nep-sea New Economics Papers
on South East Asia
Issue of 2016‒10‒23
24 papers chosen by
Kavita Iyengar
Asian Development Bank

  1. Effect of Economic Growth, Trade Openness, Urbanization, and Technology on Environment of Selected Asian Countries By Ameer, Ayesha; Munir, Kashif
  2. US Antidumping Petitions and Revealed Comparative Advantage of Shrimp Exporting Countries By Chia-Lin Chang; Michael McAleer; Dang-Khoa Nguyen
  3. Economic Gain, Age Structure Transition, and Population Groups in the Philippines By Racelis, Rachel H.; Salas, J.M. Ian S.; Herrin, Alejandro N.; Abrigo, Michael R.M.
  4. Macroeconomic policies for full and productive employment : case studies of Thailand and Viet Nam By Weeks, John.
  5. The Role of Indicators in Policy Formulation: The Case of Maternal and Child Health Care Policy in the Philippines By Cuenca, Janet S.
  6. Determinants and Potentials of Foreign Trade in Ethiopia: A Gravity Model Analysis By Yeshineh, Alekaw Kebede
  7. Employment, wages and working conditions in Asia's garment sector : finding new drivers of competitiveness By Huynh, Phu.
  8. The regulation of non-standard forms of employment in India, Indonesia and Viet Nam By Landau, Ingrid.; Mahy, Petra.; Mitchell, Richard.
  9. Loan Loss Provisions and Lending Behavior of Banks: Do Information Sharing and Borrower Legal Rights Matter? By Wahyoe Soedarmono; Amine Tarazi; Agusman Agusman; Gary S. Monroe; Dominic Gasbarro
  10. PRIDE at work : a study on discrimination at work on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity in Thailand By Suriyasarn, Busakorn.
  11. Role of the Central Bank in supporting economic diversification and productive employment in Cambodia By Khou, Vouthy.; Cheng, Oudom.; Leng, Soklong.; Meng, Channarith.
  12. ASEAN Economic Community 2015 enhancing competitiveness and employability through skill development By Aring, Monika.
  13. Dynamics in Health and Employment: Evidence from Indonesia By Mani, Subha; Mitra, Sophie; Sambamoorthi, Usha
  14. The regulation of non-standard forms of employment in China, Japan and the Republic of Korea By Cooke, Fang Lee.; Brown, Ronald.
  15. The procyclicality of loan loss provisions in Islamic banks By Wahyoe Soedarmono; Sigid Eko Pramono; Amine Tarazi
  16. Fiscal rules, growth and employment : a developing country perspective By Ray, Nikhil.; Velasquez, Agustin.; Islam, Iyanatul.
  17. GDP-related emission targets weaknesses: the case of Argentina By Mariana Conte Grand
  18. Early Maternal Employment and Non-cognitive Outcomes in Early Childhood and Adolescence: Evidence from British Birth Cohort Data By Warn N. Lekfuangfu; Nattavudh Powdthavee; Andrew E. Clark; George Ward
  19. Balance Sheet Effects on Monetary and Financial Spillovers: The East Asian Crisis Plus 20 By Joshua Aizenman; Menzie D. Chinn; Hiro Ito
  20. Export-led development, employment and gender in the era of globalization By Otobe, Naoko.
  21. Social dialogue in the public service By Daza Perez, Jose Luis.
  22. Una visión unificada del contagio en mercados financieros: un enfoque causal en el dominio de la frecuencia By Nicolás Ronderos Pulido
  23. Diálogo social en la administración pública By Daza Perez, Jose Luis.
  24. An Index of Global Economic Policy Uncertainty By Steven J. Davis

  1. By: Ameer, Ayesha; Munir, Kashif
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the impact of trade openness, urban population, technology and economic growth on environment of Asian economies i.e. Bangladesh, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The specific objectives of this study are tend to evaluate the effect of trade openness, technology, urbanization and economic growth on surroundings and environment (CO2 and SO2 emission). This study measures environmental effect through Stochastic Impact by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology framework in selected Asian developing countries. Data covers the time period from 1980 to 2014. This study utilize panel unit root, panel cointegration, DOLS estimator and causality tests in order to establish the association between environment and selected macro-economic variables. The results obtain from carbon dioxide emissions model show the significant impact of growth and technology on carbon emissions. While results of sulfur dioxide emissions model indicates the existence of inverted U-shaped EKC hypothesis. The study concluded that there should be research and development programs at public and private level to control pollution through new technologies.
    Keywords: Trade, Population, Technology, Growth, Environment, Panel Data, Asia
    JEL: C23 F62 O44 O53
    Date: 2016–09–09
  2. By: Chia-Lin Chang (National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan); Michael McAleer (National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan; Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Complutense University of Madrid, Spain; Yokohama National University, Japan); Dang-Khoa Nguyen (National Chung Hsing University Taichung, Taiwan)
    Abstract: The paper explores the trade competitiveness of seven major shrimp exporting countries, namely Vietnam, China, Thailand, Ecuador, India, Indonesia and Mexico, to the USA. Specifically, we investigate whether the United States (US) antidumping petitions impact upon the bilateral revealed comparative advantage (RCA) indexes for each of the seven shrimp exporting countries with the USA. Monthly data from January 2003 to December 2014 and the panel data model are used to examine the determinants of the RCA for the shrimp exporting countries. The empirical results show the shrimp exporting countries have superior competitiveness against the shrimp market in the USA. Moreover, the RCA indexes are significantly negatively influenced by shrimp prices, and are positively affected by US income per capita. However, the EMS (Early Mortality Syndrome) shrimp disease, domestic US shrimp quantity, exchange rate, and US antidumping laws are found to have no significant impacts on the RCA indexes. In terms of policy implications, the USA should try to reduce production costs of shrimp in the US market instead of imposing antidumping petitions, and the shrimp exporting countries should maintain their comparative advantage and diversify into new markets.
    Keywords: Shrimp; antidumping; revealed comparative advantage; panel data model
    JEL: C23 F13 P45 Q17
    Date: 2016–10–14
  3. By: Racelis, Rachel H.; Salas, J.M. Ian S.; Herrin, Alejandro N.; Abrigo, Michael R.M.
    Abstract: A recent Philippine study examined economic gain from age structure transition at the national level by using economic support ratios and National Transfer Accounts estimates for the years 1991, 1999, and 2011. The study showed that the Philippines has steadily been experiencing demographic change (increasing percentage of the population in the working ages) and that there was economic gain from such change, as indicated by increasing support ratios during the indicated period. But in any given year, the support ratio that is observed at the national level is actually an average across diverse groups. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: In a given year, how do support ratios vary between groups? How do the variations in support ratios between groups compare across different years? Population groups are studied to determine whether those that have higher proportions in the working ages would show higher support ratios--a pattern that was found in the study cited when the Philippines was observed at the national level over time. The population is grouped in this study on two attributes, namely, household income (terciles) and location of residence (urban or rural) for a total of six groups. These six groups are used to observe variations in population age distributions, economic lifecycle patterns, and support ratios in the years 1991, 1999, and 2011, parallel to the years covered in the national level study cited and with each year representing periods with different economic conditions.
    Keywords: Philippines, National Transfer Accounts, first demographic dividend, economic support ratio, urban economic lifecycle, rural economic lifecycle, population age structure transition
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Weeks, John.
    Abstract: This study reviews the available evidence and uses available statistics to assess the extent to which macroeconomic management has helped or hindered the goal of attaining full and productive employment, with case studies on Vietnam and Thailand. On the basis of this assessment, the study suggests policy options for the developing countries in the region. Increasingly serious concerns about the benefits of focusing on a narrow definition of macroeconomic stability motivate this study. Of main concern to the study is the tendency over recent decades to equate policy reform with non-interventionist or "neutral" macro policy.
    Keywords: decent work, full employment, macroeconomics, Thailand, Viet Nam, travail décent, plein emploi, macroéconomie, Thaïlande, Viet Nam, trabajo decente, pleno empleo, macroeconomía, Tailandia, Viet Nam
    Date: 2015
  5. By: Cuenca, Janet S.
    Abstract: The study examines the role of maternal mortality rate (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR) in policy formulation in the Philippines, specifically the controversial legislation of Republic Act 1034, otherwise known as “The Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act of 2012”. It involves taking stock and analysis of various Congressional Records and Senate Journals, particularly those relating to House Bill No. 4244 (An Act Providing for a Comprehensive Policy on Responsible Parenthood, Reproductive Health, and Population and Development, and for Other Purposes) and Senate Bill No. 2865 (An Act Providing for a National Policy Reproductive Health and Population and Development), respectively. The findings of the study show that MMR and IMR have political influence on policy formulation.
    Keywords: Philippines, indicators, role of indicators, policy formulation, maternal mortality rate (MMR), infant mortality rate (IMR)
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Yeshineh, Alekaw Kebede
    Abstract: In this study, attempts are made to provide a theoretical justification for using the gravity model to analyze bilateral trade flows. The augmented gravity model was adopted to analyse Ethiopia's trade with its main trading partners using the panel data estimation technique. Estimations of the gravity model for export, import and total trade (sum of exports and imports) are carried on. The estimated results show that Ethiopia's export, import and total trade are positively determined by the size of the economies, per capita GDP differential and openness of the trading countries' economies. Specifically, the major determinants of Ethiopia’s exports are: size of the economies(GDP's of Ethiopia and that of partner), partner countries’ openness of economies, economic similarity and per capita GDP differential of the countries. All these factors affected Ethiopia's export positively except similarity indicator. The exchange rate, on the other hand, has no effect on Ethiopia's export trade. Ethiopia's imports are also determined by GDP's (of Ethiopia and the partner country), per capita income differentials and openness of the countries involved in trade. Transportation cost is found to be a significant factor in influencing Ethiopia's trade negatively. On the other hand, Ethiopia's export and import trade are not found to be influenced to by common border . The country specific effects show that Ethiopia could do better by trading more with Comesa member countries and newly emerging economies of Asia such as Hong Kong, Singapore and Yemen as well as European countries like Turkey and Russia.
    Keywords: Gravity Model, Panel Data, Fixed Effect Model, Random Effect Model, Hausman Tyalor Model, Ethiopia’s Trade
    JEL: F14
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Huynh, Phu.
    Abstract: This paper presents regional trends and national estimates of exports, employment, wages, productivity and working time in the garment, textile and footwear industries in developing Asia and the Pacific based on official trade statistics and national labour force survey data. It finds that the region accounts for 60 per cent (US$601 billion) of global exports of garments, textiles and footwear. The industry employs more than 40 million Asian workers. However, labour productivity and wages remain low overall, and working time is often excessive. Applying standard Mincerian wage regressions, the paper presents empirical evidence on wage premiums and gender pay gaps in the industry, and discusses policy measures that can help sustain growth through new drivers of competitiveness.
    Keywords: employment, wages, working conditions, clothing industry, shoe industry, productivity, competitiveness, trend, Asia, Pacific, emploi, salaire, conditions de travail, industrie du vêtement, industrie de la chaussure, productivité, compétitivité, tendance, Asie, Pacifique, empleo, salario, condiciones de trabajo, industria del vestido, industria del calzado, productividad, competitividad, tendencia, Asia, Pacífico
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Landau, Ingrid.; Mahy, Petra.; Mitchell, Richard.
    Abstract: The immediate concerns of this Study are with the legal regulation of non-standard employment in three countries: India, Indonesia and Viet Nam. The Study has been conducted in the context of a set of activities undertaken by the ILO on Non-Standard Forms of Employment (ILO 2015). It has involved a broad investigation giving rise to issues of the kind indicated in the opening paragraph above. However for sake of drawing together what we have perceived to be the core issues at hand, three main lines of enquiry have suggested themselves in aggregating the questions examined, and consequently have provided us with a general analytical approach.
    Keywords: precarious employment, part time employment, temporary employment, working conditions, labour standards, regulation, labour contract, employment service, temporary work agency, India, Indonesia, Viet Nam, emploi précaire, emploi à temps partiel, emploi temporaire, conditions de travail, normes du travail, réglementation, contrat de travail, service de l'emploi, agence de travail temporaire, Inde, Indonésie, Viet Nam, empleo precario, empleo a tiempo parcial, empleo temporal, condiciones de trabajo, normas del trabajo, reglamento, contrato de trabajo, servicio de empleo, empresa de trabajo temporal, India, Indonesia, Viet Nam
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Wahyoe Soedarmono (Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional, Faculty of Business / Sampoerna School of Business); Amine Tarazi (LAPE - Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Prospective Economique - UNILIM - Université de Limoges - IR SHS UNILIM - Institut Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société); Agusman Agusman (bank indonesia - bank indonesia); Gary S. Monroe (University of New South Wales [Sydney]); Dominic Gasbarro (Murdoch University, Australia)
    Abstract: We examine the roles of information sharing and borrower’s legal rights in affecting the procyclical effect of bank loan loss provisions. Based on a sample of Asian banks, our empirical results highlight that higher non-discretionary provisions reduce loan growth and, hence, non-discretionary provisions are procyclical. A closer investigation suggests that better information sharing through public credit registries managed by central banks, not private credit bureaus managed by the private sector, might substitute for the role of dynamic provisioning systems in mitigating the procyclicality of non-discretionary provisions. We also document that higher discretionary provisions in countries with stronger legal rights for borrowers temper the procyclical effect of non-discretionary provisions. However, these findings hold only for small banks. This suggests that the implementation of dynamic provisioning systems to mitigate the procyclicality of non-discretionary provisions is more crucial for large banks.
    Keywords: Borrower’s legal rights , Loan growth, Information sharing,Loan loss provisions
    Date: 2016–05–17
  10. By: Suriyasarn, Busakorn.
    Keywords: sex discrimination, sexual orientation, gender roles, human rights, employment opportunity, workplace violence, social exclusion, legal aspect, Thailand, discrimination fondée sur le sexe, orientation sexuelle, rôles de genre, droits de l'homme, possibilités d'emploi, violence au travail, exclusion sociale, aspect juridique, Thaïlande, discriminación por razones de sexo, orientación sexual, papeles de los géneros, derechos humanos, oportunidades de empleo, violencia en el trabajo, exclusión social, aspecto jurídico, Tailandia
    Date: 2015
  11. By: Khou, Vouthy.; Cheng, Oudom.; Leng, Soklong.; Meng, Channarith.
    Abstract: This study was undertaken by a team from the National Bank of Cambodia (NBC). It is a prime example of collaboration between a major national institution responsible for the conduct of monetary and financial policy and the ILO.
    Keywords: economic growth, bank, employment creation, Cambodia, croissance économique, banque, création d'emploi, Cambodge, crecimiento económico, banco, creación de empleos, Camboya
    Date: 2015
  12. By: Aring, Monika.
    Abstract: This paper examines the skills needs in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and how Member States can strengthen their skills and training systems to benefit from emerging opportunities of integration and boost competitiveness. Maximizing the benefits of regional integration will necessitate leveraging the knowledge, skills and creativity of ASEAN’s labour force of 317 million women and men. This paper looks at statistical trends since 2005 regarding education and skills attainment, and technical and vocational education and training enrolment in ASEAN. It assesses the quality of education and vocational training and the readiness of ASEAN’s labour force, including young people making the school-to-work transition, to take advantage of new opportunities in a more integrated and dynamic region. The paper also examines the challenge of skills mismatch and skilled labour shortages in the region.
    Keywords: labour market, interindustry shift, skill requirements, competitiveness, employability, ASEAN countries, marché du travail, mutation interindustrielle, besoins en travailleurs qualifiés, compétitivité, aptitude à l'emploi, pays de l'ANASE, mercado de trabajo, desplazamiento industrial, requisitos de cualificación, competitividad, empleabilidad, países del ASEAN
    Date: 2015
  13. By: Mani, Subha (Fordham University); Mitra, Sophie (Fordham University); Sambamoorthi, Usha (West Virginia University)
    Abstract: This paper examines the consequences of disability, identifying for the first time, the separate impacts of onsets and recoveries from disability on both employment status and hours worked using panel data from Indonesia. We find that changes in physical functioning have no affect hours worked among the employed. However, we find that onsets of physical limitations lead to an increase in the probability of leaving employment, while recoveries increase the probability of returning to work. We also find a larger effect among self-employed workers compared to salaried workers. These results overall point towards a need for social protection policies with a focus on health, disability, and employment in Indonesia.
    Keywords: health, disability, aging, employment, hours worked, Indonesia
    JEL: I12 J32 J24
    Date: 2016–10
  14. By: Cooke, Fang Lee.; Brown, Ronald.
    Abstract: This study, commissioned by the International Labour Office (ILO), examines the growth and regulation of non-standard employment in three East Asian countries – the People’s Republic of China (hereafter China), Japan, and the Republic of Korea (hereafter Korea). A common feature amongst these three major economies is the deregulation of the labour market and the dramatic growth of the use of non-standard employment in the form of, for example, part-time work, temporary work, labour dispatch via employment agencies, and subcontract work (e.g. Coe et al., 2011; Kim and Park, 2006; Kuroki, 2012; Meng, 2012). And the globalizing economy of the three countries adds further dynamics to the restructuring of their labour market since the 1980s, including the employment of foreign migrant labour (for Japan and Korea) and rural migrant labour en mass (for China).
    Keywords: precarious employment, part time employment, temporary employment, working conditions, labour standards, regulation, labour market, China, Japan, Korea R, emploi précaire, emploi à temps partiel, emploi temporaire, conditions de travail, normes du travail, réglementation, marché du travail, Chine, Japon, Corée R, empleo precario, empleo a tiempo parcial, empleo temporal, condiciones de trabajo, normas del trabajo, reglamento, mercado de trabajo, China, Japón, Corea R
    Date: 2015
  15. By: Wahyoe Soedarmono (Universitas Siswa Bangsa Internasional, Faculty of Business / Sampoerna School of Business); Sigid Eko Pramono (bank indonesia - bank indonesia); Amine Tarazi (LAPE - Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Prospective Economique - UNILIM - Université de Limoges - IR SHS UNILIM - Institut Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société)
    Abstract: From a sample of Islamic banks around the world from 1997 to 2012, this paper examines whether loan loss provisioning in Islamic banks is procyclical. Our empirical findings highlight that loan loss provisioning in Islamic banks remains procyclical, although the " expected " loan loss model (E-LLM) has been implemented for Islamic banks in several countries. A closer investigation further documents that Islamic banks also use loan loss provisions for discretionary managerial actions, especially related to capital management in which loan loss reserves and provisions are inflated when bank capitalization declines. Eventually, this paper highlights that higher capitalization can mitigate the procyclicality of loan loss provisions in Islamic banks. In other words, loan loss provisioning becomes countercyclical for Islamic banks with higher capitalization. This paper therefore casts doubts on the adoption of the E-LLM for Islamic banks to promote countercyclical effects, because the E-LLM may be influenced by managerial discretion, including opportunistic capital management using loan loss provisions that may undermine the importance of maintaining sufficient bank capitalization.
    Keywords: Islamic banks,loan loss provisions,capital management,procyclicality
    Date: 2016–05–20
  16. By: Ray, Nikhil.; Velasquez, Agustin.; Islam, Iyanatul.
    Abstract: The paper argues that fiscal rules – which have become popular in recent years - need to be re-examined from a development perspective. The original set of fiscal rules inspired by the European Union’s Stability and Growth Pact were too simplistic and not adapted to developing country circumstances.
    Keywords: fiscal policy, fiscal law, economic growth, low income, case study, Brazil, Cameroon, Indonesia, developing countries, politique fiscale, droit fiscal, croissance économique, faible revenu, étude de cas, Brésil, Cameroun, Indonésie, pays en développement, política fiscal, derecho fiscal, crecimiento económico, bajos ingresos, estudio de casos, Brasil, Camerún, Indonesia, países en desarrollo
    Date: 2015
  17. By: Mariana Conte Grand
    Abstract: GDP linked targets have the potential to favor green growth and avoid “hot air” in uncertain backgrounds, like those of many developing economies. Even if they are not a guarantee of emissions reduction as required by the 2 degree Celsius Copenhagen goal because emissions´ intensity can decrease even when emissions do not. A few countries have submitted at some point of international negotiations a target based on this type of metric. Argentina is one of them, together with Chile, China, India, Singapore, Tunisia, Uruguay and Turkmenistan. As is the case of all target forms, it requires good monitoring and forecast of emissions. But, as the literature has shown, one of the GDP-related target weaknesses is that it relies on a second indicator: the GDP. This article shows concretely how GDP biases influence intensity targets monitoring, using as a base the case of Argentina.
    Keywords: climate change, intensity targets, target metrics, developing countries, Latin America, Argentina
    Date: 2016–10
  18. By: Warn N. Lekfuangfu (LSE - London School of Economics and Political Science, Chulalongkorn University (THAILAND) - Chulalongkorn University (THAILAND), CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR); Nattavudh Powdthavee (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research - Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR, LSE - London School of Economics and Political Science); Andrew E. Clark (PSE - Paris School of Economics, PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC), CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR); George Ward (LSE - London School of Economics and Political Science, CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR)
    Abstract: We analyse the relationship between early maternal employment and child emotional and behavioural outcomes in early childhood and adolescence. Using rich data from a cohort of children born in the UK in the early 1990s, we find little evidence of a strong statistical relationship between early maternal employment and any of the emotional outcomes. However, there is some evidence that children whose mother is in full-time employment at the 18th month have worse behavioural outcomes at ages 4, 7, and 12. We suggest that these largely insignificant results may in part be explained by mothers who return to full-time work earlier being able to compensate their children: we highlight the role of fathers’ time investment and alternative childcare arrangements in this respect.
    Keywords: Child outcomes,Maternal employment,Well-being,Conduct,ALSPAC
    Date: 2015–11
  19. By: Joshua Aizenman; Menzie D. Chinn; Hiro Ito
    Abstract: We study how the financial conditions in the Center Economies [the U.S., Japan, and the Euro area] impact other countries over the period 1986 through 2015. Our methodology relies upon a two-step approach. We focus on five possible linkages between the center economies (CEs) and the non-Center economics, or peripheral economies (PHs), and investigate the strength of these linkages. For each of the five linkages, we first regress a financial variable of the PHs on financial variables of the CEs while controlling for global factors. Next, we examine the determinants of sensitivity to the CEs as a function of country-specific macroeconomic conditions and policies, including the exchange rate regime, currency weights, monetary, trade and financial linkages with the CEs, the levels of institutional development, and international reserves. Extending our previous work (Aizenman et al. (2016)), we devote special attention to the impact of currency weights in the implicit currency basket, balance sheet exposure, and currency composition of external debt. We find that for both policy interest rates and the real exchange rate (REER), the link with the CEs has been pervasive for developing and emerging market economies in the last two decades, although the movements of policy interest rates are found to be more sensitive to global financial shocks around the time of the emerging markets’ crises in the late 1990s and early 2000s, and since 2008. When we estimate the determinants of the extent of connectivity, we find evidence that the weights of major currencies, external debt, and currency compositions of debt are significant factors. More specifically, having a higher weight on the dollar (or the euro) makes the response of a financial variable such as the REER and exchange market pressure in the PHs more sensitive to a change in key variables in the U.S. (or the euro area) such as policy interest rates and the REER. While having more exposure to external debt would have similar impacts on the financial linkages between the CEs and the PHs, the currency composition of international debt securities does matter. Economies more reliant on dollar-denominated debt issuance tend to be more vulnerable to shocks emanating from the U.S.
    JEL: F15 F2 F31 F36 F41
    Date: 2016–10
  20. By: Otobe, Naoko.
    Abstract: The paper explores the viability of such an export-led development strategy in terms of its contribution to the creation of more and better jobs in general, and the gender dimensions thereof. It reviews gender dimensions of overall global employment trends with a focus on selected key labour market indicators and the impact of export-led strategy on employment and labour.
    Keywords: precarious employment, informal employment, women workers, gender and development, export, globalization, case study, Cambodia, Mauritius, emploi précaire, emploi informel, travailleuses, genre et développement, exportation, mondialisation, étude de cas, Cambodge, Maurice, empleo precario, empleo informal, trabajadoras, género y desarrollo, exportación, globalización, estudio de casos, Camboya, Mauricio
    Date: 2015
  21. By: Daza Perez, Jose Luis.
    Abstract: Briefly describes the practice of social dialogue in the civil service of national admnistrations then presents case studies in eight selected countries.
    Keywords: social pact, collective bargaining, civil service, public administration, Australia, Canada, Egypt, Spain, Philippines, India, Mali, institutional framework, pacte social, négociation collective, fonction publique, administration publique, Australie, Canada, Egypte, Espagne, Philippines, Inde, Mali, cadre institutionnel, concertación social, negociación colectiva, función pública, administración pública, Australia, Canadá, Egipto, España, Filipinas, India, Mali, organización institucional
  22. By: Nicolás Ronderos Pulido
    Abstract: Este trabajo propone una nueva metodología para identificar la existencia de contagio durante la crisis Asiática de 1997 y la crisis mexicana de 1994, usando la prueba de causalidad de Granger en el dominio de la frecuencia propuesta por Breitung y Candelon (2006). Se encuentra evidencia de contagio e interdependencia intrarregional e interregional durante dichas crisis. La metodología permite analizar los resultados teniendo en cuenta las diversas definiciones de contagio de forma unificada y a su vez obtener resultados robustos ante los problemas de medición del contagio enunciados en la literatura.
    Keywords: Contagio, Interdependencia, Causalidad, Análisis espectral
    JEL: G1 C5 C14
    Date: 2016–06–03
  23. By: Daza Perez, Jose Luis.
    Abstract: describo de maniera sucinta la pratictica del diálogo sociál en el ámbito de la function pública de la administración nacional y recoge les estudios de caso en ocho países seleccionados.
    Abstract: Briefly describes the practice of social dialogue in the civil service of national admnistrations then presents case studies in eight selected countries.
    Keywords: social pact, collective bargaining, civil service, public administration, Australia, Canada, Egypt, Spain, Philippines, India, Mali, institutional framework, pacte social, négociation collective, fonction publique, administration publique, Australie, Canada, Egypte, Espagne, Philippines, Inde, Mali, cadre institutionnel, concertación social, negociación colectiva, función pública, administración pública, Australia, Canadá, Egipto, España, Filipinas, India, Mali, organización institucional
  24. By: Steven J. Davis
    Abstract: Building on Baker, Bloom and Davis (2016), I construct a monthly index of Global Economic Policy Uncertainty (GEPU) from January 1997. The GEPU Index is a GDP-weighted average of national EPU indices for 16 countries that account for two-thirds of global output. Each national EPU index reflects the relative frequency of own-country newspaper articles that contain a trio of terms pertaining to the economy, uncertainty and policy-related matters. The GEPU Index rises sharply in reaction to the Asian Financial Crisis, the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, the Global Financial Crisis in 2008-09, the European immigration crisis, concerns about the Chinese economy in late 2015, and the Brexit referendum in June 2016. It fluctuates around consistently high levels from mid 2011 to early 2013, a period characterized by recurring sovereign debt and banking crises in the Eurozone, intense partisan battles over fiscal and healthcare policies in the United States, and a generational leadership transition in China. The average value of the GEPU Index is 60 percent higher from July 2011 to August 2016 than in the previous fourteen and one-half years and 22 percent higher than in 2008-09.
    JEL: D80 E66 G18 L50
    Date: 2016–10

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