nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2017‒02‒19
23 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Mapping discourses using Q methodology in Matang Mangrove Forest, Malaysia By Jean Huge; Katherine Vande Velde; Francisco Javier Benitez Capistros; Jan Harold J.H. Japay; Behara Satyanarayana; Mohammad M. Nazrin Ishak; Melissa Quispe M.Q. Zuniga; Bin Husain B.H. Mohd Lokman; Sulong S. Ibrahim; Nico Koedam; Farid Dahdouh-Guebas
  2. Perspectives on the role of the state in economic development: Taking stock of the “Developmental State†after 35 years: By Kyle, Jordan
  3. Effects of Monetary Policy Shocks on Exchange Rate in Emerging Countries By Soyoung Kim; Kuntae Lim
  4. Determinants of rural-urban inequality in Vietnam: Detailed decomposition analyses based on unconditional quantile regressions By Thanh Bui; Katsushi S. Imai
  5. A New Approach to the Estimation of Equilibrium Real Exchange Rates among East-Asian Economies By Kelvin Ho; Eric Wong; Edward Tan
  6. Beware of the "End Contractualization!" Battle Cry By Paqueo, Vicente B.; Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.
  7. Risk-type and preference-based selection and stability of funeral insurance associations in Thailand By Zenker, Juliane; Herrmann, Tabea
  8. Volunteerism after the tsunami: the effects of democratization By Tiago Freire; J. Vernon Henderson; Ari Kuncoro
  9. The Recent Growth Boom in Developing Economies: A Structural Change Perspective By Xinshen Diao; Margaret McMillan; Dani Rodrik
  10. Nepal’s 2072 federal constitution: Implications for the governance of the agricultural sector: By Kyle, Jordan; Resnick, Danielle
  11. Abstracts of EFForTS Discussion Papers No. 1-19 in English and Bahasa Indonesia (2013 - 2016) By Alamsyah, Zulkifli (Ed.); Faust, Heiko (Ed.)
  12. Short Maturity Asian Options for the CEV Model By Dan Pirjol; Lingjiong Zhu
  13. The Condition of Market Emergence in Indonesia: Coloniality as Exclusion and Translation in Sites of Extraction By Lisa Tilley
  14. The Diffusion and Dynamics of Producer Prices, Deflationary Pressure across Asian Countries, and the Role of China By Hongyi Chen; Michael Funke; Andrew Tsang
  15. Integrated Multi-Attribute Value and Analytic Hierarchy Process Model of Sustainable Energy Development in Central Europe and East Asia By Janda, Karel; Tan, Tianhao
  16. Risk Aversion and Son Preference: Experimental Evidence from Chinese Twin Parents By Chew, Soo Hong; Yi, Junjian; Zhang, Junsen; Zhong, Songfa
  17. Overview of Sustainable Energy in Central Europe and East Asia By Janda, Karel; Tan, Tianhao
  18. Exchange Rate Dynamics and US Dollar-denominated Sovereign Bond Prices in Emerging Markets By Cho-Hoi Hui; Chi-Fai Lo; Po-Hon Chau
  19. Oil and stock markets before and after financial crises : a local Gaussian correlation approach By Georgios Bampinas; Theodore Panagiotidis
  20. Household Portfolio Choice, Reference Dependence, and the Marriage Market By Li, Wenchao; Song, Changcheng; Xu, Shu; Yi, Junjian
  21. Effectiveness of Quality Management System (QMS) on Construction Projects By Neyestani, Behnam
  22. A comprehensive evaluation of the EU's biofuel policy: From biofuels to agrofuels By Murnaghan, Kitty
  23. Analysis of the land use sector in INDCs of relevant Non-Annex I parties By Hargita, Yvonne; Rüter, Sebastian

  1. By: Jean Huge; Katherine Vande Velde; Francisco Javier Benitez Capistros; Jan Harold J.H. Japay; Behara Satyanarayana; Mohammad M. Nazrin Ishak; Melissa Quispe M.Q. Zuniga; Bin Husain B.H. Mohd Lokman; Sulong S. Ibrahim; Nico Koedam; Farid Dahdouh-Guebas
    Abstract: The sustainable management of natural resources requires the consideration of multiple stakeholders’ perspectives and knowledge claims, in order to inform complex and possibly contentious decision-making dilemmas. Hence, a better understanding of why people in particular contexts do manage natural resources in a particular way is needed. Focusing on mangroves, highly productive tropical intertidal forests, this study's first aim is to map the diversity of subjective viewpoints among a range of stakeholders on the management of Matang Mangrove Forest in peninsular Malaysia. Secondly, this study aims to feed the reflection on the possible consequences of the diversity of perspectives for the future management of mangroves in Malaysia and beyond. The use of the semi-quantitative Q methodology allowed us to identify three main discourses on mangrove management: i. the optimization discourse, stressing the need to improve the current overall satisfactory management regime; ii. the ’change for the better’ discourse, which focuses on increasingly participatory management and on ecotourism; and iii. the conservative ‘business as usual’ discourse. The existence of common points of connection between the discourses and their respective supporters provides opportunities for modifications of mangrove management regimes. Acknowledging this diversity of viewpoints, reflecting how different stakeholders see and talk about mangrove management, highlights the need to develop pro-active and resilient natural resource management approaches.
    Keywords: Discourse; Malaysia; Mangrove management; Matang; Q methodology
    Date: 2016–12
  2. By: Kyle, Jordan
    Abstract: This review evaluates the role of the state in development, offering a new framework for understanding what capabilities states need to overcome different types of market failures. This framework is employed to understand the successes and failures of state-led development in Malaysia. The review addresses three key questions. First, what do we know about developmental states and why they emerged? Second, what have developmental states achieved? In answering this question, I look not only at growth but also at structural transformation, economic “upgrading,†equity, and human capability enhancement. In contrast to the idea of a single “East Asian model†of development, I find five distinct development trajectories. Third, how did developmental states utilize state structures to pursue development? To answer this final question, I examine in depth the history of state-led development in Malaysia—including agricultural, industrial, and social policies. This case study sheds light on what specific institutional and political capacities helped Malaysia to improve productivity in agriculture, expand the manufacturing sector, and reduce inequality. It also explores why Malaysia has been less successful in developing linkages with the export-based manufacturing sector.
    Keywords: governance, economic policies, agricultural policies, economic development,
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Soyoung Kim (Seoul National University); Kuntae Lim (Bank of Korea)
    Abstract: This study empirically investigates the effects of monetary policy shocks on the exchange rate in six emerging countries (Korea, Thailand, the Philippines, Mexico, Brazil, and Colombia). VAR models are used, wherein sign restrictions on impulse responses are imposed to identify monetary policy shocks. The empirical model reflects the small open emerging economy features. The estimation period is the recent period in which these countries adopted inflation targeting and more flexible exchange rate regimes based on the experience of advanced countries. The main findings are as follows. First, various puzzles such as the ¡°exchange rate puzzle,¡± ¡°delayed overshooting puzzle,¡± and ¡°forward discount bias puzzle¡± are frequently found in these countries. Second, more severe puzzles are found in these emerging countries than in small open advanced countries.
    Keywords: VAR, Monetary Policy Shocks, Exchange Rate, UIP Condition, Delayed Overshooting
    JEL: F3 E5
    Date: 2016–12
  4. By: Thanh Bui (Centre for Agriculture Policy, Vietnam); Katsushi S. Imai (Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration (RIEB), Kobe University, Japan and School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester, UK)
    Abstract: This study examines determinants of the rural-urban gap of household expenditure in Vietnam using national household data in 2008-2012. We have used unconditional quantile regressions (UQR) (Firpo, et al. 2009) to carry out quantile decomposition analyses to identify underlying causes for the rural-urban disparity across the entire distribution. Our analyses have overcome the limitations of Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, namely, (i) decomposition is made only at mean and (ii) a dependent variable has a linear and parametric relationship with covariates. To do these, we have carried out detailed decomposition analyses based on Melly (2005) and the UQR decomposition (Fortin et al, 2011) combined with the reweighting technique. Our results show that basic education is beneficial to the rural poor and ethnic minorities in improving their living standards. Basic education also reduces within- as well as between-inequality, while higher education has opposite effects. Remittances generally improve rural welfare, but do not reduce within- or between-inequality. It has been suggested that public policy should ensure easier access to education for the rural poor, support the self-employed to raise and stabilise their income, and make it easier for rural agricultural households to diversify their activities into the non-farm sector.
    Keywords: Inequality, Rural-urban disparity, Quantile Regression, Decomposition, Vietnam
    Date: 2017–02
  5. By: Kelvin Ho (Hong Kong Monetary Authority); Eric Wong (Hong Kong Monetary Authority); Edward Tan (Hong Kong Monetary Authority)
    Abstract: In view of the debate on exchange rate stabilization in Asia, this paper introduces a new and original approach to the determination of equilibrium real exchange rates (ERER) across ASEAN+3. Existing literature usually computes a country¡¯s ERER as the real exchange rate that brings the balance of payments of that country in to equilibrium with respect to the rest of the world, following a partial equilibrium approach. For a set of countries belonging to a highly integrated area, separately computing ERERs for each country may lead to mutual inconsistencies. The methodology in this paper achieves a simultaneous determination of the ERERs of all countries in the region, so that the trade balance of each of them is consistently in equilibrium with respect to the rest of the region. Numerical simulations conducted for ASEAN+3 show that such a methodology produces consistent results and may therefore be a useful way of evaluating exchange rate deviations from equilibrium within the area. The method is applied to assess ERER deviations of single currencies of ASEAN+3 vis-¨¤-vis the Chinese yuan and the Japanese yen. The results provide a helpful insight into the relative suitability of these two currencies to play a benchmark role in an exchange rate system for the whole region.
    Keywords: F31, F33, F42, F45
    Date: 2016–07
  6. By: Paqueo, Vicente B.; Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.
    Abstract: In the aftermath of the 2016 election, labor leaders and their political allies pushed for an immediate end to the so-called employment “contractualization”, a policy proposal currently popular with voters and politicians. The idea is for the government to tighten and reduce, if not prohibit, the use of temporary employment contracts (TECs) and job outsourcing. This paper analyzes the policy idea and its potential economic consequences by looking at the roles of TECs and job outsourcing in the functioning of efficient labor markets, the experience of European countries regarding TECs, and Philippine employment data. The study finds that while the policy idea is anchored on good intentions, it can undermine the goal of achieving rapid, inclusive, and sustained economic growth. The realization of this outcome depends on the nature of the policy design actually adopted. On this point, the paper suggests a framework that can be useful in formulating a coherent policy on temporary employment and a strategy for dealing with “endo” practices.
    Keywords: Philippines, employment, jobs, labor market policy, contracts, contractualization, temporary employment contracts (TECs), job outsourcing, endo
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Zenker, Juliane; Herrmann, Tabea
    Abstract: Funeral Aid Associations (FAAs) in Northeast Thailand offer micro funeral insurance at affordable premium levels while they barely risk-rate potential members. Due to the set-up of FAAs, high-risk individuals have a monetary incentive to join the insurance. Compared to many other micro insurance schemes, however, FAAs do not seem to face adverse effects of this unregulated selection of high-risk individuals into the schemes. We show that this is partly due to a counter-balancing selection of a sufficient number of low-risk individuals, who deliberately buy insurance despite what their risk types would advice. This is particularly the case for married individuals who self-select into the associations at relatively lower risks. We provide a theoretical framework showing that marriage may reduce mortality risk and at the same time increase insurance demand based on altruistic tendencies towards the spouse. Our results suggest that this preference based selection is able to balance 13 percent of the high-risk type selection based on age, health, and gender.
    JEL: D14 D82 G22
    Date: 2016
  8. By: Tiago Freire; J. Vernon Henderson; Ari Kuncoro
    Abstract: Using three waves of survey data from fishing villages in Aceh, Indonesia for 2005–09, the paper examines the determinants of local volunteer labor after the tsunami. Volunteer labor is the village public sector labor force for maintenance, clean-up and renovation of public capital. While also examining the effects on volunteerism of village destruction and trauma, pre-existing social capital, diversity, and aid delivery, the papers focuses on effects of democratization. The tsunami and massive international aid effort prompted the settlement of the insurgency movement in Aceh, which had led to suspension of local elections over the prior twenty or more years. Until 2006, village heads who call volunteer days were effectively selected by village elites, who may highly value the public facilities maintained by volunteer labor. With elections, volunteer days fall under the new regime, with democratically elected village heads calling fewer volunteer days, which may appeal more to the typical villager. Identification comes from pseudo-randomized differential timing of elections.
    Keywords: aid; democratization; social capital; volunteerism
    JEL: D64 D72 H0 O10 P16
    Date: 2015–08–06
  9. By: Xinshen Diao; Margaret McMillan; Dani Rodrik
    Abstract: Growth has accelerated in a wide range of developing countries over the last couple of decades, resulting in an extraordinary period of convergence with the advanced economies. We analyze this experience from the lens of structural change – the reallocation of labor from low- to high-productivity sectors. Patterns of structural change differ greatly in the recent growth experience. In contrast to the East Asian experience, none of the recent growth accelerations in Latin America, Africa, or South Asia was driven by rapid industrialization. Beyond that, we document that recent growth accelerations were based on either rapid within-sector labor productivity growth (Latin America) or growth-increasing structural change (Africa), but rarely both at the same time. The African experience is particularly intriguing, as growth-enhancing structural change appears to have come typically at the expense of declining labor productivity growth in the more modern sectors of the economy. We explain this anomaly by arguing that the forces that promoted structural change in Africa originated on the demand side, through either external transfers or increase in agricultural incomes. In contrast to Asia, structural change was the result of increased demand for goods and services produced in the modern sectors of the economy rather than productivity improvements in these sectors.
    JEL: O1 O11 O4
    Date: 2017–02
  10. By: Kyle, Jordan; Resnick, Danielle
    Abstract: In this paper we explore the implications of Nepal’s new federal Constitution—passed in September 2015—for governance of the agricultural sector. Agriculture is the backbone of the Nepali economy, providing a livelihood for approximately two-thirds of the population, contributing one-third of the country’s GDP, and constituting more than half of the country’s exports. In transitioning from a unitary to a federal republic—with greater authority and autonomy granted to subnational units of government—it is of paramount importance to ensure that the agricultural sector is guided by coordinated planning, retains sufficient human capacity, and receives adequate fiscal resources. These considerations are particularly important given that the governance of Nepal’s agricultural sector already suffers from poor coordination, low human resources capacity, and inadequate financial resources. Addressing these issues may become more difficult under a federal structure. This paper begins by laying out the main challenges for agricultural governance in Nepal under the current structure. To do so, it relies on an original survey of 100 district agricultural and livestock officers in charge of local agricultural service delivery in Nepal as well as perspectives collected through more than two dozen semi-structured interviews with officials from the Ministry of Agricultural Development, the Ministry of Livestock Development, civil society, the private sector, and donors. Because Nepal is embarking on a pathway to more decentralized governance, which has been well-trodden by a number of other countries, the paper proceeds by examining five case studies, drawing lessons from India, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, and South Africa. Based on these analyses, the paper offers policy recommendations on how the sector can be restructured to meet the constitutional provisions, while simultaneously ensuring that the government can deliver on its long-term objectives to develop the agricultural sector.
    Keywords: governance, agriculture, agricultural policies, decentralization, federalism,
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Alamsyah, Zulkifli (Ed.); Faust, Heiko (Ed.)
    Date: 2017
  12. By: Dan Pirjol; Lingjiong Zhu
    Abstract: We present a rigorous study of the short maturity asymptotics for Asian options with continuous-time averaging, under the assumption that the underlying asset follows the Constant Elasticity of Variance (CEV) model. We present an analytical approximation for the Asian options prices which has the appropriate short maturity asymptotics, and demonstrate good numerical agreement of the asymptotic results with the results of Monte Carlo simulations and benchmark test cases for option parameters relevant in practical applications.
    Date: 2017–02
  13. By: Lisa Tilley
    Abstract: This thesis elaborates a decolonial international political economy (IPE) as a means of examining the condition of market emergence in Indonesia. It presents the term ‘emerging market’ as the contemporary organising grammar which positions Indonesia in relation to international capital flows. This condition of market emergence is further understood in historical colonial perspective as the latest mode of producing Indonesia as an investible site for international capital. My expansion of decolonial IPE is made in this thesis through the analysis of difference-based ‘exclusion’ and ‘translation’, both as vital elements of coloniality and as processes which relate to accumulation and dispossession in an ‘emerging market’ context. I go on to make the case for bringing urban and rural terminable sites of extraction into the same frame of analysis. These are understood similarly here as internal frontiers along which social groups are materially and discursively excluded from the national emerging market project and thus rendered expropriatable. I further analyse the repeated dispossession of these expropriatable groups along with other means of enacting ‘translations’, or enforced alterations in ways of being. These translations are by no means passively accepted and my analysis further demonstrates various means by which these are negotiated and contested. This thesis therefore makes contributions to the literature on decolonial thought and IPE, at the same time as presenting an original examination of Indonesia in its present moment of market emergence.
    Keywords: Political economy; IPE; Indonesia; Decolonial thought; urban; rural; extractives
    Date: 2017–01–30
  14. By: Hongyi Chen (Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research); Michael Funke (Hamburg University Department of Economics and CESifo Munich); Andrew Tsang (Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research)
    Abstract: The ongoing producer price deflation in China and other Asian economies is a genuine concern. In particular, China¡¯s producer prices are down a cumulative 12.7 percent from their peak in 2011, extending the stretch of negative producer price readings for 52 months in a row. Given the problem of overcapacity and heavy debt burden, this persistent decline in the producer price index could hurt corporate revenue, which limits fixed investments and the country's overall growth. Against this background, the paper analyses the determinants of the producer price decline across 11 Asian economies, and finds that the recent synchronous and protracted producer price deflation is driven by weak production growth, sharp declines in commodity prices, spillover effects from China¡¯s producer price deflation and policy uncertainty and, to a lesser extent, exchange rate pass-through. Since China is at the heart of the region¡¯s producer price deflation challenge, we also discuss the necessary structural adjustments in China to cope with the decline and head off deflationary threats.
    Keywords: Producer prices, international spillovers, deflation, Asia, structural adjustments, China
    JEL: C23 C32 E31
    Date: 2016–08
  15. By: Janda, Karel; Tan, Tianhao
    Abstract: This research presents an overview of different sustainable energy development scenarios in Central Europe and East Asia, and is aimed to evaluate the efficiency and availability for introducing a specific sustainable energy source. Accordingly: wind, hydropower, solar, bioenergy, geothermal, nuclear energy. By conducting analysis through multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) models, divergences among energy options in Central Europe and East Asia are emphasised due to their preferences in hierarchy. Our evaluation results indicate that Central Europe and East Asia should introduce different sustainable energy technologies on account of their own strengths and drawbacks in energy judgements and criterions
    Keywords: Renewable Energy; Central Europe; East Asia
    JEL: Q42 R11
    Date: 2017–02–09
  16. By: Chew, Soo Hong (National University of Singapore); Yi, Junjian (National University of Singapore); Zhang, Junsen (Chinese University of Hong Kong); Zhong, Songfa (National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: We study the role of risk aversion underlying son preference in patriarchal societies, where sons serve as better insurance for old-age support than daughters. The implications of an insurance motive on son preference are two-fold. First, prior to the birth of their children, more risk-averse parents have a stronger preference for sons than for daughters. Second, after the birth of their children, parents with sons are more risk seeking, compared to parents with daughters. We adopt a within-twin-pair fixed-effects estimator with a weak identification assumption, which enables us to jointly identify these two effects. We further conduct an incentivized choice experiment to assess parental risk attitude in a sample of Chinese twins with children, and follow up with a second twin sample to examine the replicability of the findings. In both samples, we find that parents with greater risk aversion before the birth of their children are more likely to have sons through sex selection than parents with less risk aversion. Additionally, having sons significantly decreases parental risk aversion. These results contribute to the literature on the sources of son preference and help shed light on the nature of gender inequality.
    Keywords: risk aversion, son preference, twins, experimental economics
    JEL: C93 D01 D80 J13
    Date: 2017–01
  17. By: Janda, Karel; Tan, Tianhao
    Abstract: This paper starts with a brief literature review of sustainable energy literature with focus on economic aspects of sustainability. This is followed by description of energy situation in Central Europe and East Asia with a focus on sustainable energy resources. Our analysis of energy sector describes energy sector and both fossil and renewable fuel energy supply with particular emphasize on electricity.
    Keywords: Renewable Energy; Central Europe; East Asia
    JEL: Q42 R11
    Date: 2017–02–09
  18. By: Cho-Hoi Hui (Hong Kong Monetary Authority); Chi-Fai Lo (The Chinese University of Hong Kong); Po-Hon Chau (The Chinese University of Hong Kong)
    Abstract: Based on an analogy between an economy¡¯s currency price and a firm¡¯s stock price, this paper develops a two-factor pricing model with closed-form solutions for US dollar-denominated sovereign bonds in which foreign exchange rates and US risk-free interest rates are the stochastic factors to study the dynamic linkage between the sovereign bond spreads and exchange rates in emerging markets. The numerical results during the pre-crisis (2003 - 2007) and post-crisis (2009 - 2014) periods and the associated error analysis show that the model credit spreads can broadly track the market credit spreads of the sovereign bonds of Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, the Philippines, Russia and Turkey. The results are consistent with empirical evidence of a connection between sovereign credit spreads and exchange rates, and the well-documented studies about twin sovereign debt and currency crises in emerging markets.
    JEL: G13 G21
    Date: 2016–05
  19. By: Georgios Bampinas; Theodore Panagiotidis
    Abstract: The effect of financial shocks on the cross-market linkages between oil prices, both spot and future, and stock markets is examined for four crises: the Mexican crisis of 1994, the Asian crisis of 1997, the bubble of 2000 and the global financial crisis of 2007–09. By employing the local Gaussian correlation approach introduced in Tjøstheim and Hufthammer (2013), which captures asymmetries and the intrinsic nonlinearity of the relationship, we find that the two markets were regionalised for most of the 1990s and the early 2000s. Flight from stocks to oil occur in all crisis episodes under extreme market conditions, except the recent global financial crisis. During the latter, evidence of higher correlation between the two markets throughout the spectrum emerges and this is more pronounced in the state of financial distress (in the left tail). The view that stock and oil markets behave like ’a market of one’ after the financialisation of commodities is further supported by the presence of contagion between US stock markets and all the benchmark crude oil markets. Finally, our empirical results provide evidence of nonlinear and asymmetric dependence between oil and stock markets during all financial crisis periods
    Keywords: stocks, crude oil, nonlinear dependence, financial crisis, contagion, local Gaussian correlation
    JEL: G01 G10 F3
    Date: 2017–02–06
  20. By: Li, Wenchao (National University of Singapore); Song, Changcheng (National University of Singapore); Xu, Shu (Southwestern University of Finance and Economics); Yi, Junjian (National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: This paper bridges the financial market and the marriage market using a reference-dependent mechanism. Male-biased sex ratios induce families with sons to hold more risky assets, since competitive marital payment in a tight market raises the reference level of marriage expenditure for such families. Using the 2013 China Household Finance Survey data, we find that a 0.1 increase in the sex ratio raises the probability of participating in the stock market by 25.7 percent, or the stock share of liquid wealth by 42.7 percent for families with a son; there appears no effect for families with a daughter.
    Keywords: household portfolio choice, reference dependence, prospect theory, sex-ratio imbalance, difference-in-differences estimate
    JEL: D03 G02 G11
    Date: 2017–01
  21. By: Neyestani, Behnam
    Abstract: Quality management system (QMS) provides generic guidance and requirements for establishing an appropriate quality management procedure, in order to lower cost, increase productivity, customer's satisfaction, and market share in the organizations since the last two-decade. In construction industry, it can assist the companies to achieve successfully their objectives, and ensure that all phases of construction project consistently meet client's requirements (need). The main aim of this article was to evaluate the impact of QMS implementation on main factors of construction projects in Metro Manila, Philippines. For this intention, the study was conducted an in-depth literature review from different books, journals, and websites, in order to understand profoundly quality management system, identify the characteristics of the vital factors of construction projects, and the findings of empirical studies concerning the effects of QMS on construction projects. Subsequently, a questionnaire was designed based on previous studies and then distributed randomly among the 37 managers with the aim of collecting data. Finally, the analysis of data was accomplished by descriptive statistics to find the results and conclusion. The findings have shown that the implementation of QMS can be affected mostly on customer's satisfaction, followed by cost, and time respectively, while minimum effectiveness of QMS was on scope (quality) through QMS implementation in construction projects in Metro Manila.
    Keywords: Keywords: ISO, ISO 9000 Family; Quality Management System (QMS); Construction Projects; Critical Factors; Project Success Criteria, Customer's Satisfaction.
    JEL: L74 M11 O22
    Date: 2016–12–11
  22. By: Murnaghan, Kitty
    Abstract: During a time in which the subject of climate change is deemed high on the list of priorities of many governments, it is important to assess to what extent policies in this field are achieving meaningful results. The link between energy usage and global warming is clear and today in the European Union the use of renewable resources is being promoted more than ever before. The move towards a renewables based economy has clear benefits over a fossil fuel based one with regards to climate change and the environment, however if the implementation of renewables is not monitored and regulated then this is not a given by any means. Of the renewable resources, bioenergy has a high level of importance in the EU. For this reason, this paper will make a comprehensive evaluation of the EU's biofuel policy in order to assess what the driving forces behind the regulation of this resource are, and how they affect to what extent it is successful or not. In order to do this, firstly the impacts of current EU bioenergy consumption will be assessed, to determine whether it is achieving the stated and desired climate goals or not. Findings will show that in fact the current formulation of Europe's Renewable Strategy creates pressure to meet binding targets for renewable usage and the resultant rapid increase in the demand for bioenergy has caused a number of negative social and ecological impacts to arise. Therefore in light of this, the current systems in place at the EU level meant to regulate the use of bioenergy and ensure it is implemented in a sustainable way will be critically analysed in order to find out how such negative impacts have been able to occur. The final section will then look into the driving forces responsible for regulation of this kind through a case study of Germany and Indonesia.
    Keywords: European Union energy policy,agrofuel,biofuel,renewable energy,sustainability criteria
    JEL: Q16 Q28 Q21 Q56 F23 K32
    Date: 2017
  23. By: Hargita, Yvonne; Rüter, Sebastian
    Abstract: The international community has committed itself to adopt a global climate agreement in Paris in 2015, which shall enter into force in 2020 and shall be legally-binding for all. In advance of the negotiations, parties shall submit the so-called Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC), providing the voluntary national emission reduction pledges post 2020. For the purposes of § 14 of the Lima Call for Climate Action parties may also provide information on whether and in what manner removals are taken into account. Removals are synonymous for the land use (LU) sector that can serve as a carbon sink or source, depending on the national preconditions and the sector's management. Climate negotiations in the past have shown that the accounting rules that result from the special role of the LU sector have a major impact on the accounting of emissions and removals (in the sum: net-removals), and thus on the pledged overall emission reduction targets. Since the international community has yet not been able to agree on binding accounting rules for post-2020, every party can decide on its own, how it considers net-emissions from LU in its INDC. Countries with large forest areas could significantly weaken their overall level of ambition by applying national profitable rules. With our analysis of the LU sector in relevant Non-Annex I-INDCs, we critically reflect the potential role of forests and the REDD+ mechanism for the national reduction targets. The analysis shows that the assessed parties have taken advantage of the missing common rules and designed their reduction targets in a variety of ways. This variety risks transparency, completeness and comparability of information and complicates the assessment of ambition. The remaining issues that could not be answered with the data provided confirmed the need for independent technical review of emission data and assumptions behind future emission development by UNFCCC experts. These reviews could assure that the quality of pursuing negotiations of reduction targets would not be compromised. At the present state, the inclusion of the LU sector and its impact on future reduction commitments remain a source of uncertainty.
    Keywords: Paris Agreement,forest,land use,Brazil,India,Indonesia,UNFCCC,INDC,Non-Annex I,REDD+,2020,2030,Pariser Klimaabkommen,Wald,Landnutzung,Brasilien,Indien,China,Indonesien
    Date: 2016

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