Vietnam both have to be judged as successful in transforming their financial systems from mono-banking to a more market-oriented system that supports a real economy that is also largely market based. A couple of general lessons can be taken from their experience. They have pursued reform gradually, over a period of decades. Second, some of the characteristics of their reform were dictated by country conditions. That said, there were considerable degrees of freedom in various choices and it is interesting that the two countries often made different choices. Some of the potential lessons from financial reform in China and Vietnam come from comparing their different choices and results. So, what are some of the potential lessons for DPRK? In the area of commercial banking, both China and Vietnam separated commercial banking functions from the central bank and established several state-owned commercial banks. Much of their reform was then concentrated on making those banks operate efficiently, while remaining under state-majority ownership up until today. They both developed policy banks to take over the function of directing credit to particular sectors (agriculture, infrastructure, foreign trade). They both allowed a small amount of entry into and competition among banks. The interesting area of difference is how they treated foreign investment in commercial banking. Vietnam was more open to foreign banks setting up operation. This foreign entry provides healthy competition and stability to the sector. China up until 2015 has resisted foreign banks operating independently in China and has restricted them to about 1% of the market. While China did not want foreign banks operating independently, it did, however, see the benefit of bringing in big international banks as strategic, minority partners of the four SOCBs. By taking off the balance sheets the non-performing loans, recapitalizing the banks, and bringing in the strategic partners, China was able to improve the performance of the SOCBs and lay the foundation for successful IPOs in Hong Kong. Vietnam was not willing to bring in foreign banks as strategic partners and as a result its domestic IPOs have not been successful.
    Keywords: Economic Reform; Economy --North Korea; Financial Reform; Financial System; North Korea; China; Vietnam
    Date: 2015–12–30
  10. By: Sanika Sulochani Ramanayake (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); Taniya Ghosh (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research)
    Abstract: This study investigates the effects of the gender gap on economic growth by using a composite gender gap index from the World Economic Forum. The index captures the multidimensional aspect of the gender gap, which includes gaps in opportunities and outcomes. Previous studies on the effect of gender inequality on economic growth have focused on the unidirectional aspect of inequality, such as gender-wage inequality. The differential effect of the gender gap is established by comparing three different samples, namely, member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, developing countries, and a combination of South and Southeast Asian countries. According to panel data estimations, policies that promote equity boost the economic growth of developing countries, including those in South and Southeast Asia. The role of export growth in economic growth is also analyzed. Consistent with those in literature, current results indicate that export growth exerts a significant positive effect on the economic growth of all samples.
    Keywords: Gender gap, Export growth, Economic growth, OECD countries, Developing countries, South Asia and South East Asia
    JEL: D63 I24 F43
    Date: 2017–01
  11. By: Lim , Ho Yeol (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Kim , Young Chan (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Bang , Ho-Kyung (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Kim , Junyoung (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Choi , Philip Pilsoo (Sejong University)
    Abstract: Korean Abstract: 북한의 금융시스템은 중앙은행 중심의 일원적 은행제도(monobank system)에 기초하고 있다. 조선중앙은행은 재정활동과 더불어 중앙은행기능과 상업은행 기능까지 수행하고 있다. 이러한 기본 틀은 고난의 행군, 화폐개혁 등을 거치면서 국가통제력의 약화, 시장경제 영역의 확대와 함께 적지 않은 변화를 겪었다. 중앙은행의 자금공급기능은 약화되었으며, 그 틈새로 사금융이 자리를 잡고 있다. 특히, 2009년의 화폐개혁에 이은 물가와 환율 급등으로 북한 원화와 금융기관에 대한 신뢰가 추락하였으며, 달러라이제이션(dollarization) 현상이 심화되고 있다. 이처럼 북한에서는 민간부문의 저축이 금융기관을 통해 기업의 투자재원으로 공급되는 금융 본연의 기능이 작동하지 못하는 데다 핵 문제 등으로 국제금융시장 접근도 불가능하여 경제발전을 위한 내·외자 동원이 난관에 봉착해 있는 실정이다. 북한은 최근 들어 내자동원의 중요성을 인식하고 나름대로 예금 증대와 외화 흡수수단을 강구하고 있는 것으로 보인다. 또한 중앙은행법, 상업은행법 등을 제정하여 이원적 은행제도의 이행의지를 내비치기도 했다. 그러나 북한의 현 상황은 일부 금융 운용방식 변경이나 제도 개선만으로 해결될 수 없으며, 금융이 경제발전을 견인하기 위해서는 근본적인 개혁이 필요하다. 본고에서는 중국과 베트남의 금융개혁 경험을 분석함으로써 북한의 금융개혁에 주는 시사점을 모색하고자 하였다. 이를 위해 북한의 현 금융상황 파악과 함께 중국·베트남의 금융개혁 과정을 개혁이전부터 초기 제도정비기까지에 초점을 맞추어 구체적으로 살펴보았다. (후략) English Abstract: North Korea's financial system is based upon the mono-banking system centered around the Central Bank of the DPRK. The Central Bank of the DPRK serves diverse functions - aside from financial activities, it also acts simultaneously as a central bank and a commercial bank. Such framework, however, underwent considerable changes with events such as the Arduous March and the monetary reform in 2009, along with weakening of state control and increase in marketization. The Central Bank's function of providing capital has attenuated, with private finance filling the gap. Especially, the 2009 monetary reform triggered a spike in both the price level and exchange rates, sparking the disbelief towards the North Korean won and financial institutions as well as worsening the dollarization trend. North Korea is facing challenges in utilizing domestic and foreign capitals to foster economic growth. The financial sector which is supposed to channel private saving into investment through financial institutions is malfunctioning, and North Korea's nuclear issues makes it incapable of accessing the foreign finance market. North Korea seems to know the significance of domestic finance in stimulating the economy, and is seeking to foster savings and absorb foreign capitals. The Central Bank Act or the Commercial Banking Law also indicates the nation's willingness to move towards the two-tier banking system. However, North Korea's current situation cannot be resolved merely through a partial change in operational methods nor through institutional adjustments and therefore a fundamental change is necessary in order for the financial system to fulfill its role as a catalyst for economic progress. This research aims to use China and Vietnam's experience of financial reforms to draw out implications for North Korea's financial reform. Along with an analysis about current North Korea's situation, we focus on China and Vietnam's reform process, specifically from pre-reform to early institutional settlement phase. (the rest omitted)
    Keywords: Financial Policy; Economy; North Korea; Financial System; Bank Reform; North Korea; China; Vietnam
    Date: 2015–12–30
  12. By: Chung , Chul (Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Morrison , Charles E. (East-West Center); Thoma , Mark (University of Oregon - Department of Economics); Barfield , Claude E. (American Enterprise Institute (AEI)); Bark , Taeho (Seoul National University - Graduate School of International Studies); Cheong , Inkyo (Inha University); Cho , Yoonje (Sogang University - Institute of International and Area Studies); Greaney , Theresa M. (University of Hawaii - Department of Economics); Karacaovali , Baybars (University of Hawaii at Manoa - Department of Economics); Kim , Inchul (Sungkyunkwan University; Korea Trade-Investment Promotion Agency); Lee , Il Houng (Bank of Korea - Monetary Policy Department; Korea Institute for International Economic Policy); Lee , Jang Yung (Kim & Chang); Noland , Marcus (Peter G. Peterson Institute for International Economics; East-West Center); Roberts , Michael J. (North Carolina State University - Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics); Shan , Xiaotong (National Development and Reform Commission - International Cooperation Center); Wan , Ming (George Mason University - Schar School of Policy and Government); Wang , Yijiang (Cheung Kong Graduate School of Business); Wang , Yong (Peking University)
    Abstract: The conference was held on Dec 14-15, 2015 co-organized by the Korea Institute for International Economic Policy (KIEP) and East-West Center (EWC) in Honolulu. Participants from China, Japan, Korea and the United States discussed the economic future of the major North Pacific countries and the importance of economic cooperation among them. Major topics in each session were (1) Trade (2) Macroeconomic Perspectives and (3) Finance. The first topic, "Trade", related to the China'a trade strategy, China's Belt-Road Initiative, Korea's Eurasia Initiative, and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP). The second topic, "Macroeconomic Perspectives", aimed to tackle global or regional economic problems through the understanding of the macreconomic policies of the emerging market economies, uncertainty in the economic conditions of the United States, China's New Economic Norms, and the struggle of the East Asian International Order. The third topic, "Finance", aimed to provide an analytical perspective over currency convertibility, unconventional monetary policies, and prospect of cooperation between Belt-Road Initiative and TPP in the global economic governance. The conference concluded with the major findings and policy implications from the earlier sessions, particularily, monetary policy response in emerging economies and the importance of strengthing the North Pacific cooperation were discussed.
    Keywords: TPP; Monetary Policy; North Pacific Cooperation
    Date: 2016–12–30
  13. By: Joan Hamory Hicks; Marieke Kleemans; Nicholas Y. Li; Edward Miguel
    Abstract: Recent research has pointed to large gaps in labor productivity between the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors in low-income countries, as well as between workers in rural and urban areas. Most estimates are based on national accounts or repeated cross-sections of micro-survey data, and as a result typically struggle to account for individual selection between sectors. This paper contributes to this literature using long-run individual-level panel data from two low-income countries (Indonesia and Kenya). Accounting for individual fixed effects leads to much smaller estimated productivity gains from moving into the non-agricultural sector (or urban areas), reducing estimated gaps by over 80 percent. Per capita consumption gaps between non-agricultural and agricultural sectors, as well as between urban and rural areas, are also close to zero once individual fixed effects are included. Estimated productivity gaps do not emerge up to five years after a move between sectors, nor are they larger in big cities. We evaluate whether these findings imply a re-assessment of the current conventional wisdom regarding sectoral gaps, discuss how to reconcile them with existing cross-sectional estimates, and consider implications for the desirability of sectoral reallocation of labor.
    JEL: J43 O13 O15 R23
    Date: 2017–03
  14. By: Kokkaew, Nakhon; Oliveira Cruz, Carlos; Alexander, Derek
    Abstract: As Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) around the world gain in popularity as a way to finance needed infrastructure, careful study prior to implementing PPP infrastructure projects becomes more important to avoid distress and cancellation in later stages. Unlike traditional infrastructure projects delivered using public finance, PPP projects usually have complex capital structures and multi-party operational control. These parties typically have differing, even diverging goals, which may conflict when faced with operating difficulty. The sponsors of those distressed PPP projects must then renegotiate their contracts with the host government and lenders if the project is to continue operating. This renegotiation occurs in the shadow of local law concerning security interests, contract rights, insolvency and bankruptcy, as parties calibrate their positions to potential downside outcomes. This paper examines the impact of such laws on the distressed PPP infrastructure projects in Thailand. The paper focuses the study on two main contracts commonly found in PPP projects: one between the sponsors and the host government, and the other between the sponsors and the secured lenders.
    Keywords: KEYWORDS: distressed PPP projects, PPP laws and regulations.
    JEL: G38 H54 P16
    Date: 2015–06–01
  15. By: OECD
    Abstract: High-performing countries use various mechanisms to select the best candidates to the teaching profession. In Finland, Hong-Kong (China), Macao (China) and Chinese Taipei, students who wish to enter teacher-training programmes must pass a competitive entry examination. In Japan, teaching graduates must pass a competitive examination to start teaching and in Singapore, they must complete a probation period. These requirements, however, are also found among some low-performing countries suggesting that early selection, while important, is not enough to ensure a highly qualified teaching force. Across OECD countries, the proportion of fully certified teachers has a positive, albeit modest association with student performance in PISA. In countries that performed above the OECD average in science, at least 80% of the students are in schools that invite specialists to conduct teacher training or organise in-service workshops for teachers or where teachers cooperate with each other. This is higher, on average, than what is observed among other countries.
    Date: 2017–03–21
  16. By: Vladimir Hlasny
    Abstract: Economic inequality across Asia has been growing, but dimensions of this inequality and their development are unclear. This paper evaluates income inequality using household surveys from China, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and Taiwan. These countries may be viewed as jointly representative of Asia’s population, covering countries with various income levels, inequality and demographic profiles. This study assesses income gaps between various demographic groups in regard to households’ residence, administrative region, education, employment status and gender at various income quantiles, using unconditional quantile regressions. Gaps are decomposed into parts due to differentials in household endowments and due to differentials in returns to endowments. Rural/urban income gaps are evident across all evaluated countries, particularly in China, India and Russia, but have been falling in Russia and Taiwan. Inequality between disadvantaged and advantaged regions is high in China and India, followed by Taiwan. This gap stagnated in Taiwan and further deepened in Russia.
    Keywords: Economic inequality; unconditional quantile regression; Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition; Asia; Luxembourg Income Study.
    JEL: D31 D63 N35
    Date: 2017–03
  17. By: Hanan Morsy (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development); Antoine Levy; Clara Sanchez
    Abstract: This paper aims to identify the reasons why economic growth in Egypt, although comparable to its peers, failed to significantly reduce unemployment, lower poverty levels or raise overall productivity. We use cross-country comparisons, counterfactual scenarios and regression analysis to demonstrate that Egypt, even during the high growth period of 2000-2010, did not experience a reallocation of excess labor towards modern, productive sectors similar to that which occurred in other emerging markets, notably in South East Asia. The results show that, while there is large potential for productivity gains in the Egyptian economy, a limited openness to trade, a low diversification of exports and deficient access to finance prevented the country from witnessing structural shift of its labor force towards manufacturing and private services, locking Egypt instead within a “low value trap.” The paper then suggests some policy implications of these findings, relating to overcoming the main impediments to preventing an efficient sectoral reallocation of workers.
    Date: 2015–09
  18. By: Katsushi S. Imai (Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration (RIEB), Kobe University, Japan and School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester, UK); Raghav Gaiha (Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University Boston, USA); Fabrizio Bresciani (Asia and the Pacific Division of International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Italy)
    Abstract: This paper has first examined whether the labour productivities in agricultural and non-agricultural sectors have converged or not using both annual and five-year average panel datasets. We have found evidence that non-agricultural labour productivity and agricultural labour productivity did not converge as the former has grown faster and the gap has increased significantly over time. We have then found that (i) agricultural labour productivity has converged across countries; (ii) non-agricultural labour productivity has converged across countries; and (iii) the convergence effect is stronger for the non-agricultural sector. We have also found some evidence that agricultural labour productivity growth promoted non-agricultural productivity growth with some lag. That is, despite the lower growth in agricultural labour productivity, the agricultural sector played an important role in promoting non-agricultural labour productivity and thus in non-agricultural growth. Finally, we have examined whether the labour productivity gap between the agricultural and the non-agricultural sectors reduced poverty, inequality and the share of the sectoral population over time. While the result varies depending on the specification, we have found some evidence that the labour productivity gap reduces both urban and rural poverty over time as well as the national inequality. The gap also is found to increase the share of the urban population.
    Date: 2017–03
  19. By: Filipe R. Campante; Davin Chor (National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: We study the interplay between cultural attitudes and the economic environment, focusing on attitudes towards obedience in the workplace. We establish two key stylized facts: First, at the country level, an upward shift in workplace obedience over time is associated with more exporting in industries that feature a high routine task content ('Specialization Fact'). Second, at the individual level, the degree of \export-routineness" in the economic environment that respondents were exposed to in their formative years -but not in their adult years -shapes the pro-obedience attitudes that they carry with them into the workforce ('Obedience Fact'). Together, these two facts show that cultural attitudes on workplace obedience respond systematically to economic incentives, and that such a culture in turn shapes the subsequent pattern of industry specialization. We develop an overlapping generations model of human capital investment and cultural transmission, to understand how this aspect of culture and specialization patterns in the economy are jointly determined in the long run. In particular, the model demonstrates the possibility of an "obedience trap": countries may specialize in routine sectors (e.g., basic manufacturing) that foster a culture of obedience, at the expense of the development of more nonroutine and potentially more productive activities.
    Keywords: Culture, Workplace Obedience, Routine Tasks, Education, Human capital, Specialization Patterns, Exports
    Date: 2017–03

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